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»\ ^^BSa Asi^i 




alison(;s\ history 












The general interest taken by the public in the events treated 
of in my '^History of Europe/' and the importance of some 
information on the subject to every one desirous of obtaining 
even an ordinary education, has suggested to the Messrs Black- 
wood the idea of publishing an Abridgment of it for the use 
of Schools and young persons. An Author is in general the 
person of all others least adapted for such a task, as he is 
unavoidably biassed by partialities contracted in the course of 
composition, from which a third party is free. I have con- 
! tented myself, therefore, with taking a general superintendence 
. of this Abridgment. Great care has been taken to retain 
mention of all the material facts in the work, but to dwell 
at length on such only as were likely to interest youthful 
minds, and impress the great moral and religious prin- 
ciples which it was the object of the Author to illustrate by 
his narrative. A Chronological Table has been subjoined of 
xU the principal events, which will be found of use in impressing 
them upon the memory, and giving a correct idea of the order 
in which they succeeded each other, even to those of more 




advanced years. In a word, nothing has been omitted which 
could render the Epitome suitable for the purpose for which it 
was intended — ^that of combining historical information, on a 
period of unexampled interest and importance, with those still 
more valuable moral truths which may be deduced alike from 
the transactions of men and the works of nature. 




IvTBooucTxoir — Mjextino or ths Statxs-General, 1789, to tub dcath or tbu 

Knro, 1783. 

1. State <tf France and Oreat Britain at the eommeneement of the BtwiMion, 

Sect. F««e 

1. ParaUeUsm of the Great RebeUion in England and the Revolution in France, 3 

2. Moderation in the first, and cruelties of tibe last, - - - 4 

3. Other points of difference between them, - - • - ib. 
4 Early condition of the Britons, • - - - - 5 

5. Influence of the Norman conquest on them, - - • • A. 

6. Elevation of the mass of the people among them, - > - ib. 

7. Effects of the Wars of the Roses in lowering the consideration of the nobility, ib. 

8. Degradation of the Gauls, and continuance of this among the French, - 

9. Libonl tendency in France — ^weakness of the Church — ^prevalence of infidelity 

—privileges of the nobility— exclusion of the middle classes from o£Boe, 7 

10. The system of taxation — ^its inequalities, - • - - 8 
IL Defects in the administration of justice — ^profliga(7 of the court — ^the national 

debt, and deficit in the revenue, - - - - - <5. 

12. Spirit of innovation— changes in the discipline of the army, - - 9 

13. Character of Lou&s XYL- its influence on the Revolution— opposition of the 

nobility to his reforms, - . . - • - ib, 

14. Character of his Queen— state of the finance*— ministries of Calonne and 

Brienne — meeting of tiie' Notables, - - - - 10 

15. Resistance of the Parliament to new taxes — convocation of the States-General 

demanded, .....>. ib, 

16. The proposed Cour Pleni&re— recall of Necker— the States-General summoned, 11 

3. SlUjaxt'QtniTiA—SationiA Ateemblyt afiervoardt COnHituent Aetembly. 

17. Openuig of the States-General— Si^yes' pamphlet on the Tiers Etat— general 

character of this assembly, - - - - - ib. 

18. Furst prooeedhigs— struggle between the orders— usurpation of the Tiers Etat, 12 
18. Designs of Necker— the Tennis-court oath, • - - - 13 

20. Aocesrion of part of the clergy — concessions offered by the King— the Tiers 

Etat refuse to separate — they are joined by the nobility and clergy, - ib. 

21. Excitement m Paris— revolt of the (Gardes Franpaises— storming of the Bastille, 14 

22. F<vmation of the National Guard— the King visits Pari»— Necker recalled— 

atrodtiesat Paris and in the provinces, - - - - 15 

23. Famine in Paris-^rst emigration— surrender of privileges — Church spoliation — 

dedarationoftiie Rights of Man, - - - - - <&. 

24. State of the provmces— and of the finances— income-tax proposed, - 16 
2a. Banquet at Y&sailles— insurrection there — escape of the Queen— the royal 

family brought to Paris, - - - - - - tb. 

26. Exile of the Duke of Orleans— excitement in Paris— efforts of La&yette to 

mabitain order— trials before the ChlLtelet, - - - - 17 

27. Debates on the single or double chamber— and on the royal veto, • - 18 

28. France divided into departments — new municipal system— franchise under it, ib. 

29. Financial difiiculties— decree for the sale of the Church property — oommence- 

ment of the system of assignats— new oiganisation of the Church— attempt to 
dissolve the Assembly, - • - - - -19 

ii CONTEin?S. 

8«ct. Paga 

50. Titles of honour and parliaments abolished— new military organisation— the 

National Guard — issues of assignats — settlement on the crown, • - 20 

51. F6te in the Champ de Mars — ^impeachment of Mirabeau — ^resignation of 

Necker— resistance to the new constitution— persecution of the non-Jurant 

priests — ^new law of succession, - - - - ' ib. 

82. Influence of the clubs — that of the Jacoblas — ^that of 1789 and others — ^hicreas- 

ing emigration — assemblage of emigrants at Coblents— debates on them, - 21 
S3. Mirabeau's secession to the Royalist cause— his designs — ^his death, • ib. 

Si. The flight to Yarennes — arrest of the royal family there— atrocities of the mob, 22 
35. Demands for a Republic— acquittal of the King— revolt of the Champ de Mars 

^weakness of the Assembly, - - • - ' ib, 

S6» Attempts to modify the constitution — ^the Self-denying ordinance— Acceptance of 

the constitution — dose of the Assembly, - - - -23 

4. LeffUlative Auembly—FaU (if the M&narchtf—The September mauacree, 

87. Meeting of the Legislative Assembly— character of its member»— the Constita- 

tionalists — ^the Girondists — the Jacobins, - - - - ^ 

88. Its first measures— decree against the emigrants and priests-4he King vetoes 

' these — Potion elected mayor— efforts to force on a war, - - 24 

89. Ministry from the Girondists— character of Dumourier— and of the Rolands, 25 

40. War dedared against Austria, - - - - - ib. 

41. Massacre at AviigTion— revolt of St Domingo, - - • - 26 

42. Alarm on the successes of the Allies— the Girondists dismissed— weakness of the 

new ministry, - - - - - - •!&. 

43. Insurrection of June 20th— demeanour of the King— the Jacobins denounced by 

Lafayette, - - - - - - -27 

44 The dethronement of the King resolved on— f6te of the 14th July— proclamation 

by tiie Allies, and its effect, - - • - - ib. 

45. Pre|>arations for insurrection— arrival of the Marseillais, • - - 28 
49. Insurrection of the 10th August — ^Tuileries attacked — ^the King repairs to the 

Assembly — capture of the Tuileries — ^massacre of the Swiss, • - ib. 

47. Demands of the insurrectional municipality — abolition of monarchy, - 29 

48. Predominance of the municipality — Danton, Robespierre, and Marat, - ib. 

49. Restoration of the Girondists — imprisonment of the royal family — attempt, 

failure, and flight of Lafayette, - - - - - 80 

GO. The revolutionary tribunal instituted— massacres in the prisona— confiscations- 
robbery of the crown Jewels, - • - • - ib. 

6. NeMonal ConverUUm— Execution qf the King, 

SL Meeting of the National Convention — parties in it — ^the Girondists— the Jaoo> 

bins or Mountain — the Plain — the Jacobin club — ^Madame Roland, - 32 

62. Robespierre and Marat impeached— recriminations of the Girondists and Jaco- 
bins — preparations for the trial of the King, • - • . - ib. 

53. The Jacobins agitate for his trial— debate on his inviolability— his trial 

resolved on, - - - - - - -83 

54. The royal family in captivity— their cruel treatment— ^e is summoned before 

the Convention, - - • • - - ib. 

55. His demeanour before tiie Convention — his trial— defence of him by de S^ze, 34 

66. Discussion on the app^tl to the people — he is found guilty, - - ib. 

67. Debate on his puni^ment— he is condemned to deaUi, - - - 35 

68. His reception of this intelligence, - - - - •■ ib. 

69. His execution, - - • - - - -ib. 

60. His character, - - - • - - -36 

PART n. 

From thx opkniko of tbx Wak, 1792, to tbe xbtabubhmknt of tbx 

DiRscTORy, 1796. 

1. <8tete qf Europe prior to the commencement of the War, 

61. Influence given by her position to France, - - - - 87 

62. Great Britain — its finances — its army, and its character— its navy, - ib. 

63. Division of ophiion on the Revolution— leaders of parties— Fox — Pitt, - 37 

64. Burke — ^his views— his rupture with Fox, - - - -38 

65. State of Austria — its finances, population, Ac. — ^views of Joseph II. — revolt of 

Flanders— death of Joseph II., and accession of Leopold— destruction of the 
barrier fortresses, - - - - - - 39 

cx)NTE2srrs. iii 

Sect. Pae« 

66. The Gerxnaa empire — PnusIar-itBarmy— flgnrtem ofgoremment, • -39 

67. RoBBia — Uti rising power — ^ita army — Sweden — Poland, - - .40 

68. Turkey— Italy— Holland— Spain— Switserland, - • - ib, 

69. The French army— >it8 disorganised state— ineffidenqr at first of the new levies — 

the cavalry and artiUery, - - . - - 41 

70. Mutual Jealousies and hostilities among the European powers— general pacifi- 

cation — defensive measures against iVanoe— warlike incltaiation of Russia, A. 

71. Treaty ol Mantua— declaration of Pilnitx— ot]t}eets of the Allies at this thne, 43 

72. The Oirondists force on war— war declared against Austriar— death of Leopold 

—succession of Francis IL— assassination of Onstavus of Sweden, - 43 

2. Ccm^paiffn (^1792, 

73. Preparations of France— her armies and tbehr commanders— tb^ oondiUon— 

forces of the Allies — neutrality of Biitain^-designs of Russia on Poland, ib. 

74. The French invade Flanders— their repeated •defeata— the Allies prepare to 

invade Franoe, - • - - - - 44 

75. Their commander, the Duke of Brunswick— his 8ecretview»— designs of Prussia 

on P<dand — Brunswick's estimate of the war, • - • Qt. 

76. The proclamation of the Allies— they enter France— Ikll (tf Longwy and Yerdun 

^Dumourier takes post at the Argonne— defeats of the Frendi afMr of Yahny , 45 

77. Pretended negotiations of Dumourier— retreat of the Allies, - - 46 

78. Operations in Alsace — ^the Allies besiege Lille — the French capture Mayeno^-* 

Brunswick recroeses the Rhine— the AiistrJans removed to Flanders, - ib. 

79. Battle of Jemappes — conquest of Flanders— opening of the Scheldt— war 

declared by Britain and Holland, - - - - 47 

80. Propagandist decrees of the Ckmvention— oppression of their agents in Flanders 

—reaction there, - • - - - - <&. 

81. War with Sardinia — conquest of Savoy and Nice — these incorporated with 

France— Switzerland threatened— the French defeated on the Rhine, - 48 

82. Results of the campaign, - • - « • ' ib. 

3. FaU (if the Oirondiitt. 

83. First regrets on the death of the King— recriminations of the Girondists and 

Jacobins — retirement of Roland, • - - - - 48 

84. Britain joins the Allies — continued scarcity, and riots in consequence — a 

Maximum for prices proposed, • - - - - i&. 

85. Dumourier's attempt on behalf of the throne— his fiulure and flight, - 50 

86. Attempt at an insurrection, March 10th — the Revolutionary Tribunal — revolu> 

lationary Committees— opposition of the Girondists to these measures — ^the 
Committee of Public Salvation, - - - - • ift. 

87. Potion Mayor of Paris — the Girondists send Marat to the Tribunal — his 

acquittal — the Commisidon of Twelve — arrest and liberation of Hubert, 51 

88. Continued struggle— Hmriot appointed commander of the National Guard — 

Insurrection of the dlst May— the Commission suppressed, - • ib. 

89. Insurrection of the 2d June— arrest of the Girondists decreed, - - 52 

90. Escape of Loavet, &c — execution of Yeigniaud, Brissot, &c.,— of Madame 

Roland— death of her husband, - - - - - i&. 

91. Character of the Girondists, - • • • - 53 

4. Campa^ qf 1793. 

92. Neutrality of Britain in 1792 — French propagandism — war dedared between 

the two powers, - - - - - • i&. 

93. Forces sent by Britain to tiie Continent — total forces of the Allies— those of 

France— conclusion of various treaties, - - - - 54 

94. Russia's attention fixed on Poland — jealousies between Austria and Prussia— 

the Allied generalissimo— financial measures Ot Franoe and Britain, - ib, 

95. Dumourier invades Holland— defeat of-the French before Maestricht— battle of 

Nerwinde— evacuation of Holland — ^fiight (rf Dumourier, - - ib. 

96. Change in the policy of the Allies— their mactivity — ^battle of Famars — capture 

of Yalenclennes and Cond6— these taken possession of for Austria, - 55 

97. Operations on the Rhine— the Allies capture Mayenoe— Custine and Beauhar- 

nais ue executed, . - . . . -56 

96. Rout at the camp of Caesar, • • - - - &. 

99. Danger of France — eneigy of her government — vast levy — forced loans, and 

issues of Assignats, - - - - . - ib. 

100. Jealousies among the Allies .— derision of thehr forces — sieges of Dunkfa>k and 

Quesnc^— falsing of the former — execution of Houchard— Jourdan appointed 

commander, * - . . . . - 57 


Sect. Page 

101. Battle of WattignleB— Pidiegni socoeeds Joardan—tettle of Pirmasens— and 

of Weiflsenbtirg^-executions in Strasburg— inactivity of tlie Pnuuans, • 58 

102. Campaign in the I'yrenees — aacoeases of the Spaniards — defeats of the 

Sardinians, - - - - - - -68 

103. Revolt of Lyons and ManeiOes^-sappraBion of that of the Iattei>— Toulon admits 

the Britidi — siege and capture of Lyons — atrocities of the Republicans, • ib. 

104. Siege and capture of Toulon — ^burning of the fleet— cruelties after its capture, 60 

6. War in la VendUe. 

105. Description of la Tend^e— character of its inhabitants, • - 61 

106. First outbreak— general inanirrection, and its leaders — ^the mode of fighting, ^. 

107. Cruelties of the Republicans — ^humanity of the Vendoans except at Mache- 

ooul— suooesses of the insurgents — ^battle of Saumur, - > 62 

108. Battle of Nantes— death of Cathelineau, - - - -63 

109. Invasion by Westermann— his defeat — ^battle of Lugon— defeat of the Repub- 

licans under Biron — fresh invasions — battles of Torfou and Montaigut— 
and of Goron, • - - - - - A. 

110. Invasion by Lechelle— battle of Chatfllon — battles of ChoUet — ^Lescure, d'EIbee, 

and Bonchamp wounded — ^passage of the Loire— death of Bonchamp, - 64 

111. Battle of Chateau Gontier— battle of Granville— arrival of British succours, 65 

112. Return tovrard la Vendue — battles of Pontorson, Antrain, and Angers — ^rout 

of Mans — battle of Savenay, - - - • ' ib. 

113. Noirmoutier captured— execution of d'Elb^e— death of Larochejaoquelein — ^the 

infernal columns of Thurreau — rise of the Chouans, - - - 66 

114. Atrocities of Carrier at Nantes^--the noyade$— total victims there, - ib. 

115. Heroism of the sufferers — humanity of the peasantry— cruelty of the small 

shopkeepers, - - • • - - -67 

6. RHgn <if Terror— ExeeutUm af Marie Antoinette—and <ifJ)anion. 

116. Joy of the Jacobins on the fall of the Girondists— new goyemment— changes in 

the Committee— subservience of the Convention, - - ' ib, 

117. Resistanoe in the provinces — Girondist movement in the south, - 68 

118. Law of the suspected — ^the revolutionary committees — state of the prisons, - ib. 

119. Charlotte Corday — assassination of Marat — her execution — imprisonment of 

seventy-three Girondists, • • - - . -69 

120. Marie Antoinette — ^her treatment in prison — ^her execution, - • ib. 

121. Violation of the tombs at St Denis — destruction of monuments — Christianity 

abjured — the Goddess of Reason — ^new calendar— schools and hospitals sup- 
pressed, - - • • - - -A. 

122. Execution of Bailly, Bamave, &c.— <leath of Condoroei— execution of Custine, 

d'Orleans, dec — ^the Anarchists and Dantonists, - - -70 

123. Execution of ttie Anardiist leaders — arrest of Danton, and the leaders of his party, 71 

124. Agitation in the Convention — its submission — trial and execution of the Dan- 

tonists — ^Fouquier Tinville, - - - - - ib, 

7. ReignqfTerrot^—FaU of Robespierre. 

125. Submission to the committee — suppression of all dubs but the Jacobins- 

Robespierre, St Just, and Couthon — cruelty of the Jacobin club, - 72 

1 26. Number of prisoners — their condition— ^aily executions — ^frequency of suicide, ib, 

127. Robespierre's speech on the Supreme Being— and fdte in His honour— new law 

of trial— execution of Malc«herl)es, Madame Elizabeth, Lavoisier, Ac- 
cruelties in the provinces, - - - - - 73 

128. Reaction beghis — alarm of the middle classes— and of the Convention — ^proposal 

of Henriot— design of Robespiore — first resistanoe to him in the Convention, ib 

129. The 9th Thermidor— coalition against Robespi er r e s peech of Tallien— Robes- 

pierre arrested— again liberated— danger of the Convention, - - 74 

130. Roljespierre outlawed — victory of the Convention — Robespierre and his 

associates arrested — theu* execution, - - - - 75 

8. Internal elate of France dtaring the Reign of Terror. 

131. Confiscations and issues of Assignats — effects of these on the Revolutfon — 

energy developed in France, • - - - - 70 

132. Expense of the Revolutionaiy committees— the national expenditure'-depreda- 

tion of the finances-nrise of prices— law of the maxhnum— forced requisitions, tb, 

133. Forced loans— change in the national debt — the Assignats still £eU1 — disappear- 

ance of specie — the Committee of Subsistence, - - - 77 

134b Effects of the Revolution on the value of property — ^the sodal experiment made 

in it— destruction of clnsioB sucoeasivdy by it, - • - <& 


0. 37k« Waar in Fotoiwi. 

Beet. Pail« 

135. Fonner extent of Poknd— its progresrive decay, • - -78 

196. The causes of tliis— its political and social institations— prevalence of demo- 
cratic equality— limited power of tlie crown, - - ' Qt, 

137. Partial representative qrstem— •** diets under the haelder"— ** poet-oomltial diets** 

— ^tbe crown still forther limited — its constant wars, • -79 

138. John Sobiesld— the first partition In 1778 -* changes proposed in 1791 — the 

second partition in 1793, - - . - - 80 

139. The insurrection of 1794 — Kosciusko — ^invasion by Suwairoff— storming of War- 

saw— last partition-formation of the Polish legion, - - 81 

10. Campaign nfVl^^ 

140. The navies of France and Britain — superiority of the latter, • - <&. 

141. Habeas Corpus act suspended hi Britain — trials for treason— continuance of the 

war resolved on— strength (rf the army, '- - - - 82 

142. Successes in the West Indies— revolt of Corsica from France— battle (tf the First 

of June, - - • - - - ' Hb, 

143. Forces of France — Camot's military syrtem- Jealousies of the Allies— threatened 

secession of Prussia — ^which is prevented by Britain, • - -83 

144 Landrecies taken by the Allies— defeat of the Austrlans— actions on the 

Bambre — ^battle of Turcoing— action at Pont-k-Cliin, - - -A. 

145. Abandonment of Flanders contemplated by Austria— French twice defeated at 

Charleroi — ^they capture Tpres and Charleroi, - • -84 

146. Batfle of Fleurus— retreat of the Allies— inactivity of the Prussians— the French 

advance to Brussels, - . - - - - A. 

147. Divergent retreat of tibe Allied oorpe— recapture of landrecies, Cond^, && 85 

148. Battie of Roremonde — Flanders abandoned by the Austrians — Maestricht, fte. 

captured by the French — their successes in Holland — retreat of the British, ib. 

149. Negotiations between Prussia and France — the Dutch sue for peace— conquest 

of Holland— capture of its fleet — requisitions imposed on the country, - 86 
160. Campaign of the Rhine — successes of the French in the Maritime Alps, - 87 
15L Defeats of the Spaniards — ^recapture of Collioure— invasion of Spain— capture 
of San Sebastian and Bellegarde — ^battles of Figueras— death of Dugommier— 
and of la Union— Spain sues for peace, - - - • Hb* 

152. Recommencement of the Yendean war — the Chouans — thehr numbers, and 

leaders, - - - - . - -88 

13. Campa^n <{^ 1795. 

153. Treaty of BAIe— compulsory alliance of Holland with France— fresh treaties 

among the remaining Allies— forces of Britain, - - - i&. 

154. Defeat of a French fleet— operations in Piedmont— peace with Spain— battie 

ofLoano, • - - - . - -89 

155. Treaty with the Yendeans— defeat of the Brest fleet— expedition to Quiberon 

bay— defeat of the emigrants— their capitulation — massacre of them, - ib, 

156. Luxembourg captured by the French — negotiations of the Allies with Pichegru — 

capture of Biannheim— the French recross the Rhine — successes of the Allies, 91 

157. Capture of the Cape by the British— results (tf the campaign, - - ib, 

12. EiUOMOmad of the Directory, 

158. The party which overthrew Robespierre— tiie Thermidorians, - - 92 
199. Execution of Fouquier Tinville— the law of the suspected repealed— the Jeunesse 

Dor^e — ^the Jacobin Club closed — atrial of Carrier oi Nantes— the maximum, 
&C. abolished— return of the proscribed Girondists, - - - ib. 

160. Impeachment of the Jacobin leaders — insurrection in their favour — they are 

transported, - - - - . . -93 

161. Renewed insurrection— murder of F^ud— defeat of the insurgent*— the 

Faubourgs disarmed— the Revolutionary Tribunal and committees suppressed 
—character of subsequent changes, - - - - id. 

162. Depredation of the Assignats— distress in Paris, - - - 94 

163. Royalist reaction— royalist atrocities hi the south— death of the Dauphfai— 

liberation of the Princess Royal— the Du%ctorial Constitution, - - i&. 

164. Exdtement occasioned by it— preparations for the revolt of the sections— pre- 

parations of the Convention, - - - - -95 

165. Insurrection of the 11th Yendemiab«— &ilure of Menou— victory of Buonaparte, i&. 

166. Moderation of the victors— election of the Councils— the firat Directors— general 

amnesty— dose of the National Convention, - . -96 


PART in. 


BUONAPARTK, 1795-1799. 

1. Campaign qflTdd in Qennany, 
Sect. Page 

67. The flnanceH of France— her position— digruption of the alliftpce, - - 97 

08. State of Britain — her internal distractiona — ^prevalent scarcity — oont&iaanoe of 

the war resolved on — ^the Grenville acts— attempt at negotiation with France, ib. 

69. Pacification of la Vendue— death of Charette and of Stofflet -*the Archduke 

Charles commands the Anstrians — ^forces on the Rhine, - - 98 

70. Plans of the Austrians — ^their inactivity — ^passage of the Rhine by Kl^ber— by 

Moreau — retreat of the Austrians, - - - - 99 

71. Ablejnovementsof the Archduke — ^battles of Amberg, Wurtabnrg, AschaflTen- 

buig, and Altenkirchen— death of Maroeau — Joun^m recrosses the Rhine, i&. 

72. Combats between Moreau and Latour— action at Biberach — retreat of Moreau 

through the Black Forest — ^battles of Emmendingen and Hohenblau — Moreau 
recrosses the Rhine, ...... lOO 

73. Plans of the Archduke — he captures Kehl and Huningen— causes of his success — 

reaction against democracy in Germany, .... 101 

74. Fresh treaty between Prussia and France— undentanding between them regard- 

ing the German indemnities, - - - . > i&. 

75. Naval successes of the British— colonial conquests— action In Saldanha bay- 

state of St Domingo— alliance between I^ranoe and Spain— Pitt proposes 
peace — rupture of the negotiations, .... 102 

76. Conspiracy in Ireland — attempted invasion of it— Adlnre of the expedition, 103 

77. Death of the Empress Catherine— accession of Paul— redgnati(Hi of Wasdbing. 

ton, --.----. ib* 

2. Italian Campaign of 1796-7. 

78. Birth and early life of Napoleon Buonaparte — ^his early character, . 104 

79. His hatred of Jacobinism — ^hii first services — ^flrst acquaintance with Junot and 

Duroc— danger from his connexion with Robe^ierre— his marriage— appoint- 
ed to command in Italy, ..... i&. 

80. Strength and state of the army — ^its generals— forces of the Allies, - 105 

81. Pluis of Buonaparte — ^battles of Montenotte, Milledmo, Dego, and Mondovi— 

surrender of the Sardinian fortresses — ^treaty with Sardinia, - - 106 

82. He passes the Po— combats of Fombio and Pizzighitone— exactions from the 

Duke of Parma — ^battle of the Bridge of Lodi — entry into Milan, > ib, 

83. Exactions in the Milanese, Modena, dec. — massacre of Pavia — combat of Val- 

leggio— capture of Genoa — ^terms imposed on the Pope — seizure of Leghorn, 107 

84. Siege of Mantua began — arrival of Wurmser — ^flrst successes of the Austrians — 

Mantua relieved— battles of Lonato, Castiglione, and Medola-H-etreat of 
Wurmser, - - - - - - -108 

85. Reinforcements to the parties— the Polish legion — ^battles of Roveredo and 

Galliano — capture of Trent — battle of Bassano— Wurmser alters Mantua, 109 

86. Alvinzi commands the Austrians — ^the French driven from the Tyrol — and 

defeated at Caldiero — ^battle of Areola — negotiations, ... HO 

87. Renewed hostilities — battle of Rivoli— Ruse of Buonaparte— victory of the 

French— capitulation of Provera, ..... HI 

88. Wurmser's defence of Mantua — its surrender— 4enna imposed on the Pope by 

the treaty of Tolentino, ..... . 112 

89. Achievements m this campaign — character of Buonaparte's troops— and his 

tactics— errors of the Austrians, - - - - • tb. 

3. Internal TYamaeOom, and NamA Campa^ <ifQreat Britain in 1797. 

90. General depression in Great Britain — crisis of the bank— suspendon of cash pay- 

ments, --.---. 113 

91. Bill for Parliamentary Reform— continuance of the war resolved on — supplies 

voted for it— the army and navy— navy of France, and her plans, - ib. 

92. Mutiny of the Channel fleet — mutiny at the Nore, ... 114 

93. Alarm in London— firmness of the King and government— submission of the fleet, ib, 

94. Battle of Cape St Tinoent — Nelson and Collingwood — ^victory of the British — 

Nelson bombards Cadiz, ..... 115 

96. Battle of Camperdown— obstinacy of the Dutch defence— final victory, 116 

,96. Trinadad captured— desoenit of the French in Pembroke bay— death of Burke, t5. 


4 CamijpaSsfkqfi:im—¥iiafifYaik»^Trtaiiift^(km^ 
Beet. Fi«« 

197. FcMition of Anstrift— vrinforeenmto to BoonaiMUie— be resolTet on iinniding 

Austria, - - - . • . . - 117 

196. He crones the Tafl^iemento— 4nt combftii mcMiM of the Franch— mrender 

offiayalitch, • - - - - --I5. 

199. Joubert driren from the 1>rol — combftt of Neomarkt— ermisUoe of Leoben, 118 

200. Ba(Hiaparte'8 danger— prelimineriee of peace ngned, - - - At. 
SOL State of Yenioe — democratic revolt in ite poaaoMioiis— •oondoet of the French — 

massacre at Verona, ...... 119 

90S. Hostilities begmi against Yenioe— forces, dec. fai the capita] — ^war declared — 

insurrection in the dtj— admission (rf the Frendi— tiieir first proceedings, A. 

203. Campaign on the Rliine — ^Morean's passage of it at Diersheim — and Hodie's at 

Neawied— hostilities brolcen off bj the armistice, ... 120 

204. Death of Frederick William IL— character of his so cce ssor t he CkNmteas 

Lichtenan — poliqr of Pmasia, and continued alliance witii France, - HIk 

205. Buonaparte at Montebello— Genoa reyolntionisedr-oonferences for peace — treaty 

of Gampo Formio, ...... 121 

20& Acquisitions of Fiance by it— and of Austria. - • • fb. 

fi. BxpeamanioEgnL 

207. Importance of Egypt— Leibniti's opinion (tf it— and Buonaparte's— Us Tiews of 

Eastern conquest, ...... 123 

206u Buon^Murte's return from Italy — his reception bir the D ir ec t oiy — the standard of 
thearmy of Italy — his life at Paris— jealousy of the Directory of him — he refuses 
command of the expedition to Britain and prepares for that to £^;ypt— his 
companions in it, - • - - - - A. 

209. He sets sail— capture of Malta— nanow escape from Nelson— arrival in Egypt— 

capture of Alexandria, ...... 123 

210. Popidation of E^ypt— the Hamdukes— Ibrahim and Mourad Bey, - 124 
21L Advance tovrard Cairo s t a te of religion among the Froich troope— ^nofesslon of 

Mahommedanism , • - - • - - • 126 

212. Passage of the desert— action at Cfaebreis— battle of the Pyramids— arrival atCairo, ift. 

213. CivU government— defeat of Ibrahim Bey— Turkey declares war— she is Joined 

by Russia, - . - - - - -128 

214. Nelson's pursuit of the fleei-he reaches Aboukii^battle of the Nile, - A. 
215b Womid of Nelson— gallantly of the French— losses by them, • - 127 

216. Nelson's want of fiigatee— effects of the battle, - - - 128 

217. Bnonaparte's internal measures — Desaix in Upper Egypt— nvolt at CUro— 

Buonaparte's plans — invasion of Syria — capture and massacre of Jaffa, • A. 

218. Arrival at Acre— Sir Sidney Smith— battle of Mount Tabor— siege of Acre, 129 

219. Betreat from it— poisoning of the sick at Jaf&h— Desaix's administration— battle 

ofAbonkir, - - - - - - -A. 

220. Buonaparte leaves Egypfr— escapes the British cruisers— his arrival in France, 130 

6. BtlUMMmad of the AffiUaled RepubUet. 

221. Plroofeoftbeencroachingspiritof France given by the peace, - - flu 

222. Defensive preparations ol Britain — her army and navy— the volunteer aystem^ 

the finances, - • • - - - -A. 

223. Encroachments of France on Holland — new government th e r e e stablishment 

of military deqwtism, ...... 131 

224. Attack on Switzerland— its constitution— the Talteline seised by France, 132 

225. Treacherous conduct of the French — the Swiss take up arma— battle and capture 

ofBene— death of d'Erladi. - - - - - ib. 

226. The French seize the Berne treasure — a Directory established — Geneva annexed 

— revolt of the jnountain cantons — battle of Morgarten-^Unterwalden, &c. 
again revolt — alliance fcMroed upon Switzoluid — the Grisoos invoke the aid of 
Austria, - - • - - - -133 

227. PodUon of the Pope — insurrection at Rome— death of the French ambassador 

— seizure and cruel treatment of the Pope — his removal and death, 134 

22S. Dqiredations of the French in Rome — stete of the army and its indignation at 

tiie pillage — great mutiny — democratic constitution imposed, - ib. 

229. The Cisalpine Republic— democratic revolt in Piedmont — Turin given up to 

the French — the king flies to Sardinia, .... 135 

230. Hostility of Naples— defeats of its forces— the court retires to Sicfly, - 138 

231. The French invade Naples— they capture CSaeta — ^resistance of Capuar— armis- 

tioe— resistance of the lazzaroni— capture of Naples— formation of the 
Paxthenopeian Republic, - - - - . ib. 


Beot. ^ Paga 

232. State of Ireland— long-oontinaed qrstem of eonoeidon— compiraey, and its 

objecta— capture of the leaden, ..... 137 

233. Outbreak of the rebellion — ^various encounters— battle of Yin^ar-hOl— landing 

of the French under .Humbert — ^hie ultimate nirrender— capture of a French 
squadron — death of Wolfe Tone, .... 138 

234. Minorca taken— disputes between France and the United States — venality of 

the French govemment— exactions from the Hanse Towns, - - A. 

235. The affiliated republics— the negotiations at Rastadt — ^the indemnities — Outrage 

on the Frendi ambassador at Vienna — ^virtual rupture of the negotiations, 139 

7. Campaign {if 1799. 

236. Influence of the batUe of the Nile— forces of Austria and Russlar— preparations 

of Turkey— treaty between Britain and Russia, ... 140 

237. Preparations of France — ^law of the conscription— contingents from the affiliated 

republics— state of the forces-^rst successes of the French — ^thehr repulse at 
Feldklrch, - - - - - - -t&. 

238. Jourdan driven back by the Archduke — battle of Stockach, - - 141 

239. Jourdan resigns— operations of Massena^-capture of Ludensteg— successes of 

the Allies, . . - . • . . 142 

240. Battle of Zurich— its capture by the Allies — dissolution of the Swiss contingent, lb. 

241. Operations in Italy— battle of the Tagliamento— battle of Magnano— arrival of 

SuwarrofF, ...---- 143 

242. Moreau takes the command — state of his forces— ^the Allies take Peschiera, &c. 

passage of the Adda— capture of Milan — retreat of Moreau — capture of 
Turin— difficulties of the French — Suwarroff restrained by the Aulic Council, 144 

243. Movements of Macdonald from Naples — battle of the Trebbia, - - 145 

244. Pursuit of the Allies — combat at Alessandria^unction of Blacdonald and 

Moreau — Joubert appointed commander— capture of Mantua, &;c — ^battle of 
Novi — death of Joubert, ..... 146 

245. Operations in Switzerland — successes of Massena— and of Lecourbe, - 147 

246. Attempt of the Archduke on Zurich — causes of his failure — he departs fat Ger- 

many—Captures BCannheim, - ... - - 148 

247. Plans of Suwaroff— second battle of Zurich — death of Lavater— death of Hotze, ib. 

248. SuwarofTs passage of the Alps — ^Eailure of the Austrians to co-operate with him 

— ^liis retreat — ^the Allies abandon Switzerland, ... 149 

249. British and Russian expedition to Holland — ^its first successes— capture of the 

Dutch fleet— combats at Alkmaar— evacuation of the country by the Allies, 150 

250. CSiampionnet appointed to command in Italy — his plans — attempts to relieve 

Ck>ni — battie of Genol a s u rrender of Coni— death (xfChampionnet— desperate 
condition of the French, ..... 151 

25L Last operations on the Rhine— withdrawal of Suwarroff— repulse of the French 

at Philipsburg, - - - - - - 152 

8L Internal state (^Franc6-~retum ((f Buonaparte /irom Egyj^r-he is dected 

FirH Consul, 

262, Reaction against republicanism— manners and morals under the Directory, ib. 

253. The elections — the Council of the Ancients — the Directors — ^their characters, 153 

254. Their diffioiities from the depreciation of the assignats — territorial mandates — 

these also depreciated— state of the fundholders and armies— foreign specula- 
tors, .--.-.---<6. 

255. Virtual declaration of bankruptcy— the assignat qrstem abandoned— revenue 

and expenditure, 1796, ..... 154 

256. Repeal of the maximum, Ac— continued irreligion — the Theophilanthropbts, i&. 

257. Renewed efforts of the Jacobins— conspiracy of Baboeuff- its suppression and 

his death, ..-...- 155 

258. Royalist minority returned to the Council— general reaction — ^the laws against 

priests repealed — ^plans of the minority of the Directors, - • ib. 

259. Buonaparte and Hoche support the republicans — efforts of the former, • 156 

260. New ministry— the troops brought up to Paris— revolution of the 18th Fructi- 

dor— seizure of ttie Royalist leaders, - - - -lb. 

261. Transportation of Pichegru, die. — ^tynumical proceedings of the Directory — 

commencement of military despotism, - - • • fb, 

262. Results of the new elections— liberty of the press restored— new Directors — 

revolution of the 30th Prairial, • - - - - 157 

263. The Jacobins again emeige— the law of the hostages— Fouch^ minister ot police 

— ^the Jacobin Club flnally closed — arrival of Buonaparte, - - 158 

264. His Journey to Paris, and reception there— progress of the oonspinM^— plans 

of the conspirators, ...... 159 

265. The 18th Brumaire— decree transferring the legislature to St Cloud- Buona- 

parte's speech to the Ancients. ...•.- 160 


Seek. Pas* 

266. Agitation in the Five Hondred— diaaolation of the Dizectofy— aooenion of 

Fouch6, dEC to Buonaparte's party, .... i^ 

967. The 19th Bnunaire— opposition oi the Five Hundred— Buonaparte before the 

Andente—^iis imminent danger, - - - • - i&. 

268. He repairs to the Five Hundred— thehr oonUnned resistance— thqr are dissolTsd 

by the troops, • - - - - - 161 

269. Submission at tb» Ancients— decree appointing three consuls— n^ioings on the 

change — Buonaparte's clemency, ..... i^ 

270. ffi^yes' proposed grand-electcnr— the new oonstitution-^the legislature under 

it— pulsions of its meml>ers, - - - - - A. 

271. Its unanimous accep tance n ew ministry— termination of the changes of the 

Bevolution, ....... X63 

PART ir. 



L Mecuurei 4^ France and Britain, 

272 Buonaparte proposes peace— the negotiations broken oflP— his real views In this, 164 

273. Preparations of Britahi — ^her flnances-^large loan— 4ier advancing prosperity — 

army and navy — number of troops raised from the beginning of tlM wac^-sub- 
sidy to Austria, - - - - - -A. 

274. Renewal of the Bank Charter— other domestic measur es t he Union of Irehmd, 166 

275. Financial exhau8ti<m of France— revival under Buonaparte, - - ifr. 

276. Fadiication of la Vendue— execution of de Frotte— general amnesty, ' • 166 

277. Russia detached from Britain — ^Buouaparte's military preparations — suppres- 

sion of the liberty of the press — ^the secret police — his efforts against repub- 
Ucan ideas— court etiquette— death of Washington, and eulogy on him, ib. 

278. Recall of Camot, &c^— disgrace of Target— elevation of Tronchet — other anti« 

republican measures— coneqiondenoe with Louis XVm., « • 167 

2. Campaign in Itaip and Qermany—Armiitica f^fParsdmfand Aleuandria, 

278. Plans of the Austrians— those of Buonaparte— Moreau commands on the Rhhie, 

and Buonaparte hi Italy, ..... iQg 

280. The Archduke Charies reidaoed by Kray— forces under him— and under 

Moreau— operations of the latter— battles of Engen and Mceskirch— cap- 
ture of Biberach — ^Kray withdraws to Ufan, - - - ift. 

281. The position of Ulm — Moreau's difficulties— combat at Erbach — Moreau crosses 

the Danube— combat at Hochstedt — Kray evacuates Ulm — capture of Munich, 
Feldkirchy&c— armistice of Parsdorf, .... 169 

282. State of the French in Italy — combats round Genoa— Maasena shut up there— 

Suchet driven back to France— he defeats the Austrians there, - 170 

283. Renewed contest befrae Genoa — Soult made prisoner— surrender of the place, 171 

284. Buonaparte's plans— preparation of the army of reserve — the passage of the Alps - 

resolved on, - - - - - - ib. 

285. Passage of the St Bernard— difficulties before the fort of Bard— Junction of the 

corps at Ivrea— enthe force, ..... 172 

286. Advance to Milan— capture of Plaoentia, &c.— «ombat of MontebeUo, • 173 

287. Retreat and disasters of Elnitz — ^plansofMelas— forces at Marengo, - ib. 

288. Battle of Marengo— first success of the Austrians— arrival and dotth of Desaix 

—charge of Kellermann— victory of the French, ... 174 
288. Armistioe of Alessandria — Buonaparte's return to Paris, • - ib. 

S. (km^pa^i^Hohenlindm— Peace of LuneviOe. 

290. Treaty between Britahi and Austria— fidelity of the latter to It— demands of 

Buonaparte— extoBsion of the armistice— Malta captured by the British, 175 

291. Preparations of Austria^-her forces, and errors of tiieir disposition — Kray 

replaced by the Archduke John— insurrection against the French in Tuscany 
—massacre at Arexzo— seizure of Leghorn— incorporation of Flanders— ex- 
tinction of the independence of Switserhind, ... 179 

282. French forces line oi the Inn— first successes oi the Austrians— Moreau retreats 

to Hohenlinden, - - • • - • ib. 

29S. Battle of Hohenlinden— losses of the Austrians, - • - 177 

294. Moreau forces the Inn and the Salsa— combat at Salzburg— reappointment of 

the Archduke — ^Armistice of Steyer, • • - • ib, 

285. Operations in the Grisons— Maodonald's passage of the Splugen— comparison 

cfitwithSuwarrolTryAtc, - - • - - 178 


Beet Page 

S96. Further difficulties of Blacdonald—defSeats at Moant Tonal, - • 179 

397. Forces in Italy — state of the French — passage of the Mhido— actions at Rivoli 

and CaIdiero-4he Austrians take poet at Galliano, • - - ift. 

208. Successes of Maodonald— escape of Laudon by a fraud— Bellegarde o£fen battle 

—armistice of Treviso, ...... 180 

. 299. Insurrection in Piedmont— defeat of the Neapolitans — ^the intercession of the 

Czar saves Naples— treaty of Foligno— defence of Elba by the British , . i&. 
300. Peace of Luneville — Origin of the dissensions regarding the German indemnitiee, 181 

4. Ihe Northern Maritime Corsfederae^ 

801. The code of international maritime law— its provisions regarding* neutrals, ib. 

S02. General acceptance of these — ^the armed neutrality, ... 182 
SOS. Abandonment of its principles— naval supremacy of Britain— case of the 

Freya — ^Denmark acknowledges the right of search, > > - A. 

804. Disposition of the Czar toward France— hostile proceedings toward Britain — 

the^Iaritime Confederacy, ..... igs 

SDCk Measures of Britain— and of the Confederatee— ministers are supported by 

parliament— resignation of Pitt — ^real causes of it, > . • ib, 

308. The Addington mioistry— army and navy for the yeax^>-finanoes— prosperity 

of the empire, ..-..-. 184 

307. Forces of the Confederates— sailing of the British fleet— passage of the Sound, ib. 

308. Preparations of the Danes — battle of the Baltic— death of Riou, • > 186 

309. Losses on both sides— state of the prises— armistice with the Danes, - 186 

310. Plans of Paul against Indiar—hls insanity— conspiracy against him, and his 

assassination — first measures of his successor— treaty with Britain— dissolu- 
tion of the Confederacy, • • - - - - A. 
31L Energy and moderation shown by Britain, .... 187 

& Britiih expedition to Hgypt— Peace (ifAmieru, 

812. Eleber left in command in Egypt— his account of the state of the army— pre- 
parations of the Turks— convention for evacuating Egypt, . - 188 

313. The convention broken off— battle of Ueliopoli»— insurrection of Cairo— assassi- 

nation of Kleber — his successor, - - - - - ib, 

314. Preparations and plans of the British— sailing of Abercromble, and bis forces — 

he disembarks — first combats — ^battle of Alezandriar— death of Abercrombie, 189 
316. Operations of Hutchinson— capture of Ramanleh->victory of the Turi£»— capitu- 
lation of Cairo— arrival of the Indian corps, ... igo 

316. Defensive preparations of Menou — ^he capitulates — ^great successes thus gained, tb. 

317. Murder of the Beys— overthrow of the Mameluke supremacy — rcijoicings in 

Constantinople and London, ..... 191 

318. Buonaparte's efforts to preserve Egypt— battles of Algesiraz, - . 192 

31 9. Invasion of Portugal by the French andSpaniards — ^its objects— treaty between them, ib, 

320. Preparations for the invasion of Britain — alarm excited by them— d^eat of 

Nelson at Boulogne, - - - - - - A. 

321. Negotiations— demands of France— the preliminaries signed — terms of the 

treaty of Amiens, ...... 193 

322. Opposition to the peace in Britain — ^ministers supported by parliament— treaties 

between France and Russia, &c. - . - - . 194 

323. The Justice of the policy of Britain— 4ier gains by the treaty, - ' ib. 

6. ReeonttruMonqf Society in France bjf Buonaparte. 

324. State of society in France— destruction of all elements of freedom— military 

despotism thus inevitable, ..... 195 

325. Buonaparte's hatred to the Jacobins — ^the infernal machine conspiracy — ^which 

originated with the royalists — but whidi he charged on the Jacobins — trans, 
portation of their leaders, > - - - ' ib. 

826. The King of Etruria— his entertainment at Paris— pamphlet in favour of 

monarchy — exile of its presumed author, .... 196 

327. The lists of eligibility— the legion of honour— strong opposition to it— inaugura- 

tion of its members— its ultimate success, - • - ' ib. 

328. State of religion — the Theophihmthropists — concordat — re-establishment of 

Catholicism— dissatis&ction of the army— rejoicings of the peasantry— and 
satisfaction throughout Europe, - - - - - 197. 

929. First measures in favour of the emigrants — ^their general return — restitution to 
them found impracticable — consequent absmce of an aristocracy— and impos- 
sibility of constitutional freedom, ..... 198 

SSO. System of public instruction — ^naval conscription — ^Ecole Militaire — scheme of 

cotonial administration- the cadastre, and scheme for its equalisation, - ib. 


Sect. Pape 

831. The tribop ttto i ts demoemtic spirit and tendeney— its mpprenion naolved on, 190 
331 Neeearity of monarchy to France— ^najority in iaTOur of tlie life oonsulat^- 

aoooeaBlve rises of the funds, - - - - - i&. 

333. Changes in the tribunate and l^idative— general aatisfkeUon with the life con- 

Bolate — influx of foreigners into Faris— the consular court, - - 200 

334. ICinistiy of poUce suppressed— ^iroposal of Buonaparte to Louis Xviil. — the 

Code Napoleon— the law oi socceseion-4ts influences on the cause of freedom 
— tiie law at divoree, - - ' • - • - A. 

335. Summary of these meaiureB— proqterity of France — improTements in Paris — 

naval pr^arations, ...... 201 

7. BeooU of St DcmU^fO—JffiliaUd Bepubliet reorganUe^^Suptitn beHtten 

France and BriUUn. 

336. Boonaparte designs tiie nscofery of Bt Domingo, ... 202 

337. Statistics of tliat island— 4ts commerce and population— Jealousies between the 

race s t he negroes revolt, - • • - - A. 

338. Measures of the Assembly's commissioners— massacre of Gape Town— virtual 

sovereignty of Touasaint— extermination of tiie mnlattoes— his govern, 
ment, . . . . . - -203 

339. Buonaparte resolves an overthrowing him — the expedition — its commanders — 

lesi^ance of the negroes— their general snbmiuion— aeiznre and death of 
Tousaaint, - . . - - - .204 

340. Slavery re-established in Guadeloupe— fresh revolt in St Domingo— death of 

Lecterc, Richepanse, &c. — ^rapid successes of the insurgentfr— entire losses of 
the French— faidependence established, > > - - 16. 

341. New constitution for Holland— reorganisation of the Cisalpine republic— Pied- ~ 

mont incorporated — roadsof the Simplon, dec, ... 205 

342. The Oerman indemnities— principle of secularisation adopted— «hare awarded 

to Pnisria— n^Iect of Austria — ^her spirited conduct— and its success— efiiects 
of the admission of this principle, ..... 206 

343. State of Switzerland — discontent with the constitution imposed on it-^t is over- 

thrown — ^new constitution fiwmed by Buonaparte, ... 207 

344. Revolt against it— armed interference of France— the new constitution imposed 

—indignation throughout Europe at these proceedings, - - 208 

345. Prosperity of Britain — ^hritation between the two nations— demands of Buona- 

parte— trial of Peltier, . - - - - - tb. 

346. Further recriminations and mutual demands — ^violence of Buonaparte to the 

British unbassador — the negotiations still continued— rupture between the 
pa rt i es a rrest of the British travellers, - - - .209 

347. Changed demeanour of tiie Opposition on the war— the vote of parliament on 

it— Buonaparte's real designs, - - • - .210 

8. Renacal qf hotUlitks— Rupture between Spain and Britain, 

348. Vehemence of the two powers-^their mutual anticipations, > - 211 

349. Hanover overrun by the French — the German legion — occupation of Ebmbuxg, 

Leghorn, die — commencement of the war against British commerce — ^prepa- 
rations for invasion of Britain— the armament at Boulogne — ^Buonaparte's 
designs for covering the descent, . . - - - «&. 

350. Rigour and pressure of the conscription— enbsidies from Spain, Portugal, &Cd — 

sale of Louisiana— finances and army of France, ... 212 

^L Forces of Britain — unanimity in the war — ^ber finances— insurrection in Dub- 
lin, and murder of the cfai«r Justice— conspiracy of colonel Despard, - 213 

352. Colonial successes of Britain — ^victory of the China fieet over Linois— army, 
navy, and expenditure— general despondency— illness of the king— overthrow 
of the Addington minist^, and return of Pitt to ofiSce, - - ib. 

«3. Indpient alienation of Russia from France— dispositions of Prussia— effect on 
the former ot the murder of d'Enghien— afiGEtir of Mr Drake — the Russian 
ambassador leaves Paris, ..... 214 

354. Neutrality of Austria— temporiring policy of Prussia— affair of Bir George 

Rumboldt— hostility of Sweden— treaty between her and Britain, . 215 

^. Inauguration of the Legion of Honour — Napoleon visits Boulogne— proceed- 
ings there— Journey round the coast— plans the Confederation of the Rhine, 219 

S56. Differences between Spain and Britain — capture of the treasure frigates — Spain 

declares war, - ... . . . . 217 

357. INscussiona on this subject— error of Britain— eubeequent atonement for it, - ib. 

9. Btunapartei't atnanption ((/the Imperiai Crown. 

358. Deeds preceding the assumption of the crown— republican malcontents— 


S«ct. Pag* 

Moreau, fheir head — royalist ooncpiracj of Oooigei — Foach^'s scheme 
regarding these— anest of the conspintors, ...» 218 

860. Consternation on the arrest of Moreau— the Duke d'Enghien-^iis srizure— the 

grounds for it— his murder, ..... 219 

360. Its atrocity— indignation roused by it— death of Pidiegru— the i^obable author 

of it, - - - - - - - - i5. 

961. Trial of Morean, Georges, ftc.'-HKntenoe on Moreaur—oondenmation and execu- 
tion of Georges, &c., ...... 220 

362. Exile of Moreau — ^Buonaparte's indulgence to him— death of Captain Wright, ib. 

363. The assumption of tiie crown first proposed — moved in the tribunate — Camot 

the only dissentient— majority in the council of state— 4he decree of the 
senato— majority of the citizens in its favour, ... 221 

364. Creation of marshals—dignities conferred on Napoleon's fiunily— titles revived 

— «ourt etiquette — the coronation — ^the pope present at it, . . 222 

865. Enthusiasm tk the army— but not of the people— presentation <rf eagloi ffttee— 

protest of Louis XYIIL, • - . . - ib, 




1. ITtreatened inva$ion </ Britain BatO e cf Trq/blgar. 

366. Yictory necessary to Napoleon— he proposes peace— answer of Britain- 

alliance of the latter with Russia — principles there laid down— txeaty 
between Russia and Sweden — the finances of France, ... 223 

367. The democratic constitution overthrown in Holhmd— The Italian Republic 

organised into the Kingdom of Italy — ^Eugene appointed viceroy— Napoleon 
assumes the Iron Crown — magnificent ffitea— satisfection of the Italians with 
this change, ....... 224 

368. Genoa incorporated with France— Lucca conferred on the Prinoeas EUaa— 

Parma &c. incorporated, ..... 225 

369. Indignation in Austria — ^predominance of the wur party — Austria accedes to 

the alliance— convention with Sweden— ^neutrality of Prussia — ^new alliance 
tiius completed, . - . - . ' ib. 

370. Continued preparations for faivasion of Britain— the forces dec. at Boulogne — 

oiganisation of the French army into corps— the flotillas-rapidity of move- 
ment attained, ....... 226 

371. Napoleon's real designs — movements of the Rochfort squadron— and the 

Toulon— Yilleneuve sails for the West Indies— Nelson follows— return of the 
former, - - - . - - - • 227 

372. Nelson penetrates the French derigns— warns the government — Calder's action 

— Yilleneuve retires to Ferrol, ..... 228 

373. Again sails for Brest — and retires to Cadiz— return of Nelson— trial of Calder, ib. 

374. Blockade of Yilleneuve — Nelson lures him out — battle of Trafalgar— wound of 

Nelson, - •. • - . . . . 229 

375. Continuance of the battle— final victory of the British— death of Nelson, . 230 

376. Lo8s of prizes— action off Cape Ortegal — mutual generosities of the Spaniards 

and British, . . - . - - .231 

377. Grief on Nelson's death — honours paid his memory— and conferred on Colling. 

wood — Nelson's character, > - . . • ib. 

2. Campaign qfAusterlitz. 

378. Napoleon's estimate of Calder's action— continued preparations at Boulogne-. 

he departs for Paris — ^the troops moved toward the Rhine, - - 232 

379. Austria commences hostilities — Mack enters Bavariar— forces on both sides — 

anticipative conscription — Napoleon departs for the army, - - ib. 

380. Negotiations with Prussiar-vacillation of that power— march of the French 

corps — tliey violate the Prussian territory— indignation at Uiis, - - 233 

381. Napoleon Joins the army— ^movements to surround Mack — various successes — 

Ulm surrounded, - - - - - - ib. 

382. Combat of Elchingen— escape of the Ardiduke FenUnand— snirender of Wer- 

neck — ^the heights round Ulm carried, .... 234 

883. Mack's irresolution — ^he capitulates unconditionally— distribution of the spoils, 

&c., by Napoleon — amount of these successes, . - - ib. 

884. The Archduke Charles in Italy— combats there with Massena— retreat of the 

Archduke — he is Joined by bis brother— operations in the Tyrol, and suc- 
cesses (tf the French— Napoleon's advanoe-^annistice proposed, • • 233 


Sect. Paf* 

385. Iiritation of Prania— Hanorar fiiTaded by the Allies— <«onTention between 

Prussia and Russia — ^Haugwitx sent to notify it to Napoleon, • - 238 

38& Movements of the Russians— combat of Diernstein— capture of Tlenna— eeizuie 
of its bridge — Mm«t duped by Kutusoff— combat of Ba«rathion*s rear- 
guard—junction of the Russian armies, . . m . 237 

387. Contributions levied on Vienna — Napoleon's danger— be advances to Brann — 

movements of the Allies— the French take post at Austeriits, • - ib, 

388. Plans of Napoleon— battle of Austerlits, - . • - 238 

389. Results of the battle— armistice agreed to— retreat of the Russians, - 239 

390. Ibeachery of Uaugwita— tieaty concluded by him — treaty of Presbuig^ts 

terms — Napoleon's design in it, - - • - -A. 

391. The Allies retreat from Hanover— declaration agidnst Naples— 4nvadon of that 

state — ^Napoleon's txiumphal return— marriage of Eugoie— he is declared 
Napoleon's heir, ...... 240 

39SL Results of this campaign— causes of its successes— risks Napoleon fan— enors 

of the Austrians — ^indecision of Prussia, .... 241 

393. Death of Pitt — review of his policy— its errors— but soundness of principle— his 

increasing fame, ...... 242 

394. His private character— honours paid him, - - - - ib» 

3. Joseph Buonaparte made King qfKaple»— Battle (ffMaidc^^FormaUon <ifthe 

Bhentsh Cov^tderacy. 
385. Supremacy of France on the Ck>ntinent — new ministry in Britain— parties 

represented in it — ^its first measures, .... 243 

396. Fmancial crisis in France— its causes— Ouvrard & Co., the oontractora— Napo- 

leon's measures to arrest it— necessity of foreign spoliation to France, - 244 

397. Internal state of Franc o g r ea t public works— docks, dec., of Antwerp-^the 

VendAme oolumn, - - •> • • - - 245 

398. Invasion of Naples-— Joseph raised to its throne— duchies, &c., conferred on 

Pauline and on Murat— eiege of Oaeta^-revolt in Calabria— battle of Makla 
—its effect— capture of Oaetar-retreat of the British— administraticoi of 
Joseph, - - - - - - ' ib. 

399. Louis raised to the throne of Holland— military fiefs hi Italy— Napoleon's 

object in these measures, ..... 246 

^. Naval successes of the British— their naval supremacy— differences with the 

United States, - • - - • - A. 

101. Reduction of the Cape— expeditions against Buenos Ayres, - • 247 

^. Appropriation of Hanover by Prussia— retaliation of Britain— encroachmenta 

on Pnusia by Murat — general indignation there, ... 248 

403. The Confederation of the Rhine— ^it dissolves the German empire— the crown 

of which la resigned by Francis, - - - - - A. 

404. Differences with Russia— treaty signed by d'Oubril— which is disavowed— 

negotiations with Britain — ^rupture of these, ... 248 

40& Excitement in Berlin — ^murder of Palm — ^predominance of the war party — 

Nkpoleon departs for the army— ultimatum of Prussia, - - 250 

406. Death of Fox — his character — his fame on the wane, - • • i&. 

4. Campaign 0/ Jena— FaU (if Prunia. 

407. FKparations of Pruaria— hostile disposition of Spain toward France— Saxony 

joins Prussia — ^forces of the latter, .... 251 

408. Line of the Elbe— the Prussian generalissimo — ^he assumes the offensive— i>lan 

and movements of Napoleon — ^the Prussians again retire— su cces s e s of the 
French — combat of Saalfield— death of Prince Louis, - • - <&. 

409. Results of these movement*— battle of Jena — ^victory of the French, - 252 

410. Battle of Auerstadt— fall of Brunswick, Schinettau, &c.— losses in the battles, 254 
41L Capture of Erfiuth— combat of Halle— combat at Prenlslow, and surrender of 

Mohenlohe— surrender of Stettin, &&, .... 255 

412. Retreat oi Blucheiv-storming of Lubeck— be capitulates— capture of Magde- 

burg, Hameln, &c., ...... 256 

413. Baxony Johis Napoleon — his entay into Beriin-Hrobbery of the tomb of Frederick 

— Prince Hatzfeld — insults to the queen, dec.— death of Brunswick— con- 
tributions and oppression, - - • - - (b, 

414. N^iotiations— demands of Napoleon— the Berlin decree— his answer to the Poles 

—reduction of the Prussian fortresses— new conscription, • - 267 

6. Campaign of Ef^u, 

415. Preparations of Russia— general enthusiasm there— her force*— which are 

weakened by the Turkish war, ..... 358 



Baot. Pag* 

416. Napoleon's diflScaltlea from ttie PolUli qoestion— fiDthosIaaii of the Polw— 

ooune which he adopte-^la forces, .... 258 

417. Forces of the Russians— their genends— they assume the offensive— combat of 

Nasielsk— the Russians retreat— battle of Pultusk— battle of Golymin— resi- 
dence and reception of the French in Warsaw, ... 259 

418. Hopes from these combats— reduction of Glofl^, Breslau, &c. — ^Napoleon^ 

proiiessions toward Turkey, ..... 261 

419. Benningaen commands the Russians— combat of Hohrungen— advance of 

Napoleon, - - • -* • - • ib, 

420. Bennlngsen retreats— halts at Eylan— «»mbat thon> forces of the parties, - 262 

421. Battle of Eyiau, - • - • - - ib, 
4^22. Losses ai the partiea— the Russians retreat— Napoleon offers peace to Rnsslar— 

and on its refusal retreats, ..... 263 

423. Sensation excited hi Europe— reftisal of aid by Britahi, ... 264 

424. Gloom caused in France-«ew conscription — Napdeon's appreciation of his 

danger— his preparations, - - - - - i&. 

6. DomaUe and Foreign Meaturet qfthe JBHtffA OcvemmenL 

425. Measures of the Whjg»— Whidham's military Bjystem— its succ es s a bolition of 

the slave-trade, ...... 266 

436, Potty's financial system— counter-propodtions of Castlereagh — ^these systems 
both departures from Pitt's— advantages of Potty's— its subsequent aban- 
donment, ....... 266 

427. Foreign policy of the Whigs— expedition to Buenos Ayrefr— its defeat— tin 

general cashiered, - - • - - -A. 

428. Capture of Curafoa— the differences between Russia and Turkey— British 

expedition against Constantinople, .... 267 

429. The Dardanelles and their defences— unprepared state of the Turks— forcing 

of the passage, ...... 268 

430. First consternation of the Turka— Duckworth duped by pretended negotiations 

— preparations for defence — retreat of the Britiui— Junction with the Russian 
fleet---Britiih expedition to Egypt — ^its failure, - • • A. 

431. Discontent with the ministry— motion by them regarding Catholics— thefr &U, 

and formation of the Perceval administration — causes of it— the new parliament, 269 

7. BatOe qf Friedland— Peace <(f TOriL 

432. New policy of Britain— treaty of Bartenstein— eucoours to the Allies— hritatlon 

of the Czar— dismantled state of the British arsenals, - - 270 

433. Preparations of Napoleon — ^auxiliary Spanish force— adherence of Sweden to the 

Allies ■ embassies from Turkey and PenAa— the Jealousy of the former aroused, 271 

434. Winter-quarters of the combatants — si^e of Dantzic — ^its foil, • - <&. 

435. Forces on each side— combat of Guttstadt— the Russians retreat to Heilsberg, 272 

436. Plan of Napoleon — battle of Heilsberg— that position turned— the Rusrians 

foil back to Friedland, - • • - - - 273 

437. The Russians attack Lannes— battle of Friedland— 4oBBes of the parties— retreat 

of the Russians, ...... 274 

438. Armistice of Tilsit— Interview between Napoleon and Alexander— commence- 

ment of the negotiations, - - - • . • 275 

439. Intimaqr of the two emperors— condudon of the treaties— formation of Uie 

grand-duchy of Warsaw — ^terms of the treaty — proclamation by Frederick- 
William to his ceded provinces, • - - - - A. 

440. Secret articles of the treaty— those regarding Spain and Portugal— and l\tfkey, 

Constantinople, dec, - - - - • - 276 

441. Losses of France in the campaign, - - • • • 16. 


From tea Pxacs or Tilsit to thx Psacc op PHKSBimo, 1807-1809. 

1. C(mtinentalSifstemt and Imperial Ocvernment 4^ Napoleon. 

442. Change in the mode of Napoleon's hostility— his Continental System— the works 

at Antwerp— the Berlin de cree — i ts enforcement— resistance of Louis Buona- 
parte to it, ....... 277 

443. The orders in council— the Milan decree, .... 278 

444. The license system — ^mutual evasion of these prohibitive systems-revenue thence 

derived by Napoleon, - - - - - • ib. 

445. Bijjoicings on his return — suppression of the Tribunate— censorship of the press 

^[persecution of Mesdames de Stael and Recamier, ... 279 




448. Tbint forpaUie employment— progrea of osntnllMtioii~>meuurea for re-fw- 

nmtion of an aristocracy— titles of himour revived— ^lartial aoooefli of these 

measareB—<oourt etiquette, ..... 280 

447. Internal prosperity— tlie &nreign oontribntione— great publie works— general 

illnaion in the country, • - - - • -SSI 

44& New penal code— multiplication of state crimes— state prisons uid their inmates 

—extoit of Napoleon's sway, - - • - - A. 

449. The conscription-HBumbers raised by it— lAws against evasion, desertion, &c. — 

abaorption of the population by it, - - - - 288 

4JS0L System of public instruction — ^tbe imperial unlvenity— other kinds of schools— 
general aystem of instruction in them — complete supremacy thus estab- 
lished, ....... A. 

2. The Copenhagen Exp^itJUm— War hetuxm 

451. Diflsatisfiiction in Russia with the treaty of Tilsit— constitution for the dncfay 

of Warsaw— the kingdom of Westphalia, - ' - - - 283 

482. Oppression of the Hanse Towns, dec— exactions from Prussia— measures qI 

Stein and Schamhorst — ^the Tugendbund, .... 284 

453. State of Austria— evacuation of Braunau — convention with Sweden, - 285 

454. The secret articles of Tilsit known to tlie British government-preparations 

agaimt DenmaiiE— expedition to Copenhagen— bombfudment of the dty — 
smrender of the Danish fleet, • • - - ib, 

455. Indignation against the expedition— offered medlati<m of Rusria— the latter 

dedareswar, ..---.. 286 

456. Treaty between Denmark and France— war between Russia and Sweden— ' 

Finland overrun — measures toward Turkey, .... 287 

457. Changes in Italy— incorporation of Btruriar— encroachments on the Papal States 

—and on Holland, &c., • - • - - - A. 

458. Importance of the attempted seizure of Spain, ... 288 

3. Origin of the Peninstdar War, 

469. Napoleon's first preparations— hostile disposition of Spain— auxiliary force 
extorted from her— Portugal fonsed into hostility with Britain — entry of the 
French into Spain, ... . - • <6. 

460. The royal family of Spain— Manuel Godoy— -Ferdinand YII.— his intrigues 

treaty of Fontainebleau— its terms with regard to Portugal, • - 289 

46L Napoleon's perfidy in it— his directions to Junot— march of the latter— disorders 

and losses in it, . . • - - - 290 

462. Strength of Lisbon— irresolution of the govenmient— departure of the court to 

theBraxils— entrance of the French, - • - • ib. 

463. Junot occupies the capital, dec— sovereignty assumed by Napoleon— contribu- 

tion exacted— general ^loliation, ..... 291 

464. Intrigues in Spain — arrest of Ferdinand — ^Napoleon's aid invoked— the partisans 

of the Prince exiled, - - - - • •> ib, 

465. Entnnoe of the Frendi troops— treacherous seizure of the fortr e ss e s- -demands 

for their permanent cession, ..... 292 

466. The royal family prepare to flee— tumult at Araqjuez— Call of Oodoy— abdica- 

tion of Charles ly., - . . - - - 293 

467. Entry of Murat into Madrid — his reception of Ferdinand — Charles retracts his 

abdication, - • • - - • , - ib. 

468. (^wn of Spain, offaed to Louis — Savary sent to Madrid — Ferdinand's Journey 

to Bayonne — ^his resignation of the crown there demanded, - • 294 

469. The rojnil fionily seduced to Bayonne — Napoleon's efforts to avoid revolt — 

various tumults— confiict at Madrid— massacre by Murat there — outbreak 
of insurrection, - - • - - - A. 

470. Ferdinand reftises to resign--<attempts of his &ther, &c., to oooroe him— his con- 

ditional abdication— compelled to resign unconditionally — sent to Yalen9ay, 295 

471. Joseph raised to the crown of Spain— sulnnission ot Madrid— meeting of the 

Spanish notables, - - - - • - 296 

472. Napoleon's perfidy in these transactions, - - • - ifr. 

4. SpaniA War— -Battle (^Corunna, 

473L Peculiarities of Spanish warfikre— aspect of the country— the roads— want of 

great cities, - - - - - - - 297 

474 Facilities for defensive war&re — ^isolation of the provinc es t he nobility— the 

pessuitry — union of religious and democratic enthusiasm in the contest, - ib, 

47& Forces of Napoleon — ^tbeir state— army of Britain— its character and efficiency 
-Hliflterenoes between the two, ..... 298 


Sect. Page 

476. Advantages of the British position— {;eneral numerical equality of the troops 

engag«l — ^the Spanl^ army — ^the Portuguese, ... 299 

477. Disposition of the French troops — outbrealc of the insurrection— atrocities in 

the south — ^massacres at YiUendar-the Junta of 6eTiIle-~-capture of the 
French squadron at Cadiz, ..... sqo 

478. Revolt in the north— deputation to Britain— recall of the Spanish auxiliary corps 

— Napoleon's preparations — ^new constitution — arrival of Joseph at Madrid, 301 

479. Sensation in Britain — ^preparations' 6f tlie government— finances for the year, A. 

480. Successes of Bessiferes— first siege of Saragossa— retreat of the French, •> 302 

481. Defeat of Moncey before Valenciar— preparations of Savary — ^battle of Rio Seoo 

— Joseph enters Madrid, - • - - • 303 

482. Invasion of Andalusia — sack of Cordova — ^battle of Baylen— death of Gobert 

— capitulation of Baylen, • . - • - - ib. 

483. Impression made by it— delusion to which ft gave rise — Joseph abandons 

MadridTHlisgrace of tlie officers concerned — ^violation of the capitulation, 304 

484. Operations in Catalonia— defeat of Schwartz — and of Duhesme before Gerona — 

Castanos enters Madrid, ..... 305 

485. Revolt in Portugal — battle and massacre of Evora, . -. . 306 

486. British forces for the Peninsula— these placed under Wellesley— Moore recalled 

from Sweden, - - - - - - i&. 

487. Landing of the British— ^batUe of Roli^a— plan of Wellesley— this oveiruled by 

Burrard, - - - - - - - 307 

488. Battle of Vimeira — cautious movements of Bunard — he is replaced by 

Dalrymple — armistice, - - - - • ib. 

489. Junot's difficulties — convention of Cintra— pillage by the French— evacuation 

of Portugal by them, ...... 308 

490. Indignation at the convention— court of inquiry for it— its advantages — Napo- 

leon's estimate of it, ...... 309 

i91. Moore succeeds to the command— forces under him — release of Romana's corps 

— ^the central Junta — ^its imbecility — waste of the British supplies, - ib, 

492. Effect of these reverses on Napoleon — ^preparations of Austriar-^ew conscrip- 

tion — afresh treaty with Prussia, .... 310 

493. Conferences between Napoleon and Alexander at Erfurth — splendour of the 

scene there — agreements there entered into — alleviation of the biirdeos on ^ 
Prussia — difference regarding Constantinople, - - - ib, 

494. Preparations against Spain — ^forces there — ^battles of Tomosa, Espinosa, Rey- 

nosa, and Bui^gos— dispersion of the Spanish armies, • - 311 

495. Battle of Tudela — forcing of the Somosierra — advance to Madrid, • 312 

496. Disorder in the city — ^its capitulation — reception of Joseph, • - 313 

497. Measures of dvil administration — ^military preparations-HEidvanoe of Moore — 

junction with Baird — combat at Sahagun, - - - ib. 

498. Napoleon moves against him — ^passage of the Guadarrama — Moore begins his 

retreat— <!ombat of Castrogonzalo, - - - • 314 

499. Napoleon leaves the army — disasters of the British retreat— combat at Villa 

Franca — arrival at Corunna, - . - - - - ib. 

600. Battle of Corunna — death, burial, and monument of Moore— embarkation- of 

the British— surrender of Corunna, .... 315 

6. Fresh tear loith Atutria—BcUtks cf Landshvi and EchmuM. 

601. Continued preparations of Austria— organisation of her army into corps— the 

Landwelur — the Hungarian insurrection — ^remonstrances of Napoleon — ^he 
prepares for war, ...... 316 

602. Indecision of Austria — ^the war party predominant — the Tugendbund— forces on 

each side — ^her plans — she commences hostilities, - - - U>, 

603. Napoleon's preparations — his instructions to Berthier— errors of that marshal — 

the Austrians capture Munich— danger of the French— arrival and first steps 
of Napoleon, - - . - - - - - 317 

604. Combat of Thaun — battle of Landshut — losses of the Austrians — Napoleon 

heads the confederates, ..... 3ig 

606. The Archduke captures Ratisbon — battle of Echmuhl — retreat of the 

Austrians, ....... 319 

606. Assault of Ratisbon — Napoleon wounded— capture of the place — grand review, 320 

607. Advantages gahied— successes of Hilleiv— battle of Sadie, - - ib. 

6. Capture (if VienMXr— Battle qf Aspern. 

606. Advance on Vienna— battle of Ebersberg— <iamage at it, - • 321 

609. Retreat of the Austrians— bombardment of Vienna— the Archduchess Maria 

Louisa — it capitulates, • - - • - <b. 


fleet Page 

610. Tardy movements of the Archduke— his Junction with Hiller, - -322 

611. Movements of the Archduke John — ^battle of the Piave — ^he retreats to Hun- 

gary—occupation of Trieste, &c.— destruction of Jellachich's corps, • lb, 

512. Interest of the struggle— preparations to cross the Danube— check at Nussdorf^ 

capture of Lobau — ^the passage, ..... 823 

613. Plans of the Archduke — dangw of Napoleon— confidence of the Austrians, 324 

614. First day's battle of Aspem, - • - • ' ib. 

515. Second day's battle — breaking down of the bridges, ... 325 

516. Napoleon orders a retreat— death of Lannes — losses on both sides, - ib, 
617. Napoleon at Lannes' death>bed— despondency of the French— council of war 

— ^Napoleon resolves on maintaining himself in Lobau, - - 826 

7. War in the 2Vro2, Northern Oermanp, cmd Poland, 

518. Description of the Tyrol — ^its mountains and valleys, - • • A. 

519. Its inhabitants — ^their loyalty — ^thelr religion— practical freedom — their profi- 

ciency as marksmen, ...... 827 

620. Their repugnance to the rule of Bavaria— arbitrary proceedings of that power — 

their leadm — Uofer, - - - - - • ib. 

621. Bpechbacher — Haspinger — ^Teimer— outbreak of the insurrection, • 328 

522. Successes of the insurgents — capture of Innspruck— surrender of Biason — 

capture of Hall — ^revolt of the Italian Tyrol— ChasteUar, dec., outlawed, • 829 

523. Invasion by Lefebvre— defeats of the Tyrolese, • - - ib. 

524. Fresh invasion — ^proclamation by the Emperor Francis — battle of Innspruck — 

excursions of the Tyrolese — their successes in these — forces organised, - 330 
625. Revolt in Northern Oermany— insurrection of Kattand Domberg, and of Schill 

— his overthrow and death, . - - • • ib, 

526. Insurrection of the duke of Brunswick, .... 331 

527. Operations in Poland — combat of Raszyn — Warsaw captured by the Austrians 

— ^Thom and DfHitzic threatened — ^ineffective co-operation of the Russians witli 
the French — ^threatened rupture, - - - - • i6. 

62S. Negotiations between Austria and l^ussia — ^their rupture from the demands 

of the latter, • • • • • • - 332 

8. BatOe ^ Wagram— Armistice qf Znajftn, 

529. The portion of Napoleon— his views on it, - - - - ib. 

6S0. Works at Lobau, and those by the Austrians— movements of the Archduke 

John — battle of Raab, - - - - - • ib. 

531. Junction of Marmont, Eugene, &c with Napoleon — Camiola, Ac, reoccupied 

by the Austrians— British subsidy, - - • - 333 

532. Retreat of the Austrians from Poland — operations there — movements of the 

Russian auxiliaries— Polish forces, .... 334 

533. Forces collected in Lobau— passage of the Danube— retreat oi the Austrians 

toWagram, . - - - - - - i6. 

534. Advance of the French— first day's battle of Wagram— success of the Austrians, 3.35 
53& They assume the offensive — second day's battle — mixed success, - - ib. 

536. Advance of Macdonald's column — ^retreat of the Austrians — flosses on both sides, 33tf 

537. Arrival of the Archduke John — importance of his co-operation — ^his failure in it, 337 

538. Macdonald made a marshal — and also Oudlnot and Marmont — disgrace ot 

Bemadotte, - • - - • • ••&. 

539. Retreat of the Austrians — measures of Napoleon — combat of Znaym— armis- 

tice— contributions imposed, - - • - . - 338 

9. Wakheren EjspediUon— Second unr in the Ti/rol— Dethronement of the Pope. 

^. Capabilities of the S<^eldt-^mportanoe of Antwerp— policy of Britain regard- 
ing it, - - - - • - - 339 

54L Expedition against it resolved on— dilatoriness of the government— magnitude 
of the force, • - - - - - - ib, 

^ Oaptnre of Middleburg, Gadsand, A:c— danger of Antwerp— capture of Flushing , 
— preparations at Antwer^-nretreat to Walcheren, and evacuation of it — 
losses from fever, - - . - - - - 340 

S43l Schism and duel between Canning and Castlereagh — new ministry— its ebaracter 
and achievements, - - • - • - ift. 

^ Negotiations between Austria and France— first demands of Napoleon^ 
attempt to assassinate him— peace of Vienna— losses of Austria by it— con- 
tributions— disquietude it causes to Russia—prospect of rupture with that 
power— destruction of the ramparts of Vienna, ... 341 

MS. Lefebvre in the Tyrol— renewed war there— combat at Laditcfa— thfrd ba,ttle of 

Innspruck — ^Uofer's administratiun, - - - - 34S 


Beet. P»«« 

540. Fresh invasion-HnibiiiisBion of the oonntry— ezecation of Hofer and Mayer— 

escape of Hasphiger and Specfabacher, .... 343 

647. Encroachments on the papal states— seizure of Anoona— ooeupation of Rome 

— annexation of the papal states, - - - - 0. 

648. Excommunication of Napoleon— arrest of the Pope and Cardinal Paoca— their 

removal and imprisonment, . . . . . 344 

648. Napoleon's apinroval of the anest— 4iis adviinistratlon in Rome— its benefits, 46. 

PART vn. 

pxmirsuLAK WAB<— 1809-1813. 

1. l>metUe Hittory (^Oreat Britain Avm 1809 to 1812. 

650. The reign of George IIT. — its greatness — that of its later epodi, - 346 

661. Character of George IlL— the Jubilee of 1809— death of the Princess Amelia— 

ilhiessoftheKing, • - - - - - 346 

662. Debates on the regency— the Prince of Wales becomes regent— the ministry 

retained in office — negotiations for a ministry in 1812, - - 347 

653. Assassination of Perceval— honours paid liim-^ew negotiations with the Whigs 

— ^Liverpool becomes premier, - - • • - iB. 

654. Ciiaracter of George IV. — and of Lord Liverpool, ... 848 

655. Riots hi the manufacturing districts— general distress, and its causes— the 

Luddite disturbanoes—ntuming prosperity, ... 349 

560. Debates on the currenqr— issues of the bank— the bullion report— debate, and 

decision on it, - • - - • - <2Si, 

657. Debates on the orders in oouncQ— Lord Brougham— non-interoourae act, and 

war with the United States— conditional revocation of the orders, - SBO 

658. Debates on the Peninsular war, ..... 35X 

659. Negotiations for exchange of prisoners, - - - - ift. 

2. Maritime WoTt and Campaign qf 1809 in Portuffol and Spain, 

600. Wariike spirit in Britain— her steadfastjadhOTenoe to Spain— treaty with that 
power— with Sweden— and with Turkey— inlet afforded to her manufactures 
by the latter, - • - • . - -852 

661. General despondency— forces for the year — the navy at its highest ammnt, ib. 

602. Enterprise at Basque Road»— conduct of Lord Gambler— his trial, - 853 

663. Reduction of Martinique and St Domingo — of Senegal, &c. — expedition to 

Naples— reduction of the Ionian isles — naval victory at Rosas, ^ - ib, 

664. Forces in Portugal — the Spanish armies — Portuguese forces — landing of 

Wellesley with reinforcements, ..... 354 

665. Second siege of Saragosssr— desperate defence of it— it capitulates— pillage, &c., 

by the French — reduction of Aragon, - . - • ib. 

666. Capture of Rosas- battle of Cardaden— Barcelona relieved— 4)attle of Molinos 

del Rey— and of Igualada— death of Reding— siege of Gerona — its surrender 
—death of Alvarez, ...... 355 

667. Suchet in Aragon — ^battle of Alcaniz — and of Belchite— dispersion ofBlake's forces, 357 

668. Forces in Asturias, &c. — ^invasion of Portugal by Soult — victory at Braga — 

capture of Oporto—massacre there, - - - - ib. 

669. Ney in Galicia— escape of Romana — Guerilla warfare there, - - S58 

670. Battle of Ucles — atrocities there — ^battles of Ciudad Real and Medellin, ib. 

671. Inactivity of Soult — intrigue carrying on by him, and by his officers, against 

Napoleon — conduct of the latter — landing of Wellesley, - - 359 

672. His first movements — ^passage of the Douro — retreat of Soult— his junction with 

Ney— disasters of the retreat, - - - - - ib. 

673. Disorders of the British — Wellesley advances towards Spain — Johis Cuesta — 

Madrid threatened, - - - - - - 360 

674. Battle of Talavera— retreat of the French — flosses of the parties, - ib. 
575. Movements in Wellesley's rear — his retreat — Cuesta abandons the British 

wounded — di^unction of the French, - - - - 361 

676. Battle of Almonacid — defeat of Sur R. Wilson — Welledey foils back to 

Bad^jos— combat of Tamanes— battle of Ocana — combat at Alba de Tonnes 
— ^Welleslev withdraws uto Portugal, - - - - 362 

677. Vast forces of Britain in this year, - - - - 363 

3. Napoleon divoroei Jotephinef and marries Maria Louisa — Campaign qf TorreS" 


678. Position of Napoleon after Wagram— ^his want of historic descent— and of heirs 

-^lia divorce determined on, - - • - - i5. 


Sect. pBS* 

679. And flimounced to Joaephinfr-^-the act of divoroe— propoaftis for alliance toRoaiia 

and Austria — ^that with Maria Louisa arranged — ^the marriage by proxy, • 364 
5S0. Her reception by Napoleon — ^the formal marriage-^ber character — rTapoleon's 

regard for her — and for Josephine— tour to the coast, - - <&. 

58L Death of the Princess Pauline of Sdiwartxenberg — pique of the Emperw 

Alexander, --..... US 
5S2. Di8gnu» of Fonefa^ — its causes-— mitigatioii of his punishment, - - ^. 

683. Imperfect enforcement of the Berlin decree in Holland-Hinnexations from ifr^ 

resignation and flight of Louis— incorporation of his dominions— rupture with 

Lnden, and his flight— his residence in England, - - - A. 

68i DeqKindency in Britain— address against Wellesley— dedamati<»8 of the Whigs 

against the war— effects of these on Napoleon, ... 860 

585. Forces of the French in Spain— ^ese supported from the oountry^estitDtion of 

the sovereign — movement to the south, - - "• • <b. 

686. Retreat of the Spaniards— capture of Granada, &&— entry into Seville— anlval 

of Albuquerque at Cadi«— garrison of that place, ... 397 

687. Check of Suchet at Yalencia^-Hostahrich, Lerida, and Meqninenxa, taken by 

him — guerilla successes of ODonnell — ^Macdonald succeeds Augereau, - Aw 

688. Organisation of the Portuguese— the lines of Torres Tedraa— weakness of the 

British ministry— cOTmption of the Portuguese regenc;y— firmness of Welling- 
ton, - - - - - - - - 868 

689L F<»oes of Napoleon in Spain— and of Wellington— Bfaasena captures Cindad 

Rodrigo— Ck>mbat on the Ck)a — capture-of Almeida, • - - U>, 

500. Retreat of Wellington— Junction, of Hill— battle of Busaco, - - 960 

69L Ckmttaiued retreat— arrival at Torres Yedras-^he lines described— Massena halts 

before them — successes in his rear — he retreats, . • • i&. 

692. He threatens the Alentc^o— continues his retreat toward Almeida, • 870 

593. Operations of Soult— death of Romana— defeat of the Spaniardis— capture of 

fiadaJoB— battle of Barossa, • - - - - flu 

694. MasBena's retreat— barbarities during it— combats on the Coa, &c. — he aban- 

dons Portugal — his losses, ..... 371 

695. Almeida invested — ^Massena ordered to relieve it— battle of Foentes d'Onore— 

Almeida evacuated, ...... 372 

4. Formation of the Coriea—War in Spain— Reduction i^Java, 

696. The Spanish regency — regulations for the Cortes — democratic tenden<7 In 

Cadis— persecution of the central junta — ^the Cortes, - - - i&. 

697. Their first steps— establish the liberty of the press— democratic excitement — 

thehr adherence to religion— decree against the French, - - 373 

596. New constitution — ^its leading provisions — ^its reception by the towns and the 
connby population — ^views of Wellington on it — ^plan for tiie escape of Ferdi- 
nand — non-interference of the British government, ... 374 

599, Proposed dismemberment of Spain — Joseph resigns— but reassumes the crown, 376 

600. French forces in it — and the Spanbh^-Cadiz — ^its strength — siege of Matagordia 

—forces in the city— the siege turned into a blockade — Klines of investment, 376 
60L Suchet and Macdonald in Catalonia— great successes of the guerillas— combat 

at Cardona — capture of Tortosa, ..... 377 

602. Macdonald moves north — ^Figueras surprised by the Spaniards— siege and cap- 

ture of Taragona — Massacre there— disbanding of Campoverde's forces, 378 

603. Suchet made marshal— capture of Montserrat — ^siege of Murviedro or Saguntum 

—successes of the guerillas — danger of Suchet — ^battle of Saguntum— capture 
<rfit, - • - - - - -379 

604. His halt and measures there— advances against Valencia— battle of AJbufera — 

captoreof Valencia— Alicante holds out, .... 380 

605. Reduction of Banda, &c.— expedition agidnst Javar— battie of Fort Cornelius — 

reduction of the island, ...... 381 

606. Extinction o{ the colonial empbe of France, - - - - i&. 

5. Campaign q/1811 on the Portugue$e Frontier. 

607. Wellington designs the recapture of Badajos— its importance, - - ib. 

608. Forces of the ptuties in Spain, and their position — disproportion between them 

—counterbalancing advantages of Wellington— effects of the French cruelties 
—jealousies among their marshals, .... 333 

609. Difficulties of Wellington— corruption of the Portuguese government— worthless- 

ness of the Spanish troops — ^intrigues of the Cortes with the French — ^the want 
of specie — abUity shown by Wellington, ... 383 

610. Movement toward Badajos— capture of Olivenza— first siege of Badiijoe— Soul^ 

Biovea to raise it— forces at Albuera, ... 384 


Sect. ^ Pa«e 

611. Battle of Albuera—death of Houghton, • • - -384 

612. Measures of Hardinge — victoryof the British, ... 3^5 

613. Losses in the battle — its moral effects — ^the siege of Badi^os resumed — ^but raised 

by Soult and Marmont, - • - - - - t&. 

614. Superiority of the French — but they shun a battle-— di^unction of their army^ 

rout of Baza— Soult retires to Andalusia, .... 386 

615. Guerilla successes in the north — Mina, the Empecinado, dec. — ^French forces 

absorbed in this warfare, ..... 387 

616. Movements of Dorsenne and Marmont — and of Wellington against Ciudad 

Rodrigo — combat of El Bodon— retreat of the British — ^Marmont declmes 
battle— combat at Aldea — Ciudad Rodrigo blockaded, - ' ib. 

617. Asturias reoccupied by the French— success of Hill at Aroyo de Moilnos, 388 

618. Siege of T^i£Br-it is raised, - - - - ' ib. 

6. First InvaHon qf Spain fiiy Wellington. 

619. Commencement of Napoleon's fall — ^Wellington crosses the Agueda, • 389 

620. He moves against Ciudad Rodrigo — ^its siege — ^the assault — death of Mackinnon 

— «n(l of Craufurd — its capture— atrocities which ensued — honours conferred 
on Wellington, - - - - - • ib. 

621. Preparations against Bad%jos — difficulties of Wellington — Marmont withdraws 

into Castile — the siege — ^preparations for the assault, - > 390 

622. The assault — ^fearful carnage — success of Picton and Leith — and capture of the 

place — ^its importance — losses in the siege— excesses after the capture, - 391 

623. Soult falls back — Marmont overruns Beira — ^Wellington withdraws to the 

Agueda — ^the French guards withdrawn from Spain — ^incorporation of Cata- 
lonia — ^forces in Spain, ...... 392 

624. Surprise of the forts at Almarez— operations of Hill and Drouet — defeat of 

Ballasteros at Bornos, - - - - - - fb. 

625. Wellington advances to Salamanca^-movements of Marmont — capture of the 

forts there — Wellington's precarious situation — intrigues of the Cortes — 
diversion of Bentinck to Italy— junction of Marmont and Joseph, . 393 

626. Retreat of Wellington — combats during it— cavalry action at Castrillo— Welling- 

ton falls back to Salamanca, ..... 394 

627. Battle of Salamanca^-death of Thomidre — ^wound of Marmont— death of le 

Marchant — flosses on both sides, - - - - • ib. 

628. Retreat of Clausel— successes of the British during it— Wellington moves against 
t Joseph — ^the latter evacuates Madrid— «ntry of the British — the constitution 

proclaimed, ....... 396 

629. Capture of Guadalaxara, &c. — siege of Cadiz raised— concentration of the French 

forces — Hill advances on Madrid— and Wellington against Clausel — ^the latter 
Joined by Souham, - - - - - - t6. 

630. Siege of Burgos — ^it is raised — forces concentrated against Wellington— disgrace 

of Ballasteros— evacuation of Madrid— commencement of the retreat from 
Burgos, - - - - - - - 397 

631. Difficulties and disorders of it— action on the Carrion— junction with Hill — 

Wellington offers battle at Salamanca — but is outflanked — increasing disorders 
^«rriTOl at Ciudad — flosses during the retreat — letter of admonition, - 398 

632. Landing of the expedition to Alicante — its difficulties— guerilla operations in 

Catalonia — ^naval co-operation, - - - - - 899 

633. Great successes of this campaign— losses of the French arsenals, fortresses, &c., 400 



L War between the Ottomans and Russians tfnm 1808 to 1812. 

634. The original empire of Turkey — ^its present extent— i>opulation — desolation of 

the plains — stability of her institutions, - - - - 400 

635. Constantinople— its advantages of position, &c^-lt8 beauty — ^the Bosphorus — 

ambition of Russia always directed toward it— it the cause of the rupture 
between her and France, - - - • - 401 

636. Military forces of the Turks— the Spahis, Thnariots, and Janissaries— their 

recent wars, ....... 402 

637. The fortresses— obstinacy with which defended— hnportanoe of the plains of the 

Danube in the Russian wars, - - - - - 403 

638. Effect of Duckworth's failure— {evolution at Constantinople— dethronement of 


Sect. Png« 

Selim— elevation of Mustaplia^-death of Selim — dethronement of Mostapha, 
and elevation of Mahmood, ..... 403 

839. Reforms of Mahmood — discontent excited, and death of the Bairakdar— death 
of Mustapha — Napoleon abandons the Turks to Russia— tesumption of the 
contest, -.----. 404 

640. Chequered conflict on the Danabe—revolt of the Servians— capture of Ismael, 

&&— plans of Kamenskoi, - - -' - - 405 

641. SUistria, &c., taken — the Russians defeated at Shumlar— and before Rudahuk— > 

the Russians recross the Danube, - - - - ' • (b, 

642. Battle of Battin— capture of Rudshuk, Oiurgevo, and NicopoUs— Kamenakoi 

Bucoeeded by Kutusoff, - - - - - - ib. 

643. Battle of Rudshuk — evacuation of it by the Russians — their defeat on the 

Dannbe— passage of the river by the Turks — storming of their camp on the 
right bank — ^gallant resistance on the left — convention, - - 406 

644. Negotiations — opposition of the French to these — ^treaty of Bucharest — peace 

between Russia and Britain— departure of Tchichagoff for the Beresina, - 407 

2. Accesrion ofBemadotin to the Swedish Thront—Causet vfMch brouffht on 

the Rupture %oUh Rutsia, 

645. Former celebrity of Sweden— its statistics— the wars of Charles XII.— its con- 

stitution, - - - - - - -<6. 

646. D^ire of Russia for Finland — she declares war against Sweden — as do Denmark 

and Prussia — grounds put forth for this aggression — Finland overrun, - 408 

647. Conduct of the Swedish King — ^naval successes of the Swedes— convention 

abandoning Finland— dethronement of the King— accession of Charles XIII. , i&. 

648. Peace concluded with Russia — cession of Finland — ^restoration of Pomerania, ^9 

649. Death of the Grown Prince — ^ intrigues regarding his successor — election of 

■ Bemadotte, - - - - - - -i5. 

650. The Valais annexed to France— and the Hanse Towns, dec.— enicroachments on 

the Dudiy of Oldenburg — irritation of Alexander — ukase regarding British 
commerce — Napoleon's enforcements of the Continental System — his demands 
evaded by Sweden — Pomerania seized — ^treaties by Swedi^n with Russia and 
Britam, - - - - - - - 410 

651. Birth of the Bang of Rome — ^treaties for auxiliary forces from Austria and 

Prussia — proposals to Britain — ^the ultimatum of Russia, • - 411 

652. Napoleon sets out for the artny, ..... 412 

3. Advance (if Napoleon to Moscow. 

653. Greatness of Napoleon at this time— general confidence as to his success— disin- 

clination of the marshals to the war, - - - - ib. 

654. Forces at his command — those for the Russian war— and those of Russia — the 

prodamations of the latter, .... ib. 

655. Napoleon at Dresden— splendour of his court there — his confidence, - 413 

656. Arrangement of his forces — ^want of forage and supplies— passage of the Niemen , ib. 

657. Alexander's proclamation — ^the Russians retreat — ^losses of the French— ^elay at 

Wilna—enthusiasm in Poland— number of Poles who joined him, - 414 

658. Operations against Bagrathion — ^his retreat — ^first encounters— Jerome replaced 

by Davoust— combat of Mohilow— junction of the Russian armies, - 415 

659. The camp of Drissa evacuated — ^able retreat of Barclay— losses of the French 

from scarcity — ^they halt at Witepsk, - - - ' ib, 

660. Alexander's measures for recruitmg his forces— defeat of Oudinot — council of 

war, and advance resolved on, - - - - - 416 

661. Defeat dr Murat — the French enter Old Russiar— battle of Smolensko— burning 

of the city, - - - - - - - ib. 

662. Retreat of Barclay— battle of Yaloutina— death of Gudin— losses in the battle, 417 

663. Object of the Russians in retreating— flosses of the French — Barclay replaced 

by Kutusoff, - - - - - - - 418 

684 Deraat of Tormasoff— combats of Svoiana and Polotsk — Oudinot replaced by 

St Cyr— Augereau brought up to the Niemen — ^new oonscription — advance 

resumed, - • ' - - • -ib. 

665. Begulari^ of the Russian retreat— arrival at Borodino— the Russian position 

there-^rst combats, ...... 419 

66(1 Proclamation of Napdeon — ^preparations of the parties— forces on each side, ib. 

667. Conunenoement of the battle— the redoubts on the left stormed— Bagrathion 

mortally wounded, ...... 420 

668. Stormbig of the great redoubt— dose of the battle, - • - ib. 

669. Losses on either side — generals, Ac., slain, - - - - 421 
b70. Situation of the French— the Russians retire—they halt before Moscow— but 


Sec*. r"«* 

KflolTB on abandoning li-«TaeiiaUon of ttie dfy— arrival of the Frencli 
beforeit, - - - - - - - 421 

671. Entry of the French— the dty dewrted— Napoleon oocnpiee the Kremlin, 422 

672. The destruction of the city had been resolved on— oonunenoement of the flr»— 

Napoleon leaves it— extent of the oonflagration, - - - <&. 

67S. Circular march of the Rosshma— advantages of their position at Taronttno, 423 

4 Retreat J^rom Motcow, 

674 Rnnian proclamation— and preparattonB— their plans and combinations, - lb. 

675. Preparations of Napoleon— he returns to the BJemlin— disorganisation of his 

army — vrant of supplies— contrast in the Russian camp— successes of the Cos- 
sacks — Napoleon opposes retreat, ..... 424 

676. Simulate negotiations by Kutusoff— these broken off by Aleiander— hostilftieB 

recommenced — battle of Winicowo, .... 4SS 

677. Evacuation (rf Moscow— attempt to destroy the Kremlin— French forcoi lo— 

(tf the cavalry — state of the march, • . . ^ ib. 

678. Movement toward Kaluga— battle of Malo Taroslawltas— the Frendi driven 

back on the line of their advance, .... 4ag 

679. Kutusoff simultaneously retreats— bat subsequently moves against them— pas- ■ 

sage of the field of Borodino— battle of Wiazma, > > > <b. 

680. Commencement of the winter—eufferings from it— mortality among the horses 

— ^increasing insubordination, ..... 427 

681. Disasters of Eugene— arrival at Smolensko— he rejoins the grand army th e r e 

its losses— intelligenoe of Malet's conspiracy reotived — battle of Polotsk— > 
battle of Smoliantigr — Tchidiagoff captures Minsk and Borissow, - 428 

682. Departure from Smoloiako— losses to this time— state of the Russiana— battles 

ofKrasnoi, - - - - • - -429 

683. Movements of Ney— his defeat at the Losmina-^osses snstahied by him— lie 

rejoins Napoleon, ...... 430 

684. Losses between Smolensko and Orcha— Junction <tf Victor— passage of the 

Bcanesbia— losses at it, . . - . . - i&. 

685. Increased severity of the winter— efforts of Ney with the rear-guard — the sacred 

squadron— arrival at Smorgoni — ^bulletin of the campaign— Napoleon leaves 
the army— its further disorganisation — arrival at Wilna and at Kowno— 
number who there repassed the Niemen, .... 431 

686. Operations of Macdonald — and of Schwartzenberg— convention between the 

Prussians and Russiana— continued pursuit — capture of Konigsberg— arrival 
at Dantzio — Alexander at Wilna — ^his proclamation there, > . 432 

687. Total losses of the French— causes of the disaster— heroism of the Russians, 433 

6. Prepcarattom<ifIfcqH)le(m/ortheJlnalttruggl€, 

688. Napoleon reaches Paris— his frank admission of his loss e s r e storation of con- 

fidence. - - - >• - - .434 

688. Character of Malet— his oonspirat^- its first snccess— his overthrow and 

execution, . - > . - . -f&. 

690. Sensation in Paris— danger of the government— effect of the oonsiriracy on 

Napoleon — his measures for securing the succession — ^regency act, > 435 

691. New conscription — general enthusiasm— exhaustion of the military strength of 

the country, ....... 436 

692. Napoleon's views regarding the pope— new concordat— whidi the pope retracts 

— Napoleon disregards this retractation, .... 437 

693. His preparations for the contest— details of the condition of the empire— expen- 

diture on public woriis — naval exertions— finances — military strengtli— 
frtOure of the conscripticm — military preparations— eeizure of the property of 
the municipalities, - - . - - - t&. 

6. BenarrecUon qf Qtufpuxny—batOa qfLUtzen and Bautzen. 

694. Excitement in Prusria, && — her gov^mmoit at first tranquil— but fanpeOed 

into activity, ....... 439 

695. York's convention— this at first disavowed— proposals of Frederick-T^Hlliam to 

Napoleon — and nijection of these, > - - - ^ 

696. The French driven from the Vistula— Murat abandons the army— Engene 

falls back to the Vistula^-and at last to the Elbe— death of Kutusoff— entry 
of the Russians into Berlio, ..... 440 

097. Flight of Frederick- William to Bredan— enthnsiasm of his subjects— indeddOD 

<tf the king— he at last agrees to the treaty of Kalisch, . - 441 

696. Alexander Joins him at Breslau— decree diasolviiig the Rhenish confederacy— 



Buumy adheres to Napoteon— 41ie AHleo movB toward Dreeden mgotittlone 

with Austria — bidecisiorD of that power— «be inclines to the Allies, - 441 

flOQ. Sweden joins the alliance — Norway promised to her— Denmarlc adheres to 

Napoleon— ardour in Ros^a^-origin of the Beilln iron — the landwehr and 

landsturm — blockade of the fortresses— gazriaon of Dantdc, • - 442 

TOO. Position of the French forces— forces of the Alliee— they eaptore Hambnrr— 

capture and recapture of Luneboig^-fiieneral insurrection along the Elbe, 2ko. 

— euppUes firom Britam— capture at I>reeden— combat of Mockem, • 443 

701. Jiarie Louise appointed regent — Napoleon reaches Majrence— organtaation of 

the troops there — his forces— Junction with Eugene, ... 444 
7Q2. The Allies resolve on giving battle— combat of Posema— death of Benitoea— 

movement to Lutaen, . ..... 446 

703. Battle of Lutien-^he Allies retira— losses on both sides, • - A. 

7D4 Retreat of the Allies— Napoleon enters Dresden— passage of the Elbe-^wo- 

poaals of Anstriar^which he r^ects, .... 446 

706. Podtion of Bautzen— forces thera-^eat of Bortrand by Barcla y and of 

York by Lanriston, . . . - . - 447 

708. Battle of Bautzen— Napoleon's plan— first day's battle, - - ib. 

707. Second day's battle— the Allies retire— losses on both sides, > -448 
706. Able retreat of the Allies— death of Duroo— Napoleon's grief— combats during 

the retreat — Glogau relieved— the Allies retire to Schweidnitz, - - 449 

700. Indecisive nature ca these battles— success of Napoleon hitherto— his precarious 
position — partisan wufue in his rear— language of Austria— armistice pro- 
poeed— and arranged at Pleswits, . - . . - 450 

7. From the ArmUUee qfPlmoUM to the Renewal tfHoHmHet. 

7ia Efforts of Britahi— treaty with Prussia— subsidies to the Allies— treaty of 
Reichenbach — convention regarding paper money— treaty between Denmark 
and France, ....... 451 

711. Indedrion of Auatria-^terview between Metteniicfa and Napoleon— their con- 

versation, ....... 452 

712. Congress of Prague— intelligence received of Titoria— which determines Aus. 

tria toward the allies— preparations of Napoleon — works round Dresden, 6cc, 
— his forces— 4he garrisons on the Oder, Asc., - - • (b, 

713. Plans resolved on by the Allies— movements assigned to Bemadotte— and to the 

grand army — Austria Joins the Alliance, .... 454 

714. Auiety regarding Beniadotte— forces under him— army of AHesia— Blucher 

and Gneisenaa, - - - - - > i&. 

715. The grand aimy under Schwartzenberg— ^Uie Allied reservea— forces in Italy 

and Spain — total <m each side, ..... 455 

716. Negotiations at Prague— dose oif the armistice— interview between Napoleon 

and the Empress— ultimatum of Austria — its rojectlon- the armistioe 
denounced — Austria declares war — ^meeting of the sovereigns at Prague, - ib, 

717. Fouch^ sent to lUyriar— insanity and death of Junot— advances by Fouch^ to 

Mettemich— return of Moreau— Jomini Joins the Allies— differences regard- 
ing the command-in-chief— which is conferred on Schwartzenberg, - 456 

8. Benemd <ifHottiliHes—BattUt <if Dretden and Culm— q^ the Katzbach, Qroti 

Beeren, and Dennewitz. 

718. Hostilities resumed— ntum of Murat — ^flrst movements— Blucher driven back 

— the Allies advance against Dresden— delay in attacking it, - - 457 

719. Napoleon returns to Dresden — Yandamme placed to intercept the Allies' retreat 

—first day's battle of Dresden, - - - - - 458 

720. Petitions and forces on each side— second day's battle— death of Moreau, - 459 
72L The Allies resolve on retreating— losses on both sides— disasters of the retreat- 
dissensions at headquarters, - - - - - 460 

722. Movements of Yandamme— first battle of Culm— and second— losses of the 

French, - - - - - - .461 

723. Causes of the disaster— movements of Maodonald— battle of the Katzbach— 

losses hi it, - - - - - • -462 

724. Oudinot threatens Beriin— battle of Oross Beeren— its moral influoiee— capture 

of Luckau, &c., ...... 4^ 

725. Napoleon moves against Blucheiv-^who fidls back— Napoleon returns to 

Dresden, - . - - - - ^ ib, 

726L Oodinot rei^aced by N^y— who agabi threatens Berlin— battle of Dennewitz, 4^4 

727. Napoleon's confidence shaken-^ulvanoe of the Russian reserves— various 

marches and counter-marches, - - - - - ib, 

728. Effect of these on the troops— partisan socoesses of the AlOes— Cassel captured 



Sect. P»«» 

— Wittonbsrg invested— losses of the French from sickness &c. — arfival of 
the Russian reserves — ^new plans of the Allies, ... 465 

729. Movements of Bernadotte, dec. — and of the grand armv— indecision of Napo- 

leon — he plans moving on Berlin — ^narrow escape of Blucher— defection of 
Bavaria — ^which compels Napoleon's retreat — ^he falls back to Leipsic, • 466 

9. BaUlet ofLHptie and Hanaai. 

730. Description of Leipsio — and of the field of battle, ... 467 

731. Position of ttie French on the 16th — their forces— forces and position of the 

Allies, - - - - - - - €b. 

732. Commencement of the battle of the 16th — success of the Allies on the left — 

various successes on the centre and right, .... 468 

733. Advance of the Austrian reserves— and of the French — ^the la£ter checked—. 

combats at Lindenau — battle of MOckem — close of the first day's battle, - 469 

734. Armistice proposed by Napoleon — hostilities suspended during the 17th— new 

dispositions of Napoleon, ...... 470 

735. Battle of the 18th — struggle at Probstheyda— desertion of the Saxons— defeat 

of Ney — retre«it resolved on, - - - - - tb. 

736. Commencement of the retreatr— escape of Napoleon— storming of the town — ^the 

bridge of Lindenau blown up— death of Poniatowski— losses in the battles, 471 

737. Entry of the sovereigns into Leipsio— dislocation of their forces— successes of 

Blucher in pursuit — the French halt at Erfurth — reorganisation of the army 
there — rapidity of the retreat — flosses during it — the Bavarians take post at 
Hariau, ....... 472 

738. Battle of Hanau — losses of the Allies — the French reach Mayenoe, and recross 

the Rhine — Napoleon sets out for Paris, .... 473 

739. The Allies enter Frankfort — capture of Uochheim— arrival at the Rhine — ^their 

enthusiasm at sight of it, - - - - • ' ib. 

740. Fall of the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Berg— liberation of Han- 

over — operations against Davuust — armistice with Denmark, - - ' 474 

741. Blockade of Dresden — its capitulation — which is disallowed— capture of Stettin 

andTorgau— ravages of fever there, - - - - ib. 

742. Siege and capture of Dantzio— capture of Zamosc and Modlin — ^fortresses 

remaining to the French, ..... 475 

743. Insurrection in Holland— restoration of the Prince of Orange — the French 

evacuate the country, - - - - - ib. 

744. Exertions of Eugene in Italy— ftll of the French power there — ^the Tyrol 

restored to Austria— successes of the Austrians— capture of Trieste — Venice 
invested, &c. ....... 476 

10. Campaign ({^1813 in Spain— BatUe qf Vitoria. 

745. Unanimity in Britain on the war— increased vigour in carrying it on, - 477 

746. The sinking fund broken in upon— Vansittart's finance resolutions — which are 

carried, • - - - . . -i6. 

747. Exertions of Wellington to restore discipline— he is appointed generalissimo 

in Spahi — revolt and disgrace of Ballasteros— Wellington visits Cadiz — 
returns to Lisbon, ...... 478 

748. Corruptions of the Portuguese administration— his efforts to arrest these — ^hia 

forces m Spain — and the French, - - . - - - td. 

749. Forces under Sucbet— he advances against Murray— is defeated at Castalla — 

Murray fails to follow up the victory, .... 479 

750. Interception of the communication with France — ^measures of Napoleon against 

the guerillas — successes of Clausel in pursuance of these — ^headquarters fixed 
at YalUdolid, - . . ' . . . - 489 

751. Plan of Wellington— his advance— retreat of the French— Yalladolid captured 

— Burgos blown up— evacuation of Madrid — arrival at Yitorla, and forces 
there, - - • - . . -A 

752. PosiUon of Yitoriar-battle of Yitoriar-flnal rout of the French, - - 481 

753. Spoil captured— losses of the French— license resulting from the spoil— decisive 

character of the battle, - - - - - - 482 




1. Battlet qfthe Pyreneu^nwuion q^ France hy WMingUm, 

754. Effecta of Yitoria— Yalencia abandoned— efforti of Wellington on behalf of the 

Freneh partiaaaSi - • - • • - 189 


Beet. Pag* 

7a5b Escape of Clansel — ^Foy driven over the Bidaasoa — ^the main anny driven out 

of Spain — Panipeluna and ISan Sebastian invested, ... 483 
736. Deecripiion of the latter-^ts garrison— repulse of the first asaault— siege 

turned into a blockade, - - - - . - (b, 

757. Soult aoit to Spain — his forces— and plans — their first success— arrival of rein- 

forcements to the British, - - . . - 484 

758. Battle of the Pyrenees— battle of Sorauren— losses on both sides, - 485 

759. Retreat of the French — their imminent danger— their rout at Tanai and 

Echallar— losses in these battles, - . . • - 486 

760. Siege of San Sebastian renewed— 4he assault — desperate struggle— final victory 

of the British, - - - • . . -i&. 

761. Frightful excesses in the town— capture of the citadel— losses in the siege — 

heroism of the defence, •.-... 487 
76S. Soult attempts to relieve it— battle of San Mardal— WeUingtom awaits the 

fall of Fampeluna, ...... 488 

763. Operations of Murray— he bedeges Taragona— but retreat»— is superseded and 

tried— Suchet retreats behind the Ebro— Taragona ligain besieged— its ram- 
parts destroyed by Suchet— combat of Ordal, . . - ^, 

764. Wellington opposed to the invasion of France— but urged to it by the govern* 

ment — ^he prepares for it, ... « . . . 489 

765. Soult's position on the Bidnmoa battle of th6 Bidassoa— 4he British the first 

to enter France, ...... 490 

7G6. Wellington's measures against plundering— surrender of Fampeluna — plan for 
the co-operation of Soult and Suchet, which failfr— Soult's position and forces 
on the Nivelle, - - - . > - A». 

767. Wellington's plan of attack— battle of the Nivelle— Soult falls back to Bayonne 

—his losses, ... ....491 

768. Disorders of the Spaniards— they are sent back into Spahi by Wellington — 

democratic hostility to him in Spain, .... 492 

709. Forces still remaining under him — battle of the Nive— desertion of the Germans 

to Wellington, - - - . . - • ib, 

770. Battle of St Pierre— losses in it— Soult again withdrawji— the British go into 

winter-quarters, ...... 493 

2. Europe in amu offaifut France. 

771. Losses of France in 1813— energetic preparations of Napoleon— arbitrary finan- 

cial measures— general discontent— new conscription — his speech to the 
Council of State, - - - • - - 494 

772. Preparations of Britain — ^her armv, navy, and finances, - - 496 
773b Proposals of the Allies fromFrankfort— his reception of these— opposition to him 

in the Chamber — ^he dissolves it — and forms the budget by his own authority, ib, 

774. Treaty of Yalen9ay — ^restoration of Ferdinand — the Cortes refuse to ratify it — 

Feidinand enters Spain, ..... 486 

775. Liberation of the Pope — who is detained in the sooth of France— Murat joins 

the Allies — and enters Rome — ^his proclamation there, '- - 407 

776. Treaty between Denmark and the Allies — cession of Norway— reorganisation 

of the Rhenish confedenugr — violation of the Swiss territory — ^Accession of 
Switzerland to the Alliance — completion of the alliance, - ' ib, 

777. Forces of the Allies— their distribution, dec. — those of Napoleour— exhaustion of 

France, - - - - - - - 408 

778. Hesitation of the Allies— their plan of operations— they cross the Rhine, - 499 

3. Ingaiion qf France— battkt qfla Rothiirey Champaubert, and Montereaii—armiitiee 


779. Passage of the Rhine— that by Bluchei"— Schwartzenberg enters Switzerland^ 

operations there — the French fall back— capture of Liege, &c. — dispersed 
ocmdition of the Allies — advantageous position of Napoleon, - - 600 

780. His forces— the national guard restored— the Empress appointed regent— his 

last interview with her and her son, .... 601 

781. He moves against Blucher — battle of Brienne — danger of Napoleon — ^battle of 

la Rothi^ie — flosses of the French, - - - - 0. 

782. Disastrous condition of the French— battles of Champaubert, Montmirail, and 

Yaachamps — losses of the Allies — ^restoration of confidence among the French, 602 
♦83. Napoleon moves against Schwartzenberg— transactions at Troyes— 5he Bourbon 

prince»— their efforts to engage the Allies in their cause— Royalist move- 
„ ment at Troyes— policy of the Allies, - - - - 603 

in. Dilatory movements of Schwartzenberg — ^he advances towards Paris— combat 

of Kangis— battle of Montereau— disgrace oi Victor — victory of Napoleon, 605 


Beet. Poga 

786. Retreajt of the Allies— iwgotlalioDa at CbatUloo— «acoene8 of Aogereau at 

Lyons — ^Napoleon's confidence, ..... 506 

786. Advance of Bernadotte— capture of Rheims and Soissons— battle decUned by 

Sdiwartcenbetg— execution of Oonalt— armistioe of Lusigny, • - 0. 

4. C(mgrat qf ChatUl<m--iatUe* <^Cnume and loon. 

787. Oreat achievements of Napoleon— iiresolation of the AlUes-^rmness of Alex- 

ander and Lord'Castlereagh, ..... 607 

788. Council at Bar-sur-Aube— -difficulties regarding Bernadotte— decisive inter- 

ference of Castlereagh — Blucher ordered to advance toward Paris, - ib, 

789. Congress of Cbatillon — the plenipotentiaries there— Lord Castlereagh soit to it 

—objects of Britain — her views regardfaig the Bourbons and Poland — Napo- 
leon's first instructions to his envoy— he retracts these— treaty of Chaumont, 508 

790. Its terms— it virtually dissolves the Congress, ... 50Q 
79L Hostilities resumed — Blucher threatens Meaux — ^but retires toward Soissons 

— battle of Bar-sur-Aube, • - • - • ib, 

792. Battle of la Guilloti^re — ^inactivity of Sdiwartzenberg— danger of Blucher— 

capitulation of Soissons, which extricates him, ... 510 

793. Prodamation of Napoleon to the peasantry — ^battle of Craone— losses on each 

side, ....... 511 

794. Napoleon still r^tises terms— battle of Laon— losses in it— Napoleon retires 

toward Soissons, ...... 512 

796. Inactivity of Blucher — capture of Rheims by St Priest— recapture of it by Na- 
poleon— his last review there, - - - - - <6. 

6. BatUet (^(hiha and TouUnue— close of the vfar in the SouA <if France-^ 
dUsolution qfthe Congress ofChatillon. 

796. State of Napoleon's empire— operations in Holland— combat of Merxem— cap- 

ture of Bois-le-Duc— Camot takes the command at Antwerp— siege of that 
place — assault of Bergen-op-Zoom — ^the French fall back to Maubeuge, 513 

797. Operations of Augereau — his first successes— and inactivity— battle of Limonet 

capture of Lyons — subsequent movements of Augereau, - - 614 

798. Proposed removal of Wellington to FUnders— difficulties of Soult— effect of the 

forced requisitions — forces of each general, ... 515 

799. Advantages of Soult'sposition- plans'of Wellington— passage of the Adour — 

investment of Bayonne, - - - - - ' ib. 

800. Soult takes post at Orthes — battle of Orthes— danger of the British — their ulti- 

mate victory— combat of Aire, ..... 616 

801. Wellington's reception of the Duke d'Angoul6me — royalist movement — ^Bor- 

deaux declares for the Bourbons, ..... 517 
SlOSt. Counter-proclamation of Soult— he advances— but again retires — combat of 

Tarbes, - - - - - - -518 

803. Position of Toulouse~-preparatIons for the battle— forces on both sides, • ib. 

804. Battle of Toulouse — its desperate character— retreat of Soult, - - S19 

805. Heroism shown in it — losses on both sides — ^Wellington enters the city — intel- 

ligence received of the restoration of the Bourbons— convention between Soult 
and Wellington — sally Irom Bayonne— General Hay kOled, and Sir J. Hope 
taken— cessation of hostilities, ..... 520 

806. Ultimatum offered at Cbatillon— counter-project offered by Napoleon— and 

r^ected— dissolution of the Congress, .... 521 

6. Loss qf Italy— last struggle qf Napdle(mr-/att qf Paris, 

807. Operations in Italy— retreat of Eugene— he is threatened by Murat and Ben- 

tinck — ^battle of the Mindo— 4-apid losses of the French— convention con- 
cluded l^ Fouchd—* proclamation by the Prince of Sicily— displeasure of 
Murat at it, - • - - - - -522 

808. Successes of Bentinck— capitulation of Genoa— forcing of the Stura— condusion 

of hostilities— and evacuation of Italy by the French, - - 523 

809. Operations in Spain — ^forces there— treacherous recovery of Lerida, &c— 

arrival of Ferdinand — fortresses still holding out— cessation of hostilities, ib. 

810. Capture of Wittenbog, Wurtzburg, &c.— operations against Hamburg— oppres- 

sion of Davoust there — ^its evacuation — capture of Wesel, - - 524 

811.«Paris threatened by the Allies— the royalist movement — Napoleon moves 
against Schwarizenberg— he joins Macdonald and Oudlnot— danger of the 
Allies— battle of Ards-sur-Aube— its results, ... 625 

812. Napoleon moves to the rear of the Allies— they resolve on marching upon Paris, 526 

813. Winzingerode detached after Napoleon — while the army moves on Paris — ^battle 

of F^ Ckampentriae— ioflseeof tbeFrenchiniti - - - ib. 



814. Mfurmont £b11b liack on the capital — danger of the corps diplomatiqae at 

Chaumont — ^Napoleon defeats winzingerode—«nd begins his return towaxd 
]ftui8» .-.».._ 212^ 

815. Rapid progress of the Allies— they cross the Mame— discipline observed- 

combat at Bondy — they reach Montmartre, ... 533 

816. State of Paris — discussion as to the Empress and King of Rome lemaining 

there — ^they axe removed— ]^parations for defenoe—and means of it, - A. 

817. Battle of Paris— capitulation of the cifgr— loss in the battle, and desperatiim of 

the defence, ....... 529 

818. Artifice of Napoleon— his hurried Joom^ back— he kams the &U of the dty 

— and retires to Fontainebleau, ..... 530 

819. Terms of the capitulation— reception of the magistrates — Sacken appointed 

governor — state of the dty — ^flrst movement of the ro^ists, • • 531 

820. Entiy of the AUies — ^their proclamation— their reception— meeting at Talley- 

rand's hotd, - - • - - - -ib. 

ffil. Discussion reg^tfding the aettiement of France — ^Talleyrand supports the resto- 
ration of the Bourbons— his views adopted by Alexander— provisional govern- 
ment appointed— decree dethroning Napoleon, ... 532 

822. Ifannont gives in his adhesion — efforts of Caulaincourt on behalf of Napoleon 

— ^the latter abdicates in favour of his son, - - , ib. 

825. This conditional abdication rejected— demonstration in fitvourof the Bourbons 

—conduct of the populace— general desertion of him^-he abdicates uncon- 
ditionally — settiement, &c, made on him — ^formal treaty signed, - 533 
824. Desertion of the Empress— she returns to her father— fidelity of Camot, 

Soult, &c — Napoleon's faievrell to his guard, ... 534 

826. Ha journey — ^interview with Angereau, and proclamation of the IbM&p — Napo- 

leon's digger from the mob — ^intorview with Pauline— he embarks for Elba, <&. 

826. Last days and death of Josephine— alliance of her grandson with the royal 

&mity of Russia, ...... 535 

827. Grand thanksgiving at Paris— Louis XYIIL called to the throne— arrival of 

Count d'Artois—and of Louis XYIIL, - • - - ib. 

828. T^ty of Paris, and its terms— congress of Vienna summoned — magnanimity 

of Great Britain, - - - - - - 636 

829. Aspect of Paris— grand review— visit of the AUled sovereigns to England— their 

reception and departure, ..... 537 

8. Congreti<ifVietma^-reiMniqfNapoU(mJh>mElb€^ 

830. Enthusiasm in Great Britain— unanimity there — honours conferred on Wel- 

lington — and on the generals under him — ^thanksgiving at St Paul's, - 538 

831. Resistance of the Norwegians to their transference to Sweden — ^they are over- 

powered — their government since by Bemadotte, - - - ib, 

832. Difficulties of Loub XyiII.^xpectations of the popular party— counsels of the 

royalists — the charts — ^iigudicious expressions in its preamble, - 689 

833. Articles of the charter— the legislature— qualification of the electors— number 

of tiiese — ^its other provisions — the Code Napoleon retained— and the Legion 
of Honour, &&, ...... 540 

834. Feelings of the army, &c — ^financial difficulties— changes in the army — coalition 

against the govonment— funeral service to Louis XYI. &c.— alarm occa- 
sioned by it, - • - - - - • ib, 
83& Congress of Vienn»-^powerB admitted to it— settlement of Holland, Norway, 
Hanover, &c.— difficulties regarding Poland and Saxony— secret treaty 
against Russia and Prussia, and its effect — ^the Germanic confederacy — ces- 
sions from Holland to Britain— restoration of Java— settlement of Switaer- 
land and Italy— proposed removal of Napoleon from Elba— intelligence re- 
ceived of his flight, - - - - - - 641 

836. Preparations and declaration against him— settlement of Poland, Saxony, and 

Hanover — treaties regarding the navigation of the Rhine, &c., - 543 

837. Intrigues at Elba— conspiracy in France — Murat's accession to it — Napoleon's 

departure from Elba— and arrival in France, ... 544 

o38. His progress to Grenoble-4iis reception there— treason of Labedoy^xe— entry 

into Grenoble— proclamation, - - - - • ib, 

839. Yadllation of the government— preparations — ^Ney sent against Napoleon — 

Bonlt removed from the ministry — Napoleon enters Lyons— decrees from 

ttiiaofr— popular measures, - - - - - 646 


deet. Page 

840. Progrett of Vfey—hiB defection— flight of the King to Lflle— «nd afterwardB to 

Ghent, - - - - • - - 546 

841. Napoleon reaches Fontainebleao— enthosiaam in his Cavonr— his reception at 

i»ari». --,--.. 647 

9. The Hundred Dayt. 

842. Napoleon's diflScuIties— forces at his command— difficulty in filling up his ap- 

pointments—declaration of the Allies— royalist movement in the soath, and 
its suppression — re-establishment of Napoleon's rule, • - A. 

843. Treaty of the Allies against him — ^their preparations, forces, and plans— prepara- 

tions of Britain, ...... 548 

844. Defensive measures of Napoleon— forces raised by him— predominance of the 

republicans, and its effects — new constitution — ^tbe Allies reftise all negoti- 
ation — ^inveteracyof Alexander against him, - - - <&. 

845. Overtlirowand dethronement of Murat — ^Vendean insurrection — ^its suppression 

—«nd effects, ...--. 549 

84(1 Ceremony of the Champ-de-Mai — acceptance of the constitution there— resis- 
tance of the Chamber of Deputies to Napoleon — ^treason of Fouch6— the Em- 
peror sets out for the army, ..... 550 

847. Fortifying of Paris— his plans for the campaign — forces of Blucher and Welling- 

ton — ^inactivity of the Allies — Ney moves on Quatre Bras— and Napoleon on 
Ligny — ^forces on both sides there, .... 551 

848. Battle of Ligny— danger of Blncber--defeat of the Prusrians— losseson both sides, 552 

849. Battle of (C^uatre Bras— Ney falls back— death of Brunswick— losses— Welling- 

ton retires to Waterloo, • • - - - t&. 

860. Nij^t before the battle — description of tiie field — positions on either dde — 

Napoleon's confidence, - - -' • - 553 

851. Numbers on each side — commencement of the battle — attack on Hougoumont — 

attack of Ney — charge of the Scots Greys, Ace. — death of Picton and oi Pon- 
sonby— capture of la Haye Sainte— charge of the heavy brigade, - 554 

852. Renewed attack on the centre — ^flight of the Belgians — appearance of the Prus- 

sians — ^last grand attack— e^vance of the British guards— diarge of Vivian 
and Adam->-defeat of the French column, ... 555 

853. Arrival of Blucher— general advance of the British and the Prussians — ^flight 

of Napoleon— rout of the French — ^pursuit of the Prussians— losses in the 
battle, ....... 568 

854. Battle of Wavres— retreat of Grouchy—flight of Napoleon, and his arrival in 

Paris— agitation there — ^bis abdication — provisional government appointed, 557 

855. Rapid advance of the Allies — their successes— they roAch Pari*— its surrender 

—theh* entry hito it with Louis XVIII., • - - - i5. 

866. R^oicings in Britain — ^honours conferred on Wellington — subscription for the 
wounded, dee. — Napoleon surrenders to Captain Maitland — ^bis letter to tiie 
Prince Regent— his arrival off England — and removal to St Helena, . 558 

857. Aspect of Paris— conduct of Blucher and the PruMiuis— restoration of the works 

of art — ^forces of the Allies in France — second treaty of Paris — its provisions. 559 

858. Trial of Ney, &&— escape of lAvalette— execution of Ney and Labedoydre — 

death of Murat, ...... 560 

859. Life of Napoleon at St Helena— his death— his will, - . - ib. 

860. His interment at St Helena^-his re-interment in 1840 in the Invalides, - %1 
Chronological table of remarkable events, ... 563 







I. State of France and Great Britain at the commencement of 

the Revolution, 

1. The Great Rebellion in England and the French Revolution 
have been regarded by many as occurrences almost parallel in 
character ; but on closer examination it will be found that, pos- 
sessing a few marked features in common, they were strikingly 
different both in origin and results. Their resemblance to each 
other consisted in the overthrow of monarchy by the multitude, 
and theexecution of the reigning prince ; in the assumption of the 
supreme power by military rulers, and the ultimate restoration 
of the hereditary line : and with these points the similitude ends. 
The consequent wars in England, extending over many years, 
lay between the King and the principal gentry arrayed on the one 
side, and the cities and the popular map on the other ; while in 
France none remained loyM to the crown save the Yendean 
peasantry : the King, yielding without a struggle, was brought 


to the block by a faction in Paris— a catastrophe which a 
little energy at first could have easily averted ; while the privi- 
leged classes, to the number of 70,000, fled during the panic from 
the country, and took refuge on foreign shores. In England, 
religion was the great lever by which the leaders of the move- 
ment acted on the people ; in France, democracy triumphed in 
the temporary prostration of Christianity itself. 

2. It is also remarkable that, while no massacres or proscriptions 
took place during the great civil war in England, and not a 
manor-house was given to the flames — ^that while, excepting the 
death of the King, of Strafford, and of Laud, no unnecessary 
cruelty was indulged in by the republican victors, and little 
alteration took place eventually, either as to property or the 
general laws of the realm ; — in France the higher ranks were 
universally treated with the most revolting barbarity, and every 
one elevated above the mere populace was marked out as a 
victim : the peasants rpse against their landlords, burned their 
houses, and plundered their property ; and to these crimes the 
rural population of la Vendue was the only and the honourable 
exception. The advantages of fortune and the distinctions of 
rank were fatal to their possessors, liberty and equality being 
the universal outcry of the revolutionary party — who on these 
grounds not only usurped the entire estates of the church, and 
the great part of those of the nobles, but annihilated all private 
rights and privileges, and instituted an entirely new code for the 
administration of justice. 

3. We thus see, that these great Revolutions differed in many 
more things than in what they agreed ; and we must seek for an 
explanation of these discrepancies, not so much in any original 
distinctions of national character as in the widely different 
states of the two countries at the commencement of these out- 
breaks In attempting to do this, we must be allowed briefly 
to glance at some prominent points of their previous history ; 
because, after the overthrow of the Roman dominion, very diffe- 
rent circumstances tended to mould the character of the Gauls 
and Britons. 



4. Borae down by centuries of oppression, and humiliated by a 
long submission to tyrannic power, the Britons became a prey 
to the lawless aggressions of the Scots and Picts, almost as soon 
as the Roman yoke was removed from their shoulders ; nor was 
it until the Anglo-Saxon Conquest reanimated afresh the na- 
tional spirit, that they recovered from the lethargy into which 
they had been subdued. The continuous wars of the Heptarchy, 
which stretched over five centuries, and in which Saxons, Danes, 
and Britons were alike involved, tended gradually to reawaken 
the warlike energies, which had been originally characteristic of 
the British nation. During this process^ however, the frame of 
society was greatly disorganised ; the community unfortunately 
arranged itself under two separate and distinct classes — the aris- 
tocracy and their slaves or vassals — and such a division between 
them as the middle class of tenants was completely swept away. 

5. At this era the Norman Oonquest induced a new order of 
things : with an arbitrary despotism, not less oppressive than 
the Roman, property was reft from its owners, who were speed- 
ily degraded almost to the rank of the serfs who had formerly 
heen a-part of it. But the spirit of independence passed not away 
from the humbled Anglo-Saxons, and the most happy results 
were destined to arise from these occurrences ; for, from their 
intermarriages with the Normans sprang the forefathers of the 
English Yeomanry, whose prowess with the bow rendered them 
the most formidable troops in the wars of the Middle Ages. 

6. It was thus that the ancient English spirit gradually rose in 
the ascendant ; and the mass of the people came ultimately to be 
poBsea^ed of even more than their ancient privileges. The con- 
stant use of arms taught them their own importance in the state, 
and the ancient institutions of the country came at length to be 
objects of veneration, even to the descendants of those who had 
overturned them. In process of time, these were solemnly rati- 
fied in Magna Oharta^ and recognised as the basis of the British 

7. At a subsequent period, it may be said that the balance of 
power amid the classes of the empire was destroyed by the wars * 


of the houses of Tork and Lancaster, as the almost extermination 
of the ancient nobility, and the constant changes of property 
from one hand to another, tended greatly to augment the power 
of the crown. This was exhibited, not only in the tyranny of 
the Tudor princes, but in the servility of their parliaments. But 
the balance was restored by the Reformation, throughout which 
the religious zeal which inflamed the people, and their natural 
love of liberty, were more than a match for the loyalty and de- 
votion of the gentry to their sovereign ; and although matters 
terminated in the overthrow of the throne for a season, the ten- 
dencies towards republicanism gradually relaxed, and the result 
was the re-establishment of the constitution on a broader basis, 
and encircled with surer safeguards. 

8. So much for England ; let us now glance at Gaul, which 
was left in a state of even deeper degradation on the withdrawal 
of the Roman forces. There were only 500,000 freemen in the 
country when it was overrun by the barbarian Franks, into 
whose hands, before the eleventh century, the whole property of 
the country had fallen. The original proprietors of the soil were 
never able to extricate themselves from the entanglements of the 
degradation into which they had fallen. Every great feudal lord 
exercised the prerogatives of a petty king ; and in their endless 
and sanguinary wars with each other they kept up that military 
spirit, which looked with disdain on the peaceable avocations of 
commerce. A chivalric enthusiasm, no doubt, pervaded the 
higher classes ; but the serfs and burgesses were degraded to the 
verge of absolute slavery. A reaction at length took place in 
the dreadful insurrection of the Jacquerie : the nobles were 
hunted like wild beasts, and subjected to deaths of torture, and 
their castles burned or thrown down. But the triumph was 
brief: masses of half-armed and undisciplined men could not 
stand the shock of the feudal cavalry, and blood was shed in 
torrents. The French municipalities yielded almost without a 
struggle ; and in 1369 was erected that Bastille which was not 
thrown down till the commencement of the era of which we are 
now to treat. 


II. Causes in France which predisposed to Revolution. 

9. Situated in the centre of European civilisation, it was im- 
possible that France^ in the eighteenth century, should escape 
the general tendency towards free institutions. All classes, 
except the privileged ones, were discontented ; and the univer- 
sality of this disaffection proves the existence of grievances 
affecting all classes in the state. It is true that, in every pro»- 
perous, opulent, and advancing country, the higher ranks must 
be constantly exposed to collision with the incessantly increasing 
vigour of the lower orders, and, if without advantages to coun- 
teract the superior energy and industry of their inferiors, must 
in general fall a prey to their ambition. But in France, besides 
the operation of this general rule, and besides the various checks 
on the growth of constitutional liberty which were detailed in 
the last section, numerous peculiar causes had combined both to 
ro^^ae the revolutionary feeling, and to facilitate the success of 
its outbreak. For a century and a half before the Revolution, 
France had been undisturbed by civil war or foreign invasion : 
vealth had accumulated in the lower orders during this long 
interval of peace and tranquillity ; while the military spirit of 
the nation had been developed to the utmost by continual wars 
with the European powers. The church, in the mean time, had 
experienced the fate of all attempts, in an advancing age, to 
fetter the human mind ; the growth of philosophic investigation 
had exposed the corruption and absurdity of many of its doc- 
trines ; and superstitious belief had been succeeded, from the 
natural tendency of the human mind to pass from one extreme 
to another, by the irreligious scepticism of Voltaire, Diderot, 
and their followers. The unpopularity of the church was further 
augmented by the unequal distribution of its revenues and 
honours (from which the clergy of plebeian birth were almost 
wholly excluded), and by the luxury and dissipated lives of the 
high-bom dignitaries : hence the superior ecclesiastics shared in 
the odium directed against the exclusive privileges of the aristo- 
cracy. All appointments of v^ue in the law, the church, the 


const, or the army, were monopolised by a class containing 
150,000 individuals : the great body of the people were absolutely 
excluded. Hence the indnstrions classes, and the men of wealth 
and talent, were nnanimons in their hatred of the nobles ; and 
hence arose the watchword of Liberty and EqwMf — a phrase 
nnheard in the English Rebellion. 

10. A still more practical grievance was the weight and inequa- 
lity of taxation. The total revenue amounted to 469,000,000 of 
francs (£l8,760,000),of which the taxeson articles of consumption 
formed 260,000,000. But this immense burden was unequally 
divided among the different provinces ; and theintendants, who 
regulated these proportions, exercised an arbitrary power, from 
which there was practically no appeal. The nobles and the clergy 
were exempt from the taiilley and others of the more oppressive 
imposts ; while the cultivator was so heavily nc^ulcted, that only 
one-twelfth of the produce of an acre (instead of three-fourths, as 
in England) remained to him after payment of rent and tai^. 
The cultivators were consequently reduced to the lowest misery, 
which was aggravated by the vexatious severity of the local 
burdens, and services due to their feudal superiors. The game- 
laws, the carvSes, or forced requisitions for the repair of roads, &c^ 
and innumerable other imposts, for which we cannot even find 
names in our language, weighed as dreadful grievances on the 
peasantry ; and the general non-residence of the landlords 
(except in la Vendue) completed the disunion between them 
and their rural dependants. 

11. Nor was the administration of justice free from censure : in 
many of the local courts it was even venal and infamous ; and 
the independence of the provincial parliaments did not always 
exempt their decisions from the suspicion of partiality. Tet 
the free and courageous conduct of these bodies had preserved 
all that still remained of public liberty, by the cont^ which 
they had maintained during half a century against the ordi- 
nances of the crown. These edicts, for nearly two hundred 
years, had usurped the authority of the law, and the royal 
prerogative had become virtually absolute. The undisguised 


profligacy of the court, under the Regent Orleans and Louis XV., 
was carried to an extent unknown since the Roman empire : the 
&Tonr of royal mistresses openly disposed of the highest appoint- 
ments ; and such was the dissolution of morals, that no less than 
£20,000,000 of the puhlic deht had been contracted for ex-- 
penses too disgraceful to bear the light. This enormous national 
debt, incurred by the crown without national authority, 
amounted in 1789 to above ^244,000,000 while the revenue 
presented an' annual deficit of above £7,000,000 !— and this, by 
compelling the King to summon the States-General in order 
to avert national bankruptcy, proved the immediate cause of 
the Rev<^ution. 

12. The spirit of innovation had been increasing through the 
latter part of the eighteenth century, and the American war blew 
the embers into a flame. The enthusiasm of the nation forced 
the government to take part in the contest ; and the soldiers 
who were sent to support the Transatlantic insurgents imbibed 
intoxicating ideas of patriotic resistance, and returned eager to 
instil into their countrymen their own admiration of repub- 
licanism. At the same juncture, the government alienated the 
army by introducing the Prussian discipline, with all its severe 
and degrading punishments, and by making a hundred years of 
noble descent indispensable for a commissioned officer. Thus 
in every quarter some cause of disaffection existed, and many 
of them had been long in operation. 

13. Of all the mdnarchs who ever sat on the French throne, 
Louis XVI. was the least calculated either to provoke or to subdue 
a revolution. Endowed with all tbe virtues which adorn private 
life^ he was destitute of the firmness and decision necessary to 
control the conflicting interests which, during his reign, were 
brought into such fearful collision : hence, in difficult periods 
he vacillated between the wish to concede the demands of the 
popular party and the fear of offending the pride of the nobles, 
till both were led to abandon him, from distrusting, the one his 
oonstaney, the other his sincerity. Maurepas, whom he chose 
at his accesrion for prime-minister, further accustpmed him to 


a Bjstem of half measnres and temporisation ; and his plans of 
refonn, though supported hj the eminent talents of Torgot, 
MalesherbeSy and Necker, were thwarted by the selfish opposi- 
tion of the nobles. Their inflnenoe, united with the jealousy 
of Maurepas at the ascendant of Turgot over the King, pro- 
cured from Louis, against his better judgment, the dismissal of 
this virtuous statesman. Necker, whose economical projects had 
alarmed the courtiers, shared the same &te shortly after ; and 
on the death of Maurepas himself, which soon followed, the 
abortive movement towards reform, which he had at least the 
merit of attempting, was abandoned by his successors. 

14. The Queen, the young and beautiful Marie Antoinette, now 
assumed a paramount influence over the King's mind, which 
she retained down to the overthrow of the throne. Yergennes 
was made prime-minister, and Calonne minister of finance. 
This extravagant but showy speculator was in every respect the 
reverse of the cautious Necker. For a time he supported the 
public credit, and maintained the Oourt in unexampled splen- 
dour, by the incessant contraction of new loans. But this system 
could not long be kept up : between 1781 and 1786 the. govern- 
ment had borrowed £64,000,000 ; and the publication of this 
astounding fact, which was elicited on the assemblage of the 
Notables, or chief nobility, for the imposition of fresh taxes, was 
the signal for the fall of Calonne. But his successor, Brienne, 
Archbishop of Toulouse, was not more adequate to cope with 
the crisis. He had attracted the Queen's approbation by his 
conversational brilliancy — ^but his schemes were both rashly 
formed and feebly executed ; and the assembly of Notables, 

, proving both parsimonious and refractory, was dissolved in 1787. 

15. But the ferment which their convocation had excited still 
continued ; and when two new taxes were soon after imposed 
by the ministry, the parliament of Paris refused to register them 
— a form indispensable for tlieir legalisation. The resistance of 
the parliament was punished by banishment to Troyes, whence 
they were recalled only on consenting to the registration. But 
the same scene was ere long repeated on the proposition of a 

A. D. 1789. STATES-GENERAL. 11 

new loan ; and the King himself registered the edict by the in- 
terposition of his personal authority in what was termed a Bed 
of Justice. But, in spite of some promised concessions, the moye- 
ment had now become general ; and the parliament of Paris, 
placing itself at its head, boldly declared that it had no power 
to register taxes, and demanded the convocation of the Btates- 

16. In this emergency Brienne determined on aboldstroke (May 
5, 1788) for tiie maintenance of the power of the crown. The 
parlfament was confined to its judicial functions, while its poli- 
tical powers were summarily transferred to a cour plenUre, 
composed of the court party. But public opinion was too strong 
for this yiolent step : the nation united in opposition ; and the 
convocation of the States-General was called for alike by the 
nobles, the commons, the provincial assemblies, and the clergy. 
Driven to extremities, the court and the ministers were forced 
to yield : the parliament was re-established, the cour pUnUre 
abolished, andNecker recalled ; and in August 1788, the meeting 
of the Estates was fixed for May 1, 1789. 

III. StaUs-Gfeneral — National Assembly, afterwards Constititent 


17. The 5th May 1789 was the day on which theFrench Revolu- 
tion was virtually commenced, by the opening of the States- 
Greneral. On the evening of the 4tb, the royal family, the 
ministers, and the deputies of the three orders (viz. the nobles, 
elergv, and commons), had walked in solemn procession to hear 
mass ; and the next morning the Assembly was opened with 
great pomp, according to the ceremonial of the last convocation 
in 1614. As the King seated himself on the throne, all the 
deputies rose and covered themselves — ^an ominous change from 
the days when the Tiers JStca remained uncovered, and spoke 
only on their knees ! But this Tiers Etat (third estate, or com- 
mons) was now, in the words of a famous pamphlet by the Abb^ 
Si^yes, " the French nation, mimis the nobles and the clergy ; " 

12 STATES-GENEBAL. ▲. d. 1789. 

and the doubliDg of the Dumber of their deputies, which Neeker 
had conceded to the impulse of democratic ambition, threw a 
heay^preponderance into the scale of the popular party. So little 
care had been taken to regulate the franchise, that nearly three 
millions had yoted in the elections ; no qualification whatever, 
either of age or property, had been required of the representatives 
themselves ; and the deputies were reduced to mere delegates^ 
by being absolutely bound by the cahierSy or instructions 
drawn up by their constituents for the guidance of their votes. 
Of the deputies thus chosen, scarcely any were men of property, 
talent, or previous influence: many were reckless and needy 
adventurers, who sought only an opportunity of advancing their 
own fortunes ; and of 065 (the entire number of the Tiers Etat), 
not less than 279 were lawyers, chiefly from the lower ranks of 
the profession. From this last class sprang Robespierre, Danton, 
and nearly all the associates of their crimes. The Chamber of 
Nobles comprehended 270 members, including one prince of the 
blood — the Duke of Orleans : the numbers of the clergy were 
293 — ^but 210 of these were curates, whose prepossessions were 
mostly on the side of the Tiers Etat. Such was the compositioii. 
of this memorable assembly. 

18. The proceedings were opened by a speech from the throne, 
in which the King detailed the urgent causes which had induced 
him to re-establish the meetings of the states, and concluded by 
a wish "that unanimity might prevail among them." But the 
following day showed how fallacious was this hope. The plan 
of Neeker had been to form the states into two chambers, as 
in England — ^the nobles and clergy in one, and the Tien^tat 
in the other : but the two higher orders insisted on constitut- 
ing themselves in separate chambers ; while the commons, on 
the other hand, refused to begin business till they were joined 
by the other orders. For several weeks this contest continued, 
to the complete stoppage of public affiiirs : public opinion being 
vehement in favour of the Tiers Etat, who increased in their 
pretensions as their adversaries showed signs of irresolution. 
At length (June 17), after a violent debate^ which lasted till past 


midnight, the deputies of the oommons, by a majority of 491 
to 90, took the deeisiye step of dedaring thenudves to be the 
representatives of the nation ; constituting themselves (in dis- 
regard of both the crown and the nobles) by the title of the 
Kahonal Assembly, and declaring all taxes illegal except those 
voted by themselves. 

19. The aristocratic party were thnnderstmck by the audacity 
of this measure, which excited the popular enthusiasm in the 
lughest degree. Necker proposed the adoption of a mixed con- 
stitution, similar to that of England ; and the King announced 
his intention of declaring his will, on the 23d, to the assembled 
estates. In the mean time (June 90), the hall of the Tiers 
Etat was closed, and guarded by grenadiers ; but this step, which 
was misconstrued into a threat of coercion by arms, led to 
disastrous results. The members^ with their president Bailly^ 
repaired to an adjoining tennis-court, where each of the depu^ 
ties, with a single exception, pledged himself, by an oath con- 
firmed by his signature, not to separate till they had fulfilled 
the task for which they were called together — viz., the reform 
of the constitution. 

20. This famous.Tennis-Court Oath at once involved the Assem- 
bly in a contest with the government ; and they were reinforced, 
two days later, by the accession of 148 of the clergy. The mar 
jority of the nobles still dissented, and the royal sitting took 
place, as announced, on the 23d. The declarations of the King 
were read, abolishing the exemptions from taxes of the nobles 
and dergy, with most of the feudal imposts ; and guaranteeing 
the liberty of the press, the consolidation of the national debt, 
and the reform of the criminal code. But these concessions, 
which at any other time would have excited transports of grati- 
tude^ were accompanied by the annulment of the resolutions of 
17th June as illegal. The orders were further commanded to 
meet in separate chambers, and threats of punishment held 
out to the contumacious. The Tiers Etat, however, were now 
conscious of their own power: on the motion of Mirabeau 
and fii^yes, they refused to separate ; and next day they were 

14 NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. a. d. 1789. 

joined by the Bake of Orleans, the Dnke of Bochefouealt-Lian- 
court, the Marquis Lafayette, Count Lally-Tollendal, and about 
forty other nobles. The King, yielding to the torrent, 
enjoined the recusant majority of the nobles, and the re- 
mainder of the clergy, to follow their example (June 25). Thus 
the Assembly had victoriously defied the throne: public 
opinion was with them, and the royal authority was virtually 

21 . Meanwhile the ferment in the capital had risen to an almost 
incredible pitch ; and the Palais Royal, the residence of the 
Duke of Orleans, became the centre of the agitation. On the 1st 
of July, the Gardes FrangaUes broke out into open mutiny ; and 
the symptoms of disaffection increased so rapidly in all quarters 
that the conviction of the absolute necessity of poercive mea^ 
sures was at length brought home to the court. A liarge force 
was collected round Versailles, and Necker was dismissed and 
exiled ; but the populace broke out in fury at the news, and the 
first blood of the Revolution was shed in a riot on 11th July, 
headed by the afterwards famous Gamille Desmoulins. In the 
vain hope of conciliation, the troops were withdrawn : but the 
mob procured arms by plundering the arsenals and the gun- 
smiths' shops ; and on the 14th, the first open blow was struck 
against the government by the attack on the Bastille. The weak 
garrison, overpowered after a short resistance, yielded on pro- 
mise of safety ; but the governor and three of the officers were 
brutally massacred by the populace, and their bloody heads borne 
aloft on pikes. The storming of the Bastille was communicated 
to Louis by the Duke de Liancourt. — *^ This is a revolt," said 
the King, after a long silence. " Sire," was the reply, " it is a 
revolution /" 

22. The immediate consequence was the formation of a popular 
armed force — ^the National Guard — ^from the citizens of Paris ; 
and the King, finding resistance hopeless from the universal 
defection of the troops, resolved to yield. He repaired to the 
Assembly, attended only by his two brothers, and announced 
his determination of visiting Paris. On the 17th he accor- 


diogly set ont from Versailles, aocompanied by a great part of 
the Assembly, and by a tast concourse of half-anned peasants^ 
who surrounded and impeded the cavalcade; The march lasted 
seven hours : at the gates, the keys of the city were presented 
by Bailly, now Mayor of Paris ; and Louis reached the Hotel 
de Yille in the midst of a hundred thousand armed men, all 
wearing the new national trtcoUmred cockade. Necker had 
already been recalled, in obedience to the popular voice, and was 
brought back in triumph ; but he speedily experienced how 
inadequate was his popularity to control the frenzy of the 
people. Foulon and Berthier, two of the late ministers, were 
seized and hanged by the mob, in spite of the efforts of Lafayette 
and Bailly; and this sanguinary example speedily extended 
to the provinces. The most dreadful confusion and anarchy 
ensued; the barbarities of the Jacquerie were revived on a 
greater scale, and the seigneurs and proprietors were every- 
where expelled or massacred with circumstances of unheard-of 
cruelty. No power any longer existed which could control these 
excesses ; the troops had universally embraced the popular side, 
and the people throughout the kingdom had organised them- 
selves into armed troops of national guards. Within a fort-^ 
night from the fall of the Bastille, both the legislative authority 
and the armed power had passed absolutely into the hands of 
the people. 

23. In the mean time, the evil effects of popular ascendency 
appeared in the form of famine : the farmers no longer dared to 
send their grain to Paris, and Bailly had the utmost difficulty in 
providing subsistence for the people. Many nobles had already 
fled with their families from the kingdom ; those who remained 
sought to deprecate by concession the hostility of the lower 
orders. On the 4th of August, the Duke de Noailles proposed 
the equalisation of taxation on all ranks : the example became 
contagious ; and the nobles, corporations, and provinces vied 
with each other in surrendering their rights. On that night 
the political condition of France was changed, and the odious 
distinctions of noble and plebeian for ever swept away; 

16 NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. a. o. 1789. 

Bat the events of the last three months had unsettled men's 
minds, and the evil effects of the spirit of innovation were soon 
manifested. On the 7th of August, the redemption of tithes, 
previously voted, was changed into their abolition. It was in 
vain that Si^yes protested against this act .of spoliation. Mira- 
beau replied to his remonstrances — ^' My dear Abb^, you have 
loosed the bull-^-do you expect he will not use his horns ? " The 
church estates, producing a net revenue of £2,800,000, were seized 
for the use of the nation, which undertook to make provision for 
the clergy ; but the promise was never kept, and this ill-gotten 
property was so mismanaged, that it cost the nation more than 
it yielded ! This act of injustice was speedily followed (Aug. 18) 
by the publication of the famous Bights of Man — a manifesto 
which became the creed of the Revolution, and which pro- 
mulgated, as the basis of social government, the specious but 
impracticable doctrines of Uberty^ equalityy and the sovereignty 
of the people exercised by universal suffrage. 

%A, During these events, the anarchy in the provinces, as well as 
the famine in the capital, continued to increase to a fearful extent : 
the collection of the revenue had become almost impossible ; and 
the capitalists, terrified at the progress of the revolutionary con- 
vulsion, rejected all attempts to negotiate a loan. The financial 
extremity was such, that Necker was compelled (Sept. 24) to 
propose an income-tax amounting to a fourth of each individual's 
revenue ; and this extraordinary impost was supported by the 
unrivalled eloquence of Mirabeau, who clearly demonstrated it to 
be the only chance of escaping national bankruptcy. But though 
the enactment was passed, subsequent events prevented its being 
ever enforced. The populace had been inflamed by the most 
extravagant reports, disseminated purposely to throw the odium 
of the famine and public distress on the King and nobles, and 
an accident produced an explosion. 

25. A dinner had been given by the body-guards at Versailles 
(Oct 1) to the officers of the regiment of Flanders : the King 
and roy^i^ family had shown themselves at the banquet, and the 
officers, in the enthusiasm of loyalty, were decorated with white 


cockades by the ladies of the eonrt. The infiiriated rabble (insti- 
gated by the a^nts of the Bake, of Orleans, who hoped to gain 
the crown by the dethronement of Louis) construed this demon- 
stration into the prelude of an attack from the arittocraU : and 
on the fifth, a vast armed mob, followed by crowds of drunken 
women of the lowest rank, set out from Paris for Versailles. They 
sarroutaded the palace with furious outcries, and burst into the 
hall of Assembly, the members of which saw themselves, for the 
£i8t time, outraged by the popular passions which they had 
awakened. Lafayette^ who arrived before night with the 
national guard of Paris, succeeded in some degree in restoring 
order ; but this calm was of short duration. At six the next 
morning, the storm burst forth with redoubled fury : a savage 
and bloodthirsty multitude forced the palace gates, overpowered 
the guards, and penetrated even into the royal apartments. The 
Queen had only escaped from, her chamber a few moments before 
the entrance of the assassins ; and the lives of all the royal family 
were only saved by the tardy arrival of La&yette, whohad been 
asleep at some distance from the scene of danger. The Queen, 
braving instant death, appeared alone at the balcony to save the 
lives of the body-guards ; and the execrations of the mob were 
changed into involuntary applause by admiration of her intre- 
pidity. But theleaders of the revolt were determined to complete 
their triumph, by removing the Eang and his family to Paris, 
where they would be entirely under their control The royal 
carriage was preceded by the heads of two of the body-guards, 
home on pikes ; revolutionary ballads were chanted in derision 
by frantic women and all the rabble of the capital ; and thus, 
compelled to drink the bitterest dregs in the cup of humiliation, 
was Louis led as a captive by his own subjects to the Tuileries, 
which thenceforward became his palace and his prison. 

26. The Duke of Orleans, who had been instrumental in ex- 
citing these disturbances, was ^ent, with the entire concurrence 
of the Assembly, into honourable exile on a mission to London. 
Bat the removal of the court to Paris was speedily productive of 
increased excitement and violence in the capital ; and the seoes- 


sion from the legislative body of Mounier, LaHy-ToUendal, aud 
other sincere and enlightened patriots^ was a serious loss to the 
cause of rational freedom. For some time, however, the national 
guard of Paris, headed by Lafayette, succeeded in checking the 
sanguinary lidence which prevailed, and punishing the perpetra- 
tors of some fresh excesses. The Baron de Besenval, one of the 
objects of popular odium, was tried by the High Court of the 
Chatelet, and acquitted; but the Marquis de Favras was less 
fortunate. The tribunal, intimidated by the ferocious cries of 
the rabble, condemned him on absurd and incredible charges ; 
and he was hanged by torchlight at three in the morning (Feb. 
19, 1790), amid the savage exultation of a vast crowd, who 
rejoiced at this ignominious fate of a nobleman. 

27. The new constitution yet remained to be framed ; and the 
Assembly accordingly commenced its deliberations for this 
purpose under the name of the Constituent Assembly. 
Two of its articles were debated with especial vehemence : — 
1, Whether the legislature should sit in a single chamber, or be 
divided into an upper and lower house ; 2, The extent of the 
royal veto. The pressure of democracy soon decided the first 
point in favour of the amalgamation of all the orders in one 
chamber : but the veto was the subject of furious debate ; and 
the passions of the multitude (the majority of whom were 
ignorant whether this obnoxious phrase implied a tax, a privi- 
lege, or a person !) were excited to the utmost by the demagogues 
and clubs of the Palais Royal. Even the influence and eloquence 
of Mirabeau, who sided with the court on this occasion, were 
unable to procure the admission of the absolute veto; and 
it was decided that the King's power of refusing to sanction a 
measure should not extend beyond two successive legislatures. 

28. Early in the year (Jan. 9) the Assembly proceeded to 
introduce a complete change in the domestic arrangements of 
France. To check the rising jealousies of the provinces, whiclji 
beheld with regret the diminution of their ancient/ rights and 
importance, the kingdom was parcelled out into eighty-four 
departments, so arranged as to confound the existing territorial 


limitS) and destroy as far as possible all vestiges of the former 
diyisions. Each department was nearly equal in extent and 
population, and was subdivided into distrietSi which were 
farther divided into cantons, usually of five or six parishes each. 
Each department had its criminal tribunal, and its administra- 
tiye and executive councils ; each district had its civil court, 
each canton its court of refcsrence. "The municipalities of the 
towns were arranged on the same system ; and the appointment 
of all the administrators,as well as of the national representatives, 
was vested in the deputies of the cantons, who were chosen by 
all men who were twenty-five years of age, and who paid a contri« 
bntion equal to threedaya'labour. Forty-eight thousand communes^ 
or municipalities, were thus erected ; everything, through either 
a single or double election, flowed from the people ; and the 
franchise was so low as virtually to admit every able-bodied man. 
29. The Assembly next turned to the consideration of the 
finances. Within three years, not less than £50,000,000 had been 
added to the public debt — the revenue had everywhere failed, 
and no further advances could be obtained from the capitalists. 
The first step adopted to supply this immense deficit was, to carry 
out the previously commenced confiscation of church property ; 
and thedecree, moved by Talleyrand, Bishop of An tun, was cartied 
by a great majority. The municipalities were the chief purchasers ; 
but as money could not easily be found to complete these vast 
sales, promissory-notes were issued, and eventually sanctioned by 
government as a legal currency ; and thus commenced the system 
of (usignatg — ^the source of more public strength and private 
misery than any other financial measure of the times. This fla- 
grant spoliation arrayed the whole clergy in vehement but vain 
hostility to the B>evolution. But their internal organisation was 
no more spared than their property: the bishoprics were 
equalised in number with the departments, and the appointment 
of the bishops and clergy committed to the choice of the electors ! 
The clergy and their partisans upon this atteqipted to dissolve 
the Assembly — ^the deputies having been chosen only for a year, 
which had now expired ; but the motion was defeated by the 



influence of Mirabeau, and the sesdon declared pennanent till 
the new constitution was complete. 

30. The work of innoyatioti now proceeded with redoubled 
speed. All titles of honour were suppressed by a simple decree ; 
the provincial parliaments were abolished, trial hj jury intro- 
duced, and new tribunals everywhere erected. The organisation 
of the army underwent a similar change : the ancient priyileges 
of birth and rank were abolished in the regiments of the line, and 
promotion to commissions made dependent on seniority. The 
establishment of national guards was extended over the kingdom, 
forming a force of 300,000 effective men ; and companies of 
drilled pikemen were formed in all the towns. In Paris alone 
there were 50,000 ; and the gift of two pieces of cannon to each 
of the forty-eight lections into which the city was divided, soon 
after the taking of the Bastille, gave these bands a formidable 
preponderance. The confusion of the finances still continued ; 
andfresh issues of assignats were poured into the money-market 
in such quantities as to produce a rapid depreciation in the value 
of these paper securities. Towards the crown, however, the 
Assembly was liberal : £1,000,000 annually was granted for a 
civil list, and a jointure of ^180,000 to the Queen. 

31. The 14th July, the anniversary of the taking of the Bastille, 
was signalised by a national fIHe in the Champ de Mars, where 
the King, the Assembly, and the national guards under La- 
fayette, took the oath to the new constitution in the presence of 
an assemblage of 400,000 persons ; while mass was celebrated 
by Talleyrand, assisted by priests in tricolor robes. But the 
animosity of the Actions speedily revived ; and an ill-timed and 
fruitless impeachment for conspiracy was brought against liira- 
beau and the Duke of Orleans, the failure of which only 
weakened the moderate party. Necker, whose popularity had 
vanished before the headlong advance of democracy, soon after 
(Sept 4) resigned his post and quitted France almost as a 
fugitive— a memorable instance of the instability of popular 
applause. The oath of fidelity to the new constitution— *'' to be 
fiiithful to the nation, the law, and the King " — ^was now excit- 


kg vehement opposition in various quarters. M. de Bouill^y the 
commandant of Metz, declined it as incompatible with his alle- 
gianoe to his soyereign, and yielded only to the personal request 
of Louis : and a great majority of the clergy of every rank 
absolutely refused it, and were deprived of their benefices (Jan. 
4, 1791) — an iniquitous step, which rendered irreparable the 
breach between the Church and the Revolution. The abolition 
of the right of primogeniture in succession to property (March 
18)j which was aimed at the aristocracy, was perhaps, in its 
ultimate consequences, the most fatal blow to the cause of free- 
dom struck by the Revolution. Its popularity was such that 
Napoleon himself did not feel strong enough to repeal it : it is still 
the law of the land ; and by rendering inevitable the eventual 
extinction of the independent landed proprietors, it h&s virtually 
removed every impediment to the encroachments of the central 
power in the capital. 

32. About this time the influence of the dubs of Paris— after- 
wards so famous in the history of the Revolution — ^first began 
to be felt as formidable. The most powerful was that of the 
Jacobins— originally an assemblage of deputies from Brittany, 
but which, by degrees, became the great fpcus of revolution. 
" The Club of 1789 " consisted of Si^yes, Lafayette, and other 
leaders 'of the moderate party ; and a club called ^ Le Mo- 
narchique" was set on foot by the loyalists: but these and 
others, uninspired by the fierce energy of the Jacobins, soon 
fell into obscurity. The emigration of the nobles, meanwhile, 
continued unabated ; and many thousands assembled at Coblentz, 
which became the headquarters of aristocratic machination. A 
fierce discussion arose on this point in the Assembly, and the 
penalties of outlawry and confiscation were proposed against 
refractory emigrants ; but Mirabeau, defying the cry of ** Traitor 
to the people ! *' raised against him by the Jacobins, anathema- 
tised and overthrew this atrocious project by the irresistible 
thunders of his eloquence. 

3a. Mirabeau, disgusted with the fickleness of the multitude, 
and foreseeing their future excesses, had, ere this, made secret 


advances to the party supporting the throne ; and he now openly 
joined them. His project was, that the King should escape 
from Paris, assemhle a royal army under the ahle guidance of 
De Bouill6, and dissolve the Assembly. A new one was then 
to be convoked, the nobility restored, and a constitution framed 
as nearly as possible on the British model. But in the midst 
of these designs he was cut short by death : his strong consti- 
tution sank under the combined excitement of ambition and 
excessive indulgence in pleasure; and the extinction of this 
brilliant and eccentric luminary (April 2), whom Necker truly 
characterised as ''an aristocrat by inclination, and a tribune of 
the people by calculation," was an irreparable loss to the mo- 
narchical party. 

34. But the plans which Mirabeau had formed for the escape of 
the King from his thraldom were not extinguished by his death. 
Arrangements were concerted with M. de Bouill6 ; and on 20th 
June, the King and Queen, with the Dauphin and the Princess 
Elizabeth, the King's sister, succeeded in leaving Paris in dis- 
guise, and travelled several days without detection. At St 
M6n6hould, however, the suspicions of the postmaster were 
awakened ; and he despatched an emissary across the country 
to Varennes, where the royal fugitives were arrested on their 
arrival : and M. de Bouil]6, who set out with a regiment of 
dragoons from Stenay, on hearing this disastrous news, reached 
Varennes too late to effect a rescue. Their return to Paris as 
captives was attended with every circumstance of barbarity : a 
gentleman who approached to kiss the King's hand was torn to 
pieces before his eyes ; and the mob of the Parisian suburbs 
received them at the Tuileries with frightful outcries, openly 
demanding the head of the King. 

35. The project of exchanging the monarchy for a republic was 
now no longer concealed ; and Bobespierre, in the Assembly, 
endeavoured to make the flight of the King a pretext for his 
deposition and death. But Bamave, hitherto an adherent of 
the revolutionary party, boldly and generously opposed this 
sanguinary project ; and the committees, to whom the subject I 



was referred, reported that no grounds for an accusation existed. 
Foiled in the Assembly, the democrats had recourse to the people ; 
and a revolt, organised by the Jacobin and Cordelier dubs, under 
Robespierre and Brissot, broke out (July 17) in the Champ de 
Mars. The Assembly, however, continued undaunted ; and La- 
fayette, with twelve hundred faithful grenadiers of the national 
guard, dispersed the insuigents with some bloodshed : and had 
this blow been followed up with energy, the constitutional 
moDarchy might have been saved, and the Reign of Terror pre- 
vented. But the Ajssembly, fearful of a general reaction against 
the movement, left the democratic leaders unpunished — au act 
of lenity afterwards rewarded by the sanguinary fate of Bailly, 
and many others, who had been instrumental in this partial 
coercion of popular licentiousness. 

36. The new constitution was now nearly complete. Many 
attempts were made by the moderate men of all parties, who at 
length saw the pemicicyis tendency of many of its articles, par- 
ticularly of the single chamber and restricted veto, to effect a 
revision of these points ; but all their efforts were defeated by 
the Jacobins. The last act of the Assembly was to declare their 
members ineligible for the next legislature — a measure after- 
wards productive of ruinous results. The King (who had pre- 
viously been restored to liberty, and the semblance of authority) 
declared his acceptance of the constitution (Sept. 13) after several 
days of careful examination ; and his public adhesion was given 
the next day. The task of the Constituent Assembly was now 
complete; and (Sept. 29) its sittings were closed by a speech 
from the King, full of sentiments of generous confidence, which 
was received with loud applause by the members. 

IV. Legislative Assembly — Fall of the Monarchy — The Septem- 
ber Massacres, 

37. The Legislative Assembly, which opened its sittings on 
Ist October 1791, affords the first example in modem Europe, on 
a great scale, of a completely popular election ; and the results 
were such as might have been anticipated. The National 


Assembly had nambered among its members some of the greatest 
proprietors, and many of the noblest names in the kingdom ; but 
the almost universal emigration of the aristooraej, and the 
ineligibility (by their own decree) of the members /of the late 
Assembly, had combined with the spread of levelling principles 
among the electoral bodies to exclude all whose station or cha- 
racter would have entitled them to a place in the Chamber. Thus 
property was wholly unrepresented in the Legislative Assembly, 
in which there were not fifty persons possessing ;£100 a-year ; 
the majority were presumptuous and half-educated young men, 
who had brought themselves into notice by their vehemence at 
the popular clubs — ^with talent enough to render them danger- 
ous, but neither knowledge nor property to steady their ambition. 
Of the various parties into which the Assembly was soon divided, 
the members on the right, or friends of the constitution (called 
Feuillants, from the club of that name), were directed by Lameth, 
Bamave, &&, who, though excluded frovfi the Assembly by the 
self-denying ordinance, were the true leaders of the party. The 
Girondists (so called from a district near Bordeaux) comprised 
those who aimed at republican institutions on the model of anti- 
quity, under the brilliant leadership of Vergniaud, Brissot, Isnard, 
and Condorcet. The principal Jacobins in the Assembly were 
Ohabot, Merlin, and Bazire; but the strength of that party 
lay in the Jacobin and Cordelier Clubs — ^in the first of which 
Robespierre, Billaud Yarennes, and Collot d'Herbois held 
absolute sway ; as did Danton, Carrier, and Desmoulins in the 

38. The first proceedings of the Assembly were in accordance 
with its composition. The titles of Sire and Majedy were at once 
dropped, and severe measures were directed (Oct. 30) against the 
emigrants, the dissident clergy, and the brother of the King 
(afterwards Louis XYIII.), who was commanded to return to 
France, under pain of forfeiting his eventual right to the regency. 
This last decree Louis reluctantly sanctioned ; but he resolutely 
imposed his veto on the two others, though he issued a severe 
proclamation against the emigrants, whose abandonment of their 

1. D. 1792. LEaiSLATIYE ASSEMBLY. 26 

oanntiy he had from the first oondemned* The eleetion of a 
mayor of Paris (Nov. 1 7) was carried against La&yette by Potion, 
who was supported by the united Jacobins and Qirondists ; and 
encoaraged by this success, the republicans bent all their endea- 
vours to involve the King in a foreign war. Their hope (which 
was amply justified by the event) was, that their cause would 
thns be strengthened by being identified with that of the national 
honour ; and an address was voted by the Assembly, on the 
ground of the warlike preparations which the Elector of Treves 
and other Oerman princes allowed the emigrants to make in their 
territories. The King accordingly addressed a requisition to the 
Elector, who promised compliance ; but troops began to be put in 
motion both by t*rance and the Qermanic empire^ and the death 
of the pacific Leopold II. (March 1792) rendered war inevitable. 

39. Before this event, however, a change had taken place in the 
French ministry ; and Roland, Servan, and Olavi^e, had been 
called from the ranks of the oppontion to the councils of the King. 
Bumourier, the new minister of foreign afiiurs, had many of the 
qualities of a great man<>— he possessed high mental powers, com- 
bined with self-confidence, and an active spirit of enterprise ; 
bat his genius was neutralised by instability of purpose, and 
though an admirable partisan, he was an inefficient leader of a 
party. Roland was in every respect his opposite : in austerity, 
amplieity, and firmness, he was tather an early Roman republi- 
can than a Frenchman of the eighteenth century ; and his want 
of ambition would probably have prevented his emerging froiki 
private life, but for the splendid abilities and brilliant character 
of his celebrated wife. This remarkable woman united the 
French graces of manner to the elevation of a Roman mind ; but 
her ambition in public life was equal to her virtue and private 
worth, and her influence over her husband was at times too 
ostentatiously exercised : — " When I wish to see the minister of 
the interior," said Condorcet, ** I can never get a glimpse of any- 
thing but the petticoats of his wife ! " 

40. The ultimatum of Austria was at length presented : it de- 
manded the re-establishment of the monarchy as defined by the 

26: LEaiSLATlYE ASSEMBLY. a. d. 1792. 

loyal declaration of Jane 23, 1789— the restitution of the chnroh 
lands, of the confiscated rights of the Oerman princes in Alsace, 
and of those of the Pope in Avignon. These terms were at once 
rejected by the revolutionary leaders ; and Louis, pressed alike 
by all parties, each of which expected the attainment of its own 
objects in the confusion of a war, was compelled (April 20) to 
issue a declaration of hostility against the Emperor. 

41. Two events occupied the Assembly about this time, which 
evinced the perilous nature of the principles now promulgated. 
The first was the massacre of Avignon, which, since its recent 
union with France, had been distracted by tumults between the 
two parties j till, on the night of 30th October, the popular fac- 
tion, assembling in force, seized 60 of their chief opponents, who 
were murdered with every circumstance of revolting atrocity : 
but the Assembly, notwithstanding the indignation which it 
expressed at these horrors, found it necessary to grant an amnesty 
to the perpetrators ! The second catastrophe was the revolt of 
the slaves in St Domingo, which was fomented by the injudicious 
efforts of a society called the Friends of the Blacks, of which 
Brissot was a leading member ; but the events of this dreadful 
insurrection, remote from the present course of events, will be 
afterwards detailed. 

42. Meanwhile the war with Austria had commenced ; and the 
disasters of the armies produced the utmost consternation, and 
increased the power of the Jacobins, who loudly attributed them 
to the treason of the Royalists. The Assembly, while they dis- 
banded the King's guard, decreed the formation of a camp of 
20,000 men near Paris, and condemned all the non-juring priests 
to exile ; but Louis could not be prevailed upon, even by the 
sense of personal danger^ to ratify either of these decrees. The 
point against the priests was at length (June 10) pressed upon 
him in a famous letter bearing the signature of Roland, but really 
written by his wife, in a tone which roused his anger; the 
Girondist ministry were dismissed, and Dumourier set out for 
the aripy. But the new administration, which was taken from 
amon j; the Feuillants, consisted of men without weight or influ- 


enoe ; and the Girondists, chagrined at the loss of their places, 
took the ruinous and suicidal step of courting the alliance of the 
mob— thus arousing the passions of which they were themselves 
the eventual victims. 

43. On the 20th of June, a tumultuous body of 10,000 men from 
the Faubourg St Antoine, headed by the brewer Santerre, beset 
the hall of the Assembly, under the pretence of demanding an 
investigation of the conduct of the gaierals, and of the dismissal 
of the Girondists. The Assembly, overawed by their perilous 
situation, received the petition, and the multitude flowed on 
with increased numbers to the palace. They rushed with savage 
menaces into the presence of the King, demanding the ratifica- 
tion of the decrees against the priests, and for the formation of 
the camp near Paris ; but Louis replied with dignified firmness — 
" This is neither the time nor the way to obtain it." A red cap 
was handed to him by a drunken workman — ^he calmly put it 
on his head ; and it was not till eight P.M. that the arrival of 
Yergniaud, Petion, and Isnard, procured the evacuation of the 
palace. The heroism of the royal family on this occasion, with 
the outrageous nature of the insults to which they had been 
subjected, excited a powerful reaction in their favour. 20,000 
citizens of Paris petitioned the Assembly for the punishment of 
the rioters ; and Lafayette, unexpectedly arriving (June 28) from 
the camp, openly denounced the Jacobins at the bar of the 
Chamber. But the apathy of his former adherents, and the 
distrust of the King himself, rendered his efibrts unavailing. 
Finding his influence gone, he returned, dejected by failure, to 
the army, and was burnt in effigy by the Jacobins. This was 
the last effort of the constitutional party. 

44. The dethronement of the King was now the avowed object 
of the Republicans and Girondists : the Assembly declared that 
"the country was in danger," and armed volunteers flocked 
from all quarters into Paris. On the Uie of the I4th July the 
King (who then made his last appearance in public) was with 
difficulty protected by the Swiss guards from the mob ; and it 
became evident that a speedy crisis was inevitable. The explo- 


81011 of the coDspiraey was originally fixed for the 4th of August ; 
theminds of the leaders, however, more than once misgave them : 
but the iDJadicious manifesto with whieh the Duke of Brunsh 
wick preceded the invasion of France, speedily wrought up the 
public mind to the requisite pitch of excitement. In this famous 
document, he '' warned the Assembly, that if they did not forth- 
with liberate the King and return to their allegiance, they should 
be held personally responnble, and answer with their heada ; " 
and that, ^ if the palace were forced, or the royal family insulted, 
an exemplary and memorable punishment should be inflicted by 
the total destruction of Paris." 

46. These menaces, coming at this crisis of extreme ferment, 
seemed to leave the Parisians no choice but victory or death. The 
arrival of a strong federal force from Marseilles augmented the 
strength of theinsurgent party ; and the dethronement of the King 
was vehemently canvassed in the dubs, and demanded from the 
Assembly by the sections of Paris. At length, at midnight, on 
the 9th August, the tocsin sounded, and the roll to arms was beat 
through the city. Danton, at the Cordeliers, declared that '^ this 
very night the perfidious Louis prepares the carnage and con- 
fiagration of the capital ;" and the signal was given to march. 

46. The Hotel deVille was speedily seized, and the magistrates 
replaced by others selected by the insurgents. The authorities, 
paralysed by terror, made no resistance ; a strong force of national 
guards, however, mustered for the protection of the Tuileries, 
which were defended only by eight hundred of the Swiss, and a 
useless crowd of royalist gentlemen. But Mandat, the com- 
mander-in-chief of the national guard, was murdered by the 
populace at the Hotel de Yille ; and it soon became evident that 
his troops, when his influence was withdrawn, could not be 
relied on. Many of the national guards at the palace openly 
raised revolutionary cries ; the insurgent columns under Wester- 
mann were already advancing to the attack ; and the King and 
royal family, in this dreadful extremity, were compelled to quit 
the Tuileries, and seek refuge in the hall of the Assembly, where 
they were received by the President Vergniaud. Meanwhile, a 


desperate oonfiiet was raging in the Place CarronseL The gen- 
darmerie and cannoneers had quitted their posts, crying, Vive la 
Nation/ and the national guards were so divided among them- 
selves as to be incapable of action ; but the Swiss held their 
ground with heroic gallantry, and repulsed with slaughter the 
first assault. But thej were too few to follow up their success 
hj pursuit ; the fugitives rallied and returned in greater foroOi 
headed by a column of Marseillais — ^the palace was forced — and 
the Swiss, overpowered and hunted down, were massacred with 
unpitying ferocity, the slaughter continuing during the whole 
evening and night The populace gave full reins to their ven- 
geance in the sack of the palace, which was with difficulty 
preserved from conflagration and total destruction : the emblems 
of royalty, and even the statues of the kings, were everywhere 
destroyed the next day by the orders of the municipality. 

47. The new magistrates lost no time in demanding from the 
Assembly, in the language of conquerors, the deposition of the 
KiDg, the dismissal of the ministers, and the formation of a 
National Oonvention. Resistance was hopeless, and the decree 
was passed which terminated monarchy in France. 

48. The storming of the Tuileries and imprisonment of the 
Ring had destroyed the monarchy ; and the powers of the Assem- 
bly had passed into the hands of the new municipality of Paris, 
which was swayed by the Jacobin Olub. Of the Jacobin leaders, 
however, Danton alone had^ personally co-operated in the revolt 
of the 10th : Marat, Robespierre, and the others, had lain con- 
cealed till the danger was over, when they emerged from their 
hiding-places to claim the credit of the afikir. Into the hands 
of this triumvirate the principal power now fell. Of the three, 
Danton alone possessed the energy which arises from personal 
courage : yet he was not a mere bloodthirsty tyrant ; and though 
inexorable in general measures, and the principal author of the 
massacred in the prisons, he was at times humane and even 
generous to individuals. His own elevation and the ascendency 
of his party were his ruling objects ; and his gigantic stature and 
commanding front pointed him out as a leader. Robespierre 


was in most respects the opposite of Danton. Insignificant in 
appearance, yet cherishing ridiculous personal vanity, with a 
weak voice and vulgar manner, he rose chiefly through the in- 
flexible obstinacy with which he adhered to his opinions, and 
the success with which he veiled, under the mask of patriotism, 
his unvarying projects of selfish ambition and sanguinary vin- 
dictiveness. Marat was the worst of the three. The atrocity of 
his character was stamped on his features, which wore the 
expression of a demon ; and though others in the Revolution 
were guilty of perpetrating more sanguinary deeds, none was so 
powerful in recommending and forwarding 'their commission. 
He frequently said that there could be no safety to the state till 
280,000 heads had fallen : but death by the hand of a heroine 
cut him short in his relentless career. 

49. After the success of the revolt, Danton had assumed the 
ofSce of minister of public justice, while the Girondist ministers, 
Roland, Servan, and Claviere, resumed their former functions. 
Three days after the massacre of the Swiss (Aug. 13), the royal 
family, at the command of the commune of Paris, were trans- 
ferred to the prison of the Temple ; while all the departments of 
France submitted almost without opposition to the ruling party. 
The army at Sedan, commanded by Lafayette, at first appeared 
disposed to make an efibrt in favour of constitutional monarchy ; 
but this feeling was counteracted by the influence of the inferior 
oflSicers ; and Lafayette, compelled to seek safety in flight, was 
imprisoned by the Austrians for four years in Olmutz, while the 
Assembly declared him a traitor, and set a price on his head. 

60. The Jacobin ascendency was not long in making itself felt. 
Intimidated by the menaces of the commune, addressed to them . 
through Robespierre, the Assembly instituted (Aug. 17) a court 
for the trial of political ofiences, afterwards known as the Revolu- 
tionary Tribunal. But the proceedings of this court wereat firsttoo 
slow for the dominant party ; and the savage designs of the dema- 
gogues were favoured by the terror arising from the advance of the 
Prussians and the fall of the frontier fortresses. On 29th August . 
the city barriers were closed, and remained so for two days, during 


which time great numbers of all ranks^ chiefly nobles and clergy, 
were seized in their houses, and imprisoned by order of the com- 
mune. The denunciations of the Assembly were treated with 
contempt : the lists of proscription Jiad been drawn up by Dan- 
ton, and the catastrophe was not long deferred. At two in the 
morning of 2d September, the city drums were beat, ostensibly for 
the march of the Parisian battalions to reinforce the armies of 
the frontier. It was the concerted signal of massacre ; and the 
chosen assassins, liberally supplied with money and spirits, 
and harangued by Robespierre, Billaud Varennes, and Collot 
d'Herbois, were speedily ready for every atrocity. The Abbaye 
was the prison first attacked ; the victims, seized separately, were 
dragged before an inexorable tribunal, and turned out among 
the murderers in the court, through whose repeated blows they 
were compelled to run the gauntlet till they expired — ^while the 
multitude, among whom were a vast number of women, danced 
like cannibals round their mangled corpses. Similar massacres 
took place in all the other prisons ; in that of the Oarmes, the 
venerable Archbishop of Aries was slaughtered, with more than 
200 clergy. The Princess de Lamballe, who was a prisoner in 
La Petite Force, was torn to pieces, and her head, with the frag- 
ments of her body, paraded before the windows of the Duke of 
Orleans, who rose from dinner to enjoy the ghastly spectacle. 
Above 5000 persons perished in the various prisons during this 
dreadful scene of carnage, which continued uninterrupted from 
the 2d to the 6th of September. Even the felons in the Bicetre, 
whose offences had no political character, were massacred in the 
indiscriminate thirst for blood, whidi only ceased when no more 
victims could be found. The confiscation of the whole effects of 
the slaughtered captives, and of the property of the emigrants, 
which was sold at the same time, became the source of immense 
wealth to the municipality ; but no account could ever be ob- 
tained either of the amount or disposal of this enormous plunder. 
The jewel-office in the Tuileries was also pillaged one night, and 
the costly ornaments of the crown disappeared for ever : but it 
was never known into whose hands most of the jewels fell. 


v. Naiional Convention — Execidion oflihe Kmg. 

51. In the midst of these horrors the L^slative Assembly drew 
to a close. The deputies for the National Ck)NYRNTZONy which 
met on 20th September, had everywhere been elected under the 
irresistible influence of the Jacobin Club and its affiliated socie- 
ties throughout France ; and their first and unanimous measure 
was to abolish monarchy and proclaim a republic — the calendar 
being changed at the same time, and the year styled ^ the first 
of the French Republic." But the fury of party spirit soon broke 
out with redoubled violence ; the Girondists (who were now the 
Moderates) occupying the seats on the right, the Jacobins those 
on the summit of the left (whence their nickname of the Moun- 
tain), while the neutrals were called the party of the Marais^ or 
Plain. The sittings of the Jacobin Club, all the leaders of which 
had seats in the new Convention, still continued in the hall of 
the convent whence they took their name, and were seldom at- 
tended by less than 1500 members ; and in this den of darkness 
and crime were prepared the lists of proscription and massacre 
which will ever render odious the name of that terrible faction. 
The Girondists had no place of reunion except the parties of 
Madame Roland, where all the talent developed by the Revolu- 
tion, and all the remaining elegance of the capital, were wont 
to assemble. The Duke of Orleans, who had abdicated his titles, 
sat in the Convention as Philippe Egalit^. 

52. The first attacks of the Girondists were directed against 
Robespierre, whom they accused of aspiring to the dictatorship. 
This charge, as well as an accusation brought agiunst Marat, were 
abandoned through timidity by the Girondists, on whom the 
Jacobins recriminated, by taxing them with the design of divid- 
ing the Republic, " one and indivisible," into twenty-three con- 
federated states like those of America. A more formidable charge 
relative to the recent massacres, which was urged against Rob^ 
pierre by the intrepid eloquence of Louvet, was foiled by a mo- 
tion to pass to the order of the day ; and it was soon evident 


that the demoerats, who had sapported the Girondists as long as 
they urged forward the Bevolution, would become their bitterest 
enemies if fhej jstroTe to allay its fury. But these, and various 
minor struggles between the hostile factions, were all preliminary 
to a grand question destined to attract the eyes of Europe and 
of the world. This was the trial of Louis XY I. 

53. The Jacobins had for some time been occupied in preparing 
the nation for this great event, and for the tragedy in which it 
was intended to terminate. The most inflammatory harangues 
were constantly delivered, both at their central club and the socie- 
ties in the departments ; petition^ presented at the bar of the 
Assembly ; and every comer ransacked for circumstances which 
might increase the popular odium against the unfortunate mon- 
arch. A further discussion arose as to whether Louis could legally 
be tried by the Oonvention, as his personal inviolability had 
been decreed by the constitution ; but this question, after violent 
debates, was carried in the afltonative. The Jacobins even urged 
that his condemnation was involved in his dethronement ; and 
Bobespierre called on the Convention to "declare the King 
traitor towards France and human nature^ and sentence him 
instantly to death ;" but it was decided, through the influence of 
the Girondists and neutrals, that he should be put on his trial. 

51 Since their captivity, the royal family had found their 
comforts abridged from time to time by the cruel precautions of 
the municipality. At first they were permitted to live together, 
and to soothe the rigours of confinement by the enjoyment of 
domestic affection ; but their seclusion gradually became more 
rigorous. Every day they were visited and insulted by Santerre 
with his brutal staff; their writing materials, and even the 
scissors and needles of the Queen and princesses, were taken 
from them ; and at last the King and Dauphin were separated 
from the royal ladies. This last piece of useless barbarity 
almost overthrew the heroic firmness with which the King had 
sustained his calamities ; but the close of his trials was approach- 
ing. On the llth of December he was summoned to appear at 
the bar of the Convention ; and, surrounded by a strong escort. 

34 TRIAL OP THE KING. A. d. 1792. 

he was carried through the vast crowds which filled the streets 
to gaze on this unheard-of spectacle, to their hall of meeting. 

55. The mild intrepidity with which Louis confronted his 
accusers melted for a moment the most fanatic among them ; 
and some of the Girondists even shed tears. The president, Bar^re, 
directed him to he seated ; and the charges were read, which 
consisted of an enumeration of all the crimes of the Revolution. 
All wer^rlaid to his charge,: hut his enemies were perplexed by 
the simplicity and firmness of his replies ; and he denied with 
indignation his having authorised the bloodshed of 10th August. 
After his examination he returned to the Temple, but he was 
no longer permitted to see his son or any of his family ; and on 
the following day he was directed to choose his counsel. Of the 
two whom he selected, one, M. Target, had the baseness to refuse ; 
but the other, M. Tronchet (afterwards honoured and promoted 
by Napoleon), accepted the sacred duty, in which he was aided 
by a celebrated pleader named de Sdze, and by the venerable 
Malesherbes, who volunteered his services on behalf of his 
fallen master. On the 26th December, Louis again appeared 
before the Convention, where his defence was conducted by 
M. de S^ze, who examined the whole life of the King, and proved 
that in every instance he had been actuated by the sineerest love 
for his people. He concluded in these words : " Louis mounted 
the throne at the age of twenty, and even then set the example 

of an irreproachable life He proved himself from 

the first the friend of his country. The people desired the 
abolition of a destructive tax-^^the abolition of servitude — a 
reform in the criminal law : all were granted. They demanded 
that thousands of Frenchmen should enjoy the political rights 
from which the rigour of our usages excluded them ; and this 
also he granted. He even anticipated their wishes : yet this 
same people now demand his punishment. I add no more. I 
pause before the tribunal of history : remember that it will judge 
your decision, and that its voice will be the voice of ages." 

56. After the withdrawal of Louis, a violent discussion arose. 
Lanjuinais even boldly proposed to rescind thedecree by which the 


King had been called to trial : " If you insist on being judges,*' 
said he, ''cease to be accusers.*' The Jacobins responded by 
farious cries : ''Away with the perjured deputy ! — let the friends 
of the tyrant perish with him ! " and at length the contest was 
direrted by the proposition of an appeal to the people, the 
discussion on which lasted twenty days. St Just and Robes- 
pierre were the most powerful declaimers against the sovereign. 
Vergniaud replied in a strain of impassioned eloquence, not 
Tenturing, however, to impugn the justice, but the expediency 
of the measure. The Girondists were in truth hurried away by 
the torrent, and trembling in fear of their own ruin by the 
violence of the Jacobins ; and Louis was unanimously found 
guiUy, Of 728 members, 8 were absent; 37 qualified the 
sentence ; 683 simply declared him guilty. The appeal to the 
people was rejected by 423 to 281. 

57. The further debate, " What shall be his punishment ? " 
lasted forty hours. The Duke of Orleans voted for death ; and the 
same sentence was pronounced by Camot and other sincere and 
honest republicans, from a mournful conviction of its necessity 
for the establishment of their system. The votes of the Jacobins 
could not be doubtful ; but it was yet in the power of the 
Girondists to have saved the King's life. Yergniaud, however, 
with forty-five others of his party, though in truth anxious to 
rescue the royal victim, voted for his death ; and this sentence 
was carried by a majority of 26, in 721 votes. The result was 
announced by Yergniaud as president — " In the name of the 
Convention, I declare that the punishment of Louis Capet is 

58. Louis was fully prepared for his fate. When Malesherbes 
came to the prison to announce the result, the King said, ^ For 
two hours I have considered whether, during my whole reign, 
I have voluntarily given cause of complaint t<> my subjects. 
With perfect sincerity I declare, when about to appear before 
Ood, that I never formed a wish but for their happiness, and 
that I deserve no reproach at their hands." 

59. On the 20th January, Santerre arrivedfrom the municipality 

36 EXECUTION OP THE KING. a. d. 1793. 

with the sentence. The King requested a respite of three days 
for preparation, an interview with his family, and to be allowed 
the Abb6 Edgeworth as a confessor. The last two demands were 
granted, but the execution was fixed for the following morning. 
The terrible scene of the parting interview lasted two hours. 
At length the unfortunate family separated, and the King spent 
the remainder of the evening in prayer with the Abb^ Edgeworth. 
From twelve to five o'clock he slept peaceably : at nine in the 
morning Santerre presented himself at the Temple. The passage 
to the Place de la Revolution (formerly called Place Louis XV.) 
lasted two hours ; and at the foot of the scaffold the King received 
the sublime benediction of his confessor — '^Son of St Louis, 
ascend to heaven ! '* He attempted to address a few words to 
the multitude, but his voice, at the order of Santerre, was stifled 
by the noise of the drums ; and the descending axe of the 
guillotine t^minated his existence. 

60. The character of this unhappy monarch cannot be better 
given than in the words of one of the ablest of the republican 
writers : — "Louis was perhaps the only monarch who was subject 
to no passion, not even that of power ; and who united the two 
qualities most essential iii a good king — fear of God, and love of 
his people. He fell the victim of passions which he had no share 
in exciting ; of those of his supporters, to which he was a stranger ; 
of the multitude, which he had done nothing to awaken. Few 
kings will have left so venerated a memory." But we must 
not forget, in the contemplation of his touching virtues aud 
unexampled sufferings, the ruinous consequences of his irresolu- 
tion and weakness. " Had Louis XVI.," said Napoleon, " shown 
half the courage and firmness of Charles I., he would have 
triumphed." Still his resignation in adversity, charity in suffer- 
ing, and heroism in death, will never be forgotten. 


PART 11. 



I. State of Europe prior to the Commencement of the War. 

61. The position of France, in the very centre of ciyilisation, 
renders it impossible for the neighbouring kingdoms to escape its 
moral influence. The three great powers of Europe at this period 
were Austria, Russia, and Great Britain ; and on them accord- 
inglj fell the weight of the desperate struggle which ensued. 

62. Britain, like the other European monarchies, had slumbered 
CD, prosperous and contented, and mostly inglorious, during the 
eighteenth century. The loss of her American colonies had been 
more than compensated by her Indian conquests ; and though her 
national debt of j£244,000,000 was a severe burden, the flourish- 
iug state of her commerce and agriculture had produced a 
surprising accumulation of capital : the 3 per cents had risen 
from 57 at the close of the American war, to 99 ; and the revenue 
reached j£l6,000,000. Her army numbered only 32,000 men at 
home, and an equal number in the colonies ; but these forces 
were rapidly augmented after the war began. The reputation 
of the British troops, however, had been seriously tarnished by 
the disastrous contest in America ; and the abuses existing in 
the military department tended greatly to impair its efllciency. 
Her real strength lay in her inexhaustible wealth and public 
spirit, and in her fleet of 150 ships of the line^ which gave her 
the undisputed command of the seas. 

63. Public opinion in Britain, as might have beeen expected, was 
greatly divided on the French Revolution. While it numbered 
among its partisans not only the fiictious and restless, to whom 
any change was grat^il,but many ardent and enlightened spirits, 
who hailed it as the dawn of a new era of freedom — ^it was> on 


the other hand, regarded -with utter horror by all the adherents 
of the church, and the majoritj of the aristocracy and opuleut 
classes, who apprehended nothing but anarchy and spoliation 
from its contagious example. At the head of these two parties 
respectively stood the illustrious names of Fox and Pitt. Fox 
had long held, by his ardent and impassioned eloquence, the post 
of leader of the Opposition ; and his uncompromising devotion to 
the popular cause now led him to advocate, with all the fire of 
his oratory, those frantic innovations of which the neighbouring 
country was the scene. But neither his intellect, nor his judg- 
ment, was equal to his powers as a debater — a capacity in which 
he shone unrivalled ; and though the generous warmth of his 
heart secured him the attachment of numerous personal friends, 
the irregularities of his private life diminished his weight as a 
public character. In this point particularly he stood in disad- 
vantageous contrast to the irreproachable purity of his great rival 
Mr Pitt, who, at the commencement of the Revolution, was at 
the head of government, and supported by a decided majority in 
parliament — having held this post since the fall (Dec. 1783) of 
the Coalition ministry of Fox and North. Inheriting the talents 
and patriotism of his illustrious father Lord Chatham, he united 
to them an invincible coolness and moral courage, a readiness in 
resource, and eloquence in debate, together forming a combina- 
tion of great political qualities which have never been excelled. 
Called to the helm at the age of twenty-six, he had foiled the 
most powerful Opposition which Britain ever saw ; and though 
watching with anxious attention the progress of afiairs in France, 
he had hitherto persisted in maintaining a strict neutrality. 

64. A third party was composed of that section of the Whigs 
who supported the principles of the English Revolution of 1688, 
but opposed those of the French. At the head of these stood 
Mr Burke, who had long been united to Mr Fox, both by political 
alliance and the warmest private friendship ; but these ties had 
been severed by their difiference of opinion respecting France. 
This memorable rupture was announced in a debate on the new 

constitution of Canada (May 6, 1791), when Mr Fox deplored, 



even with tears, the rending asunder of the friendship of a quarter 
of a century. But time, the great test of truth, has decisively 
Tindicated the prophetic sagacity of Mr Burke. 

65. The Austrian empire, both from its geographical position, 
its military strength and resources, and the stability of its policy 
and government, was the most formidable Continental rival of 
France. At the commencement of the war, it had a revenue of 
90,000,000 of florins, and a population of 25,000,000 : while its 
anny amounted to 240,000 in&ntry, and 35,000 cavalry, with a 
numerous and powerful artillery. The possession of the Low 
Countries gave the Emperor an advanced post close to the French 
frontier ; while the mountains of Tyrol formed a vast fortress 
placed at a salient angle between Germany and Italy. The 
foundation of the modern grandeur and prosperity of Austria 
had been laid by the sage administration of Maria-Theresa ; but 
a new system was introduced at the accession (in 1780) of her 
son Joseph II. In his anxiety to remodel every department in 
church and state on philosophic principles, this amiable but in* 
jndicious prince excited the discontent of his subjects by his 
sweeping and needless reforms ; and the Flemings, whom he had 
alienated by an attempt to exchange their country for Bavaria, 
(a project prevented only by the armed intervention of Prussia), 
revolted in defence of their old usages and feudal customs, at the 
same time (1789) when the French were rising in rebellion to 
overthrow theirs ! This ingratitude (for so he considered it) 
shortened the days of Joseph ; and Leopold, his successor, easily 
re-established his authority in Flanders ; but the demolition of 
the famous barrier fortresses of the Low Countries, which Joseph 
had razed to prevent them becoming strongholds of disaffection, 
was fatally felt in the first campaigns of the French war. 

66. Though the house of Hapsburg was still the head of the un- 
wieldy fabric of the Germanic empire, its real authority as such was 
inconsiderable ; and the contingents of troops which the various 
states were bound to furnish, at the requisition of the Diet of 
Batisbon, were little to be depended on. But Prussia, though 
still nominally a member of the empire, had been raised into a 


first-rate power \>y the genius of the Great Frederick ; and its 
suny, after the Seven Years' War, was considered the finest in 
Europe. Its ordinary strength was 160,000 men ; but, as a short 
period of military service was compulsory on the whole yonth 
of the kingdom, it could be augmented at once to a far greater 
amount from a population thus trained to arms. The govern- 
ment was a military despotism : but the rights of the subject 
were protected by the beneficent policy of its administration, the 
maxim of which was " everything for the people — ^nothing hp 
them." Still there were few elements of national coherence in the 
monarchy : its 8,000,000 of subjects were of various races, Ian* 
guages, and religions ; and its territory possessed neither for- 
tresses, nor any strong line of natural frontier, to guard it against 

67. Since the Seven Tears' War, the formidable might of Russia 
had become better appreciated than before in Western Europe ; 
and her military renown had been enhanced by the recent ex- 
ploits of SuwarofF, in the bloody wars of the Empress Catherine 
with the Turks. Its regular army, in 1792, amounted to 200,000 
men, besides the well-known Cossacks of the Don and their kin- 
dred tribes, the best irregular horse in the world. The hardihood, 
immovable firmness, and obstinate bravery of the infantry had 
long been celebrated ; but the cavalry and artillery were far 
inferior to what they became before the end of the war, when 
France saw 150,000 Russians reviewed on the plains of Burgundy, 
Of the other northern powers, Sweden (which had lately glo- 
riously concluded a war with Russia) had, from her remoteness 
and scanty population, little weight in the political scale ; and 
Poland, though the final partition had not yet taken place, could 
no longer be regarded as an independent state. 

68. The ancient power of the Turks had by this time subsided in to 
a purely defensive policy ; and though their brilliant cavalry, 
and the desperate valour with which their walled towns were 
defended, made them formidable to an invading army, they 
were incapable of any important exertion beyond their own 
territory. The Italians, with the exception perhaps of the 


Piedmontese, no longer held a place among military nations ; 
and the Dutch, though they had still an army of 44,000, had 
greatly declined from their ancient spirit. Spain, at the com- 
mencement of the war, had nominally 140,000 troops : hut this 
force was &r from effective, either in discipline or equipment ; 
and the firmness which characterised the Spanish infantry of the 
Middle Ages had long passed away. The Swiss alone remain 
to be noticed ; hut their small numerical strength, which did not 
exceed 33,000 regulars, rendered their courage and patriotism of 
little avail in the stupendous struggle ahout to commence. 

69. Such was the state of the European military establishments. 
The French army, before the war, amounted to more than 
200,000 men, 35,000 of whom were cavalry ; but many of these 
had left their colours during the previous convulsioQS, and the 
newly-acquired habit of judging for themselves on politics had 
loosened the bonds of discipline among the soldiers. Two hun- 
dred battalions of volunteers had been raised by a decree of the 
Assembly ; but the efficiency of these new levies was not equal 
to their spirit " It was not the volunteers or recruits,'* said 
Napoleon afterwards, " who saved the republic, but the 180,000 
old troops of the monarchy." The artillery and engineers, 
however, which had not under the old regime been exclusively 
officered by nobles, were from the first superior to any in Europe ; 
and the defects of the other branches were speedily remedied by 
the vigour of the middle classes, to whom the Revolution had 
now opened the path of promotion. ^ 

70. The Revolution surprised the European powers in their usual 
state of smothered jealousy or open hostility with each other. 
Catherine of Russia was occupied by her designs on Turkey, in 
which Joseph II. participated, and which had been ostentatiously 
proclaimed to Europe by a joint tour of the two potentates to 
the Crimea. Frederick the Great had concluded in 1785 the 
^ Confederation of Berlin" for the support of the smaller German 
states against Austrian ambition ; but his death in the following 
year was an irreparable loss, as his successor, though endowed 
with distinguished valour and abilities of no mean order, was 



disqualified by his indolence and love of pleasure from treading 
in the steps of his predecessor, A closer alliance had also been 
formed (1790) by the exertions of Mr Pitt, between Britain and 
Prussia^ in order, by their joint intervention, to arrest the career 
of Austrian and Russian conquest on the side of Turkey, by 
which the balance of power was threatened ; and the war was 
eventually terminated by this powerful mediation. The general 
alarm which now began to be felt at the progress of the French 
Revolution, was not without its influence in this rapid pacific' 
cation ; still, during the first two years, Mr Pitt in Britain, 
Elaunitz at Vienna, and Hertzberg at Berlin, had concurred in 
abstaining from interference with France, contenting themselves 
with adopting measures for preventing the spread of revolution- 
ary contagion into their states. The Empress of Russia, on the 
other hand, had from the first warmly advocated measures of 
coercion ^ and circumstances ere long occurred which compelled the 
cabinets of Berlin and Vienna to abandon their moderate counsels. 
71. Since Louis was brought a prisoner to Paris (October 1789), 
he had recommended the King of Spain to disregard any public 
act in his name which was not confirmed by an autograph letter ; 
and in December 1790, he even solicited, by a circular to the 
monarchs of Europe, their armed intervention to save the mon- 
archy. A treaty was accordingly concluded at Mantua (May 
1791) between the Emperor and the Kings of Spain and Sardinia, 
by which it was agreed that a formidable display of troops should 
be made on the French frontier, in the hope of terrifying the 
people into submission to their sovereign. But before this could 
be carried into efiect, the unsuccessful flight of the royal family 
to Varennes, and their open imprisonment by the revolutionists, 
made stronger measures necessary, and led to the famous meeting 
at Pilnitz (August 1791) between the Emperor and the King of 
Prussia, who conjointly issued a declaration that ''they considered 
the situation of the King of France a matter of common interest 
to all European sovereigns" — and were resolved to ''enable 
the King to establish a monarchical government, conformable 
alike to the rights of sovereigns and the welfare of the French 

A. D. 1792. CAMPAIGN OF 1792. 43 

natiou." The liberation of the royal family, however, and the 
King's acceptance of the constitution, removed any immediate 
apprehension for their personal safety : and though Sweden and 
Eussia continued to urge the German courts to a hostile demon-* 
stration, no steps were taken in pursuance of the Filnitz mani^ 

72. But the Girondists, who were now the ruling party in 
France, were bent on war at all hazards, in the hope to strengthen 
their own cause by identifying it with that of the national inde^ 
pendence. Isnard, Yergniaud, and Brissot continually poured 
fortli in the Assembly philippics against Austria, denouncing that 
power as the enemy of liberty, and calling on France to anticipate 
its hostility. The reclamations of the Emperor against the 
infringements by the French of the rights of the German princes 
in Alsace, afforded a pretext for hastening the declaration of war, 
which Louis was compelled to publish (April 20, 1792) against 
Austria. The Emperor Leopold, however, had died on the 1st 
of March preceding, leaving his extensive dominions to his son, 
Francis II. ; and his ally, Gustavus of Sweden, was assassinated 
a fortnight afterwards at a masked ball. It seemed as if Provi- 
dence was preparing a new race of actors for the mighty scenes 
which were to be performed. 

II. Campaign of 1792, 

73. France, having decided on war, directed the formation of 
three considerable armies. In the north, 40,000 infantry and 
8000 cavalry, under Marshal Bochambeau, lay from Dunkirk to 
Philipville ; Lafayette, in the centre, had 45,000 foot and 7000 
horse ; and the course of the Rhine, up to Bd.le, was guarded by 
Marshal Luckner with 35,000 infantry and 8000 cavalry. In the 
Bonth General Montesquieu with 50,000 men defended the Rhone 
and the Pyrenees. But these armies were formidable only from 
their numbers : their discipline was extremely defective, and the 
spread of revolutionary license had destroyed their habits of 
subordination and obedience. To oppose them, however, only 

44^ CAMPAIGN OP 1792. a. d. 1792. 

50,000 Prussians, and 65,000 Austrians, with 7000 emigrants, were 
yet in the field : Britain was neutral ; and the Russian legions, 
released from the Danube by the treaty of Jassi, were gradually 
converging from all points towards their destined prey in Poland. 

74. Encouraged by the smallness of the Austrian force in the Low 
Countries, the French determined on the invasion of Flanders, 
which they entered at four different points (April 28). But no 
sooner did the various corps encounter the enemy, than, exclaim- 
ing that they were betrayed, they fled in headlong confusion ; 
and General Dillon, who commanded the division advancing 
from Lille against Tournay, was murdered by his own mutinous 
soldiers. The blame of this disgraceful rout was thrown by the 
Jacobins and war party on Bochambeau, who was accordingly 
dismissed : but the aged Luckner, who replaced him, was equally 
unsuccessful ; and Lafayette sustained a partial defeat near 
Maubeuge. The troops fell into the utmost state of disorganisation 
and discouragement after these defeats : and the Prussians 
anticipated no difficulty in the discomfiture of this ''army of 
lawyers," for whom they had conceived the utmost contempt. 
In the mean time the Allies accumulated on the frontier ; and 
their commander-in-chief, the Duke of Brunswick, prepared to 
enter France by the plains of Champagne. 

75. Since the death of Frederick the Great, whose friend and 
companion in arms he had been, the Duke of Brunswick had 
been considered the ablest prince in Germany : his understanding 
was quick and vigorous, his knowledge various and extensive, 
and his military talents of a high order. But he was immersed 
in pleasures and intrigues, and haunted by the fear of endanger- 
ing his former reputation : he had besides, as is now known, 
opened secret communications with Si^yes and the French philo- 
sophers, who had even held out to him hopes of ascending the 
throne of that country under a new regime. The Prussian 
cabinet, at the same time, intent above all things on securing a 
full share of the spoils of Poland, had taken the lead in the 
coalition chiefly to gratify and propitiate the Empress Catherine, 
whose predominant wish was the extinction of the revolutionary 

A. D. 1792. CAMPAIGN OP 1792, 45 

principle in Europe, and was little aware of the difficulties to 
be surmounted in the enterprise against France. The Duke of 
BntDSwick alone fully appreciated them, and, in a famous memoir 
addressed to the King of Prussia, strongly urged '< immediate and 
decisive operations ; for the French are in such a state of effer- 
vescence, that, if not crushed at the outset, they may become 
capable of the most extraordinary resolutions " — a prediction 
fatally verified in the history of the next twenty years. 

76. On 25th July (the same day on which the King of Prussia 
joined the army) was issued the famous proclamation, the par- 
ticulars of which have been given in a previous section (p. 28). 
The consequences of this ill-judged manifesto were foreseen and 
denounced by the Duke of Brunswick, who was obliged, in his 
official capacity, to sign it ; and his anticipations were speedily 
verified by the indignant spirit of patriotism and resistance which 
it excited among the French people. Meanwhile the whole 
Allied army, 113,000 strong, entered France (July 30), and 
advauced against the line of fortresses which covers the eastern 
frontier of the kingdom, unopposed by the French troops, who, 
though more than equally numerous, were ill-officered and ill- 
disciplined, and paralysed besides by the news of the events then 
in progress in Paris. Longwy surrendered (Aug. 23) after a 
siege of only three days: Verdun shared the same fate (Sept. 2) ; 
and the campaign might have been at once decided, either by a 
rapid march on Paris, or an attack on the French headquarters 
at Sedan, where Lafayette, on learning the Parisian massacres of 
10th August, had deserted his camp, and taken refuge in the 
Austrian lines. But the unaccountable delays of the Allied 
generals enabled Dumourier, who now assumed the command, 
to occupy the wooded defiles of Grandpre and Islettes, in the 
forest of Argonne, where he attempted to make a stand. His 
position was outflanked, however, by Clairfait and the Austrians 
at Croix-au-Bois (Sept. 16) : a panic seized the French, 10,000 
of whom were routed at Vaux by 1500 Prussian hussars ; and it 
was with difficulty that Dumourier effected an orderly retreat 
to St M^nlhould, whither his reserves and detached corps were 

46 CAMPAIGN OF 1792. a. d. 1792* 

drawn together. He was followed hj the Allies, who, crossing 
the Auve (Sept. 18), interposed themselves between the French 
army and Paris ; and a partial engagement ensued at Yalmy on 
the 20th. No decisive advantage resulted to either side from this 
action ; but, from the successful resistance which the raw levies 
of the French opposed on this day to their veteran antagonists, 
may be dated the commencement of that self-confidence which 
carried them victoriously to Vienna and Moscow. 

77. The dilatory movements of the Allies at this juncture are 
partly to be explained by a secret negotiation which Dumonrier 
was carrying on with the King of Prussia ; and even after the 
dethronement of Louis at Paris, the French general still contrived 
to amuse Frederick- William with delusive hopes of his espousing 
the royalist cause. In the mean time, in spite of repeated orders 
from the Convention to march for the protection of Paris, he 
maintained his post at St M6n6hould, till the ravages of disease 
in the Allied ranks, and the refusal of the British and Dutch 
to join the coalition, determined the invaders to retreat. .An 
armistice was accordingly concluded (Sept. 29), in virtue of 
which they restored Longwy and Yerdun, and were allowed to 
retire unmolested — ^having suffered little by the sword, but hav- 
ing lost one-fourth of their number by fevers and dysenteries. 

78. During the progress of these decisive events in the centre, 
minor movements had taken place on both flanks, in Alsace and 
the Low Countries. On the side of the latter, an Austrian force 
under the Archduke Albert, after routing a French corps at 
firuill^, had invested Lille ; but the garrison of this important 
fortress, in spite of a bombardment of unprecedented severity, 
held out till the want of ammunition compelled the besiegers to 
retire (Oct. 7). The offensive operations of General Custine, on 
the Upper Rhine, were meanwhile signalised by the capture of 
Mayence (Oct. 21), which was treacherously yielded without 
firing a shot ; and the Duke of Brunswick, alarmed at the loss 
of the only fortified post held by the Allies on the Rhine, hastily 
transferred his troops to the right bank. The Austrians under 
Clairfait were withdrawn to the defence of the Low Countries ; 

A. D. 1792. CAMPAIGN OF 1792. 47 

and the splendid army, which under proper guidance might have 
achieved the deliverauce of Europe from the scourge of demo- 
cracy, was thus broken up. 

79. Bumourier was now at liberty to renew the invasion of the 
Low Countries ; and he forthwith crossed the frontier at the 
head of 100,000 men. The Austrians under the Archduke Albert 
did not exceed 40,000 ; and their main body, amounting to about 
18,000, was strongly intrenched in a position near Jemappes, 
where it was attacked (Nov. 6) by double that number of French. 
The assailants, mostly raw troops, were at first checked by the 
Austrian cavalry and artillery, and driven back with loss : but the 
youthful Due de Chartres (afterwards Louis Philippe, King of 
the French) rallied the broken columns, and forced the redoubts 
in the centre, while those on the left flank of the Austrians were 
carried by Beumonville and Dumourier himself. The conflict of 
Jemappes, the first pitched battle gained by the Kepublicans, pro- 
duced an incalculable effect on the spirits and moral strength of 
both parties. Mons, Toumay, Ghent, Antwerp, &c., opened their 
gates; Brussels itself was abandoned to the French by the flight 
of the authorities ; and the surrender of the citadels of Antwerp 
(Nov. 30) and Namur (Dec. 2) completed the conquest of the 
Low Countries. In the reduction of the former fortress, a French 
squadron co-operated by sailing up the Scheldt, which, as a 
violation of the treaty of Munster, declaring that river for ever 
closed, was the proximate cause of war with Britain and Hol- 

80. But Flanders was not long in reaping the bitter fruits of 
Kepublican ascendency. The Convention had published (Nov. 19) 
the famous resolution, declaring that *^ they would grant frater- 
nity and succour to every people disposed to recovertheir liberty," 
and charging their generals to aflbrd military aid to all such 
people — ^a decree equivalent to a declaration of war against all 
established governments. This was followed up by another 
manifesto (Dec. 15), proclaiming in all the countries conquered 
by the Republic, " liberty, equality, the sovereignty of the 
people ; with the suppression of nobility and all exclusive privi- 

48 CAMPAIGN OF 1792. a. d. 1792. 

leges, of all subsisting taxes, and all constituted authorities^ — and 
denouncing as enemies ''all who refused to accept these benefits T' 
The Flemings, who were in general strongly attached both to 
their clergy and their feudal lords, were astounded at these 
sweeping innovations ; but resistance was fruitless. A host of 
revolutionary agents, headed by Dan ton, Lacroix, and Carrier, 
forthwith inundated Flanders ; and under pretence of organis- 
vag the march offreedom, drove forward the work of spoliation 
.with stern and insatiable rapacity. The churches and chateaus 
were everywhere plundered ; — forced requisitions and enormous 
contributions levied by military execution, with compulsory 
payments in the depreciated assignats of France, soon awakened 
the people from their dream of liberty ; and a deputation was 
sent to Vienna, imploring the Emperor to rescue his repentant 
subjects. Such were the first fruits of Republican conquest ! 

81. Another war had, in the mean time, broken out on the 
south-eastern frontier, in consequence of the refusal of the King 
of Sardinia to receive an envoy from the Republic. Savoy was 
suddenly invaded (Sept. 21) by General Montesquiou, and was 
overrun almost without resistance ; while Nice, where there was 
a strong republican party, yielded (Oct. l) at the first appear- 
ance of the French fleet. The inhabitants, as in Flanders, were 
rewarded for their friendly reception of the invaders by plunder, 
massacre, and outrage ; and Savoy and Nice were converted into 
departments of France. Geneva was also threatened with 
attack ; but General Montesquiou, by disobeying the orders of 
the Convention, prevented this unjustifiable aggression on 
Switzerland. The defeat of Custine on the Rhine, from the 
right bank of which he was driven by the FrussianSy closed this 
eventful year. 

82. The memorable campaign of 1792 had only commenced in 
August — ^and before the end of the year, the most formidable 
invasion which had ever menaced France had been repelled ; 
Flanders and Savoy wrested from their respective sovereigns ; 
.and Mayence, the great frontier city of the Germanic empire, 


III. Fall of the Girondists, 

83. The death of the King was followed hj a brief revulsion of 
popular feeling ; the name of Santerre was everywhere execrated^ 
and the general cry of the people was — ^'^He was about to 
appeal to us, and we would have delivered him ! " But these 
momentary regrets soon disappeared in the renewal of the 
struggle between the Jacobins and the Girondists, which the 
recent event had rendered irreconcilable. The Jacobins, intoxi*> 
cated with their bloody triumph, reproached the Girondists with 
having attempted to save the ''tyrant ;'' while the weakness of 
the latter party was exposed by their having been at last com- 
pelled, by regard for. their own safety, to leave the illustrious 
victim to his fate. The first symptom of the approaching fall of 
the Girondists was the retirement of Roland from the ministry ^ 
but the influence of external events of importance concurred in 
hastening their ruin. 

84. The first of these was the accession of Britain to the league 
against the Republic, and the enormous military preparations 
which the Convention was obliged to order. By the death of 
Louis they had come to an open rupture with all established gov- 
ernments ; and the reply of one of their armies to the announce- 
ment of his execution — " We thank you for having reduced us 
to the necessity of conquering y"* conveyed a truth which every day 
made more apparent. The &te of the Jacobins was thencefor- 
ward bound up with that of the country ; and the royalists, con- 
stitutionalists, and moderates were irretrievably associated in 
the minds of the people with the enemies of the Republic. The 
popular riots arising from the scarcity of food, which distracted 
Paris during February and March, destroyed what little con- 
Bideration the Girondists still retained. The shops were pillaged, 
and the Jacobins themselves threatened by the hungry mob ; 
while Marat in his journal inveighed against '< the monopolists, 
the merchants of luxury, and the supporters of fraud." The 
expedient of a maam/wmy or price cibo^e which no article of con- 
sumption was to be sold^ was suggested but was opposed as 

60 FALL OP THE GIBONDISTS. 4. d. 1793. 

ruinous to commerce by the Girondists, and even hy the less 
violent of the Jacobins : the populace, however, insisted on it, 
and openly talked of the necessity of a new insurrection, " to lop 
off the gangrened parts of the national representation." 

85. Another source of strength to the Jacobins was the unsuccess^ 
ful movement of Dumourier, who, ever since the death of Louis, 
which he vainly strove to avert, had been engaged in machina- 
tions for the restoration of the constitutional throne. Far from 
disguising his aversion to Jacobin rule, he openly threatened the 
Convention with the vengeance of his army. Danton denounced 
him as a traitor in the Jacobin Club, and he was at length 
ordered to return from the camp to Paris. Instead of obeying, 
however, he arrested the commissioners, and publicly avowed 
his designs ; but he was deserted by his soldiers, and forced to 
take refuge with a few followers in the Austrian lines. This 
formidable conspiracy, by its failure, only confirmed and secured 
the power of the ruling party. 

86. The first open attempt of the Jacobins to crush their oppo- 
nents was made (March 10) by the old expedient of a popular 
insurrection ; but various accidental circumstances rendered it 
abortive. They availed themselves, however, of the agitation 
thus produced to lay the foundation of the iron net which 
enveloped France during the Reign of Terror, by the remodel- 
ling of the Revolutionary Tribunal, and the appointment of 
committees in the departments, armed with almost despotic 
powers for the coercion of the ''refractory," and the general 
promotion of revolutionary purposes. Yergniand and the other 
Girondist orators in vain opposed these fatal objects with all 
their eloquence ; they were overruled by the vehemence of 
Danton and his associates ; and during the panic caused imme- 
diately afterwards by the defection of Dumourier (whom the 
Girondists were accused of favouring), the Jacobins succeeded in 
establishing the famous Committee of Public Salvation, destined 
to complete the crimes, and destroy the authors, of the Revolution. 
This body, though known by the name of the Decemvirs, consisted 
of nine members, who were invested with plenary authority 

i. D. 1793. FALL OF THE GIRONDIST^ 51 

to prepare and execute '< whatever laws and measures the7 migbt 
deem necessaryfor the exterior and interior safetyof the Republie." 

87. The infatuated Girondists still relied on the personal invio* 
lability guaranteed to them as members of the Convention, by the 
same constitution which they had violated on that very point in 
the case of the King. They had recently obtained the ekction 
of Potion, by an immense majority, as mayor of Paris ; and, 
elated by this victory, they ventured to impeach Marat for 
sedition before the Revolutionary Tribunal. All the elements 
of discord were invoked by the Jacobins to counteract this 
vigorous measure : Marat was acquitted (April 15), and escorted 
back to the Assembly in triumph by an immense armed mul^ 
titnde of Sans-eulottes, as the adherents of the Jacobins were 
popularly called. Guadet boldly proposed (May 10) to arrest 
the menaced danger by annuUing the Paris municipality, and 
dividing the Assembly between Paris and Bourges ; but this 
energetic proposition waA eventually exchanged for the nomina- 
tion of a commission of twelve, to watch the proceedings of the 
commune. The first step of this commission was to arrest Hebert, 
a Doted Jacobin, and author of an infamous journal entitled 
Pere Duchesne ; but ihe SaiM-cuhUes again (May 25) rose in 
arms, and besieged the Convention, which, after a desperate 
contest, was compelled (May 27) to liberate Hebert, and abolish 
the commission of twelve. 

88. The majority of the Girondifirts had been absent from the 
Assembly when this decree was extorted ; but their forces were 
rallied on the next day, and on the motion of the intrepid 
Lanjuinais, it was reversed by a majority of 51. The agitation 
was instantly resumed with redoubled violence : Henriot re- 
ceived from the municipality the command of the armed force ; 
and on the 31st all Paris rose in arms. The pikemen of the 
faubourgs, thwarted in their design of pillaging the rich ware- 
houses of the Palais Royal by the determined aspect of the 
inhabitants, rolled on in avast tide to the Tuileries, where, with 
vociferous threats, they demanded the proscription of twenty- 
two of the Girondist leaders, the abolition of the Twelve, and 


52 DEATH OF THE GIRONDISTS. jl. d. 1793. 

the imposition of a maximum on bread. They were seconded 
by Robespierre and his associates, who accused the Girondists of 
conspiring against the Republic, and demanded their immediate 
punishment. At length, on the motion of Barere, the suppres- 
sion of the commission was decreed. But the revolutionists were 
not to be contented with this half success, and the final blow was 
not long delayed. 

89. On the 2d of June the Convention was again surrounded 
by 80,000 armed men, with 160 pieces of cannon, under the com- 
mand of Henriot, and a vehement debate ensued. Lanjuinais 
for the last time protested, with energetic but unavailing fervour, 
against the intimidation and outrage to which they were sub- 
jected, and announced his determination to die at his post: 
Barbaroux followed his example. But all resistance was un- 
availing. The members, in attempting to leave the hall, were 
driven back by the armed bands ; and at length, with the 
dagger at their throats, passed a decree for the arrest of 
Lanjuinais, Yergniaud, Guadet, Potion, Brissot, Barbaroux, 
liouvet, and twenty-three others of less note. The political 
career of the Girondists was terminated, and the triumph of the 
municipality of Paris over the Convention complete. 

90. In the interval between their arrest and trial, many of the 
proscribed members contrived to escape into the provinces ; and 
Lou vet, Lanjuinais, and a few others, after passing through 
dangers which seem like the incidents of a romance, eventually 
evaded pursuit. The remainder were arraigned in October 
before the Revolutionary Tribunal ; and after a trial of nine 
days, in which all the eloquence of Yergniaud and Brissot 
pleaded in vain, were sentenced to death. They were guillo- 
tined on 31st October, and all died with the fortitude of the 
ancient republicans whom they had proposed as their models. 
The death of Madame Roland, who from her splendid talents 
had almost become the head of the party, soon followed. Her 
defence, composed by herself the night before her trial, is one of 
the most eloquent and touching monuments of the Revolution ; 
but it failed to move her inexorable judges, and she bent her 

ji. D.1793. CAMPAIGN OF 1793. 63 

head under the gnillotiDe with a calm serenity worthy of her 
past fame. Her husband^ who had escaped from Paris, was 
'soon after found dead on the road between Paris and Rouen, 
having stabbed himself in that public place that he might not 
betray the friends who had sheltered him. 

91. Thus perish^ the party of the Girondists, reckless in its 

measures and culpable for its rashness, but illustrious in talent, 

and glorious in its fall. Its radical and inherent fault was its 

irreligion ; and the dreadful misfortunes in which its leaders 

inyolved their country, proves the inadequacy of the most splen* 

did genius, without that overruling principle, for the right 

management of affairs. 


IV. Campaign of V7QZ, 

92. During the whole war&re of 1792, Great Britain preserved 
a strict neutrality ; and it was not till the continuance of peace 
became impossible, that her policy underwent a change. The 
overthrow of the throne, the massacres of September, and the 
victories of Dumourier, inflamed the democratic party in France 
to frenzy. The destruction of all established governments, and 
the regeneration of the whole human race, were openly avowed as 
their objects : and an active system of propagandism was forth- 
with put in operation ; while the attacks on Savoy and Switzer- 
land showed that these denunciations were not empty threats. 
At length (Nov. 19 and Dec. 15) the two famous decrees were 
passed, and transmitted to all the generals on service, of which 
an account has been given (p. 47) ; and which, by promising 
armed assistance to the disaffected of all nations, placed the 
Republic openly at war with all established governments. This 
unprecedented line of conduct, joined with the rapid spread of 
Jacobinism in England, left the British cabinet no alternative but 
war : and the aggressions of Dumourier on the Dutch territory, 
with the opening of the Scheldt in defiance of treaties, hastened 
the collision. A show of negotiation was still kept up for a time ; 
but the execution of Louis brought matters to a crisis. Mj 
Chauvelin, the French envoy, was ordered to leave England ; 

54 CAMPAIGN OP 1793* a. d. 1793. 

and on the 3d February the Convention, on the report of Brissot, 
unanimously declared war against Great Britain. 

93. Thus forced into war, the British government proceeded 
(in April) to despatch 20,000 troops under the Duke of York to 
Holland, where they joined 10,000 Hessians and Hanoverians in 
English pay. The aggregate of the Allied fiDrces amounted to 
365,000, acting on the whole of the French frontier, from Calais 
to Bayonne ; those of the Republicans to 270,000, mostly inferior 
troops, but united by similarity of language and government : 
a fresh levy of 300,000 had been ordered by the Convention, but 
had not yet come into action. In the first impulse of horror at 
the death of Louis, a close alliance had been signed between the 
courts of London and St Petersburg (March 25)y declaring the 
suppression of the French Revolution to be " the common interest 
of every civilised state ;" and treaties of a similar tenor were 
concluded by England with Sardinia (April 25) — Spain (May 25) 
•—Naples (July 12) — ^Prussia (July 14)— the Empire (Aug. 30)— 
and Portugal (Sept. 26). 

94. But in the midst of this universal martial preparation, it 
soon became apparent that the French war was, for the present 
at least, a secondary object with the Czarina to the completion of 
her designs upon Poland ; while the mutual jealousy of Austria 
and Prussia was shown by a division of the German armies. 
Still the disorganisation and indiscipline into which the French 
troops in Flanders had relapsed, with their deficiency in stores 
and supplies, afforded the fairest chance of striking a decisive 
blow against them ; but the new generalissimo of the Allies, the 
Prince of Cobourg, was a soldier of the old methodical school, 
and utterly unfit to command at such a juncture. The French 
finances were recruited, previous to the opening of the campaign, 
by a fresh issue of assignats, to the nominal value of 800,000,000 
francs (£33,000,000), secured as before on the national domains ; 
while the British exigencies were met by a loan of £4,500,000, 
from which subsidies were granted to the King of Sardinia and 
several German princes. 

95. The first movement of the campaign was the invasion of the 

i. D. 17934 CAHPAIGN OF 1793. 55 

Datck territoiy, early in February, by Dumonrier : but after the 
reduction of Breda and Gertruydenberg, he was recalled into 
Flanders by the defeat of Miranda, who had been left to besi^ 
Maastricht, but had been driven from his lines by the Austrians, 
under the Archduke Charles. After reorganising his army, the 
French commander resumed offensive operations ; and a general 
action was fonght (March 18) at Nerwinde. The French were 
defeated with the loss of 4000 men ; and such was the dismay 
"with which this disaster inspired their new levies, that several 
thousands disbanded themselves and returned to France ; and 
a convention was concluded on 22d March, by which Brussels, 
Namur, &c, were surrendered as the price of a safe retreat. It 
soon appeared that this convention was only a prelude to the 
desertion of the Republican cause by Dumourier. But he was 
forced, as already mentioned (p. 50), to fly for refuge into the 
Austrian lines ; and the French army retreated upon the frontier 
fortresses, or formed an intrenched camp at Famars. 

96. The failureof this enterprise of Dumourie^led to a change in 
the language of the Allied powers, who, giving up the restoration 
of monarchy as hopeless, began openly to avow projects of con- 
quest and dismemberment — an impolitic step, which at once 
changed the contest from a war of liberation to one of aggran- 
disement With an unaccountable inactivity, however, Cobourg 
lay idle with a splendid army of 120,000 men, till the French, 
recovering from their consternation at the loss of Flanders and 
defection of Dumourier, resumed the offensive under General 
Dampierre, and attacked the Allied lines (May 1). They were 
repulsed with loss : and in an action on the 8th, in which 
Dampierre was killed, the British troops, recently landed, 
for the first time appeared in the field, and the fate of the 
day was decided by a charge of the Guards. The Republicans 
again retired within the camp at Famars ; but this position was 
stormed by the Allies (May 23), and the French fell back to thct 
famous Gamp of Gsesar ; while the Austrians and British, foU 
lowing up their success, laid siege to Valenciennes and. Gqnd^^ 
Both fortresses were vigorously defended ; but Gond6 T^as ob)ige^ 

5C CAMPAIGN OF 1793. a. d. 1793. 

to surrender from want of provisions on I3th July ; and Valen- 
ciennes, when on the eye of a second assault, capitulated on the 
28th of the same month. But the hoisting of the Imperial flag 
on the walls, announcing the intention to retain them as perma» 
nent conquests, not only increased the Prussian jealousy of 
Austria, but was vehemently protested against by the Count 
de Provence (afterwards Louis XVIIL), as a spoliation of his 
infant nephew, Louis XVIL, the son of the murdered King. 

97. The operations on the eastern frontier, meanwhile, had been 
equally favourable to the Allies. The King of Prussia had 
crossed the Rhine (March 24) with 75,000 men ; and Custine^ 
who had only 45,000, retreated to the lines of Weissenburg, 
whence he was soon removed to the command of the Army of 
the North, leaving his men under the orders of Beauhamais. 
The Prussians, in the mean time, sat down before Mayence ; and 
though the non-arrival of the battering-train prolonged the siege 
for two months, the fortress capitulated (July 22) after a fruitless 
attempt by Beaukarnais to relieve it. The survivors of the gar- 
rison, to the number of 17,000, were released on condition of not 
again serving against the Allies — an unfortunate limitation, as 
it admitted their being employed against the Yendean royalists. 
Both Custine and Beauhamais were summoned by the Conven- 
tion to Paris, and guillotined as^an atonement for the loss of the 
fortresses : the name of the latter has acquired a posthumous 
celebrity from the fortunes of his widow, Josephine, the subse- 
quent Empress of Napoleon. 

98. During the sieges of Valenciennes and Cond6, the French 
army had remained shut up in the Camp of Csssar, unable to keep 
the field against the victorious Allies ; and in this last stronghold 
they were attacked on the 8th August. The dispirited and disor- 
ganised Bepublicans fled, almost without firing a shot, at the 
sight of the enemy, and were with difiiculty rallied behind the 
Scarpe, on the last defensible position between the victors and 

99. Never was the revolutionary government in greater danger 
than now. The frontier^ from B&le to Dunkirk, was covered 

A. D. 1793. CAMPAIGN OF 1793. 67 

with 280,000 troops of the Allies ; the barrier of fortresses was 
broken through, and the hostile armies seemed preparing to 
march on Paris, while 60,000 Yendeans threatened the capital in 
the rear ; Toulon and Lyons were in revolt ; and the Republican 
forces were inferior in number, dispirited, and half-disciplined* 
Bat all the deficiencies of the French were speedily remedied by 
the extraordinary energy and ability applied to public affairs after 
the appointment of the terrible Committee of Public Salvation. 
The whole power of France was called forth ; a decree for the levy 
of 1,200,000 men was soon executed ; while a forced tax of a mU^ 
liard of francs (£40,000,000), confiscations, and the unlimited 
issue of assignats, gave the government boundless resources^ by 
Tirtually placing at its disposal all the property of the state. 

100. Meanwhile dismay prevailed in the capital, which was only 
fifteen days' march from the invaders' camp ; but the jealousies 
and selfish policy of the AUied cabinets prevented their generals 
from following up their important successes. The appropriation 
of Valenciennes and Cond6 by the Emperor, and the further 
schemes of aggrandisement avowed by Thugut, who had sue* 
ceeded Eaunitz at the helm of Austrian affairs, had occasioned a 
manifest coolness between Prussia and Austria ; and the efii^ 
ciency of the Allied forces was still further impaired by the 
absurd policy pursued on the Flemish frontier. Instead of 
vigorously pushing the weakened and depressed masses of the 
French, the British and their Allies drew off to besiege Dun« 
kirk, while Quesnoy was invested and taken (Nov. 11) by the 
Austrians. This fatal false step, the blame of wh ieh rests entirely 
with the English cabinet, gave time to the French for the assem- 
blage and organisation of their new levies ; and, as if further to 
facilitate the operations of the enemy, the Allies broke up their 
vast army into detachments, which were scattered all along the 
Belgian frontier. Pressed by the orders of the Convention, 
General Houchard at length attacked the covering force before 
Dunkirk, which was routed ; and the Duke of York, finding his 
flank thus exposed, abandoned his artillery, and raised the siege. 
Houchard, however, being soon after beaten by an Austrian corps 

58 CAMPAIGN OF 1793. a. d. 1793. 

tinder Beaulieu, was proscribed and gdillotined ; and a young 
offieer, hitherto untried, General Jourdan, was nominated com- 

iOl. The Allies were now besieging Maubenge and Landrecy, 
with the view of securing winter-qnarters in the French territory, 
and Jourdan was directed by the Convention to relieve the former 
place. Aware, from the fate of his predecessors, that the alter- 
native was victory or the scaffold, he attacked the Austrian 
covering force (Oct 16) at Wattignies, and defeated it with the 
loss of 6000 men ; on which Cobourg raised the siege, and with- 
drew into winter-quarters beyond the Sambre ; while Pichegm, 
who had succeeded Jourdan, did the same in the intrenched 
camp of Guic6. On the Rhine, meanwhile, the Prussians had 
remained wholly inactive for two months after the fiiU of 
Mayence, contenting themselves with watching the French in 
their lines at Weissenburg. Wearied at length by the torpor of 
his opponents, Moreau assumed the initiative, and attacked the 
Prussian corps at Pirmasens. This bold attempt was repulsed 
(Sept. 14) with the loss of 4000 men ; but it was not till a 
month later (Oct. 18) that the Allies resumed the offensive; 
when the Weissenburg lines were stormed by a mixed force of 
Austrians and Prussians^ and the French fled in confusion almost 
to Strasburg. But this important advantage led to no results, 
though the defeat of the Republicans was hailed by a royalist 
movement in Alsace. The Austrians, immovable in their plans 
of conquest, refused to occupy Strasburg in the name of Louis 
XYIL ; and the unfortunate royalists, abandoned to Republican 
vengeance, wer« indiscriminately consigned to the guillotine by 
a decree of the Convention, while the confederate army was 
occupied in the siege of Landau. But the lukewarmness of the 
Prussians had now become so evident, that it was only by the 
most vehement remonstrances of the Austrian cabinet that they 
were prevented from seceding altogether from the league ; and 
the Republicans, taking advantage of the disunion of their 
enemies, again attacked the Allies (Dec. 26), who were routed 
and driven over the Rhine; while the victors, following up 

A. D. 1793. CAMPAIGN OF 1793. 59 

their success, retook Spires, and advanced to the gates of Mann« 

102. The operations in the Pyrenees and on the side of Savoy, 
during this campaign, led to no important results. On the west- 
ern extremity of the Pyrenees, the Spaniards entered France in 
the middle of April, routed their opponents in several encounters, 
and drove them into St Jean Pied^le-Port An invasion of Rous- 
sillon, at the same time, was equally successful ; and the Spaniards 
maintained themselves in the province till the end of the year, 
taking the fortresses of Bellegarde and GoUioure, and routing two 
armies which attempted to dislodge them, at Truellas (Sept. 22) 
and Boulon (Dec. 7). An attempt of the Sardinians to expel the 
French from their conquests in Savoy was less fortunate ; and, 
at the close of the campaign, hoth parties remained in their 
former position. 

103. But during these indecisive operations of the helligerents, 
the south of France had hecome the scene of a civil war of a more 
important character. The insurrection of 31st May, and the fall 
of the Girondists, had excited violent discontent in these pro- 
vinces, particularly in the great towns of Marseilles, Toulon, and 
Lyons, which were warmly attached to that party. At Lyons 
and Marseilles the Jacohin leaders were put to death ; but the 
revolt of the latter town was crushed on the instant by General 
Garteaux, and all the disaffected perished without mercy by the 
guillotine. A similar fate impended over the Toulonese ; but 
the citizens in this extremity proclaimed Louis XVII., and, ad- 
mitting the British and Spanish squadrons into their harbour, 
surrendered the town, with the French fleet in the port, to 
Admiral Hood. The vengeance of the Republicans, meanwhile, 
was directed in the first instance against Lyons, the armed 
population of which, to the number of 30,000, defended the city 
heroically against Eellermann's army. The siege continued from 
29th July to 10th October ; when, after enduring a tremendous 
hombardment with red-hot shot, which laid most of the build- 
ings in ashes, the besieged were compelled by famine to capitu- 
late. A few, with their brave commander Precy, cut their way 

60 CAMPAIGN OF 1793. a. d. 1793. 

to the Swiss frontier — the remainder were doomed to glut the 
triumphant barbarity of the Republicans. At the head of the 
commission appointed for their punishment were the afterwards 
well-known Fouch6, and the wretch CoUot d'Herbois, whom the 
Lyonese, ten years before, had hissed off their stage as an actor, 
and who now returned in the plenitude of power to indulge his 
revenge. The guillotine was too slow for their thirst of blood : 
the prisoners, bound together by sixties and hundreds, were de- 
spatched by volleys of musketry or discharges of grape. These 
mitraillades and fusillades, as they were termed, were repeated 
duringmany days ; and Bar^re announced to the Convention that 
" the corpses of the rebellious Lyonese, floating down the Rhone, 
would warn the citizens of Toulon of their coming fate ! " 

104. The ruin of Lyons was speedily followed by the investment 
of Toulon by 40,000 men under General Dugommier ; while the 
garrison, under Lord Mulgrave, consisted of 6000 British and 
SOOO Spanish and Italian troops. The principal strength of the 
place lay in the fortified heights of Faron, Malbosquet, and 
Eguilette, or Little Gibraltar, which commanded both the town 
and the harbour ; and against them were accordingly aimed the 
main batteries of the besiegers, directed by a young artillery 
officer, who here made his first step in the road to fame — Napo- 
leon Buonaparte. A desperate sally of the garrison (Nov. 30) 
was repulsed with loss ; and the works of the Little Gibraltar, 
against which Napoleon had concentrated his fire, were stormed 
on 17th December. The capture of this important outwork, by 
rendering the harbour untenable, decided the fate of the place : 
the English, fearful of having their retreat cut off by the destruc- 
tion of their vessels, resolved to embark at once. ; and on the 18th 
Toulon was evacuated. Of the French fleet in the harbour, 
fifteen ships of the line and eight frigates were burnt, to prevent 
their falling into the hands of the Republicans. Three ships, 
and as many frigates, were carried off by the English, and only 
seven ships of the line, with eleven frigates, were saved to the 
Republic. Near 15,000 exiles, of all ranks and ages, crowded on 
board the departing fleet, to escape the vengeance of their coun- 

A, D. 1793L YENDEAN WAR. 61 

trjmen. On those who remained, the fimUades and mUraiUades 
of Lyons were repeated with fearful effect : the very buildings 
of the city, except the naval and military establishments, were 
demolished ; and the name itself of Toulon, by a decree of the 
Convention, superseded by that of Port de la Montague. 

V. War in la Vendee. 

105. La Vendee is bounded on the northand west by the Loire and 
the sea, and extends inland as far as Brissac, Thenars, and Niort. 
It thus corresponds with the four modem departments of Loire- 
Inferieure, Maine-et-Loire, Deux Sdvres, and Vendee, and con- 
tains 800,000 inhabitants.. The Loire separates it from the seat 
of the subsequent Chouan war in Brittany. Its surface mostly 
consists of gently undulating hills separated by narrow valleys : 
the Bocage, as its name imports, is covered with trees, but scat- 
tered through the hedgerows rather than in large masses ; and 
near the sea, on the south, lie the salt marshes of the Marais. 
The great road from Nantes to Bochelle is the only one travers- 
ing the district, but it is intersected in all directions by deep 
narrow lanes, which in winter generally become the beds of 
streams. There are no manufactures or great towns ; and the 
land, at this time, was almost wholly divided into small farms, 
the tenants of which paid their rents in kind. The peasants 
were a simple and honest race, devotedly attached to their seig- 
neurs — ^who, contrary to the habits of other provinces, were all 
resident among them — and looking up with filial veneration to 
their pastors, whose life and benevolence rendered them a faith- 
ful image of the primitive church. 

106. Among apopulation thus constituted, the tenets of the Revo- 
lution were little likely to meet a favourable reception. But the 
peasants at first submitted in silence ; and it was not till they 
saw their clergy expelled for refusing to take the revolutionary 
oaths, that their indignation burst forth both in la Vendue and 
Brittany. The severity with which the first overt acts of resist- 
ance were punished added fuel to the flame ; and on the attempt 

62 VENDEAN WABi. A. D. 1793. 

(March 1793) to enforce the levy of 300,000 men ordered by the 
Convention; a general and simultaneous revolt broke out. 50,000 
men of all ranks rose in arms ; a carter named Cathelineau was 
raised, from his intelligence and bravery, to the chief command ; 
Stofflet, originally a gamekeeper, and others of the same rank, 
were joined in the leadership with the noble names of Lescnre, 
d'Elbee, de Larochejacquelein, and Bonchamp : Charette, the 
last of this illustrious band, succeeded to eminence later in the 
War. Of the forces under their orders, 12,000 under Bonchamp 
opposed the Republicans on the side of Anjou : from 20,000 to 
30,000 formed the grand army under d'Elb6e ; and the army of 
the Marais, under Charette, numbered 20,000 more. Their 
method of fighting was adapted to the nature both of the troops 
and the country. The numerous hedges were lined with con- 
cealed musketeers, who, suffering the hostile columns to get 
fairly enveloped, opened on them a murderous fire from all 
points, which was kept up till they fell into confusion, when the 
Boyalists burst from their concealment, and fell sword in hand 
on the thinned ranks of the enemy. In a wooded and imper- 
vious country, where every man's hand was against them, the 
destruction of the Bropublicans, when once broken, was generally 
complete ; and the peasant victors, after flocking to the churches 
to render thanksgivings for their triumph, returned home to 
their customary pursuits, till agaiff summoned to arms by their 

107. The early measures directed by the Convention against the 
revolters exceeded even the usual spirit of sanguinary ruthless- 
ness. Their soldiers were ordered to exterminate men, women, 
children, animals, and vegetation ; the country being destined 
'' to be repeopled by colonies of patriots." But the humanity of 
the Boyalists, in the early stages of the war, was equally conspi- 
cuous with their piety and enthusiastic valour. In one instance 
only, at Machecoul, in Lower Foitou, were the atrocities of their 
adversaries retaliated by the massacre of 500 Bepublicanfr— a 
crime which drew after it its own punishment, by stimulating 
the subsequent desperate resistance of Nantes. At the storm- 

A. n. 1793. YENDEAN WAR; 63 

ing of Thonars, Chataignerie, and Fontenay (May), by the 
followers of Lescure and Larochejacquelein, not an inhabitant 
was ill-treated, nor a house pillaged, though those towns had 
been in the preceding August stained by massacres of Royalists : 
even their prisoners were dismissed after being marked by 
sbayiog their heads. In the mean time, an attempted invasion 
of la Yend^, through the Marais, had been repulsed by the other 
chiefs ; and all the Royalist bands, to the number of 40,000 men, 
drew together for a decisive effort. The fortified camp of the 
Bepublicans, under the walls of Saumur, was defended by 22,000 
regulars, with 100 pieces of cannon and a host of national guards ; 
and the first charge of the Yendeans was repulsed by a furious 
charge of cuirassiers ; but their impetuosity at length surmounted 
all obstacles, and their victory (June 10) waa a Hblt more im- 
portant one than any the Allies had yet gained. 80 cannons, 
10,000 muskets, and 11,000 prisoners, were the trophies of the 
day, while the conquerors lost only 60 killed and 400 wounded. 

108. After this signal victory, the Yendean leaders, instead of ad- 
vancing on Paris, imprudently directed their forcesagainst Nantes, 
on the sea-coast (June 29). Three-fourths of their army dispersed 
to their homes after the capture of Saumur ; the citizens, who 
dreaded a repetition of the massacre at Machecoul, co-operated 
zealously with the Republican troops in the defence ; and the 
Ml of Cathelineau, who was struck down mortally wounded, 
decided the failure of the enterprise. He died a fortnight after- 
wards, and with him died the best hopes of the Royalist party. 

109. During the absence of the grand army before Nantes, a 
corps led by Westermann, the well-known leader of the insur- 
gents on the 10th of August, had penetrated into the Bocage, and 
burnt the chateaus of Lescure and Larochejacquelein : but the 
arrival of Stofllet and Bonchamp changed the aspect of affairs ; and 
'Westermann, after losing two-thirds of his men, with difficulty 
made his escape with the remainder. A fresh invasion was soon 

^ attempted by an army of 50,000 men, under Biron and the fatally 
celebrated Santerre; but though d*Elble (who had succeeded 
Cathelineau as generalissimo) was defeated at Lu9on (Aug. 15), 

64 VENDEAN WAR. a. d. 179a 

the Republican columns shared the fate of their predecessors, 
and were mostly destroyed in detail. The Convention, now 
fully roused to the danger of the war, collected forces from all 
quarters to crush it : the levie en maue of the neighbouring 
departments was called out ; and before the middle of Septem- 
ber, 200,000 men surrounded la Vendue on all sides. Among 
these were the veteran garrisons of Mayence, Valenciennes, and 
Cond6, which had been released on parole on the capture of those 
places by the Allies, and were commanded by EJeber ; but these 
formidable troops were overthrown at Torfou (Sept. 10) by the 
heroism of the Vendeans under Lescure ; and Beysser*s division 
(Sept. 20) shared the same fate at Montaigut. General Bossignol, 
on the other side, had already (Sept. 15) been utterly defeated 
with his column at Coron ; and the whole invasion was thus 
effectually baffled by the heroism of the peasants, and the mili- 
tary talents of their leaders. 

. 1 10. But these triumphs were only the prelude to disasters still 
greater. While the Vendeans, seeing the present danger over, 
had as usual left their standards and returned home, a fresh army 
was already advancing under General Lechelle, a leader of great 
ability ; and at this critical moment the dissensions of the 
B>oyali8t chiefs, as to the plan of operations, led to a division of 
their forces. While Charette drew off to the Isle of Noirmoutier, 
the followers of de Larochejacquelein were defeated at Chatillon 
(Oct. 12) by Westermann ; and Lescure was mortally wounded 
(Oct. 14) in a conflict near Chollet. Three days later, a general 
engagement was fought near the same place ; but the Royalists, 
at first successful, were dismayed by the fall of d'Elb6e and Bon- 
champ, and the onset of the hostile cavalry completed their 
confusion and rout. The Republicans carried fire and sword 
with unsparing barbarity through the country ; and the Ven- 
deans, followed by their families, to the total number of 80,000, 
crowded together to St Florent on the Loire, where the whole 
body, abandoning their native land amid loud lamentations, 
crossed the river into Brittany (Oct. 18).. Bonchamp died of 
his wounds at St Florent, after ennobling his last moments by 


^ D. 1793. YENDEAN WAB. 65 

saving the lives of the Republican prisoners from the vengeance 
of his soldiers. 

111. Henri de Laroehejacquelein was now chosen general ; and 
Lechelle, who had flattered himself that the insurrection was 
utterly crushed, marched in pursuit as soon as he became aware 
of the transfer of the theatre of war. The Vendeans were attacked 
at Chateau-Gontier, (Oct. 25) ; but their prowess was now 
stimulated by despair, and animated by the exhortations and 
example of their heroic leader. So complete was the defeat of 
the Republicans, that scarce 7000 men could be rallied at Angers 
after the action ; and while the mob of Paris was exulting in 
the thought that « la Vendue is no more ! " it was announced to 
the Convention by General Lenoir, that " the rebels might now 
march to Paris if they chose." Had this bold step been taken^ 
it might at once have terminated the war ; but the hopes which 
had been held out to them of effective British succour, if they 
could secure a seaport, unfortunately determined them to attack 
Granville. Having no battering cannon, they boldly attempted 
to carry it by escalade, (Nov. 14) ; but the resistance of the 
Republicans was as brave as the assault ; and after a murder- 
ous conflict of thirty-six hours, the Vendeans were beaten oflf 
with a loss of 1800 men, and retreated from the coast only a 
few days before the arrival on it of a British flotilla, bearing 
to their aid 10,000 troops under Lord Moira, which returned to 
England when the failure at Granville became known to them. 
112. This check proved extremely hurtful to the Vendean cause. 
The troops mutinied against Laroehejacquelein ; and though the 
authority of Stoflaet succeeded in restoring order, the generals 
were forced to yield to the wishes of the soldiers, who had set 
their hearts on returning to la Vendue. Rossignol, with 36,000 
men, attempted to bar their march, but in two sanguinary 
actions at Pontorson and Antrain, the Republicans were driven 
from the field by the furious onset of the Royalists, who, advan- 
cing to Angers, essayed to carry the town by a coup-de-main. 
But they were repulsed with loss ; and, unable to pass the Loire 
in that direction, the Vendean host, worn gut with hunger and 

66 VENDEAN WAE, A. d. 1793-4. 

fatigue, and encumbered with a helpless train of women and 
children, turned their steps towards Mans. In this town they 
were assailed (Dec. 12) by 40,000 Republicans under Marceau, 
Westermann, and Kleber, and, after a heroic defence, forced in 
confusion to the plain, where men, women, and children, were in- 
volved in horrible and indiscriminate carnage. A few thousands 
who escaped from Mans werQ overwhelmed and slaughtered 
(Dec. 23) at Savenay, fighting to the last with invincible con- 
stancy ; and of 80,000 souls who had crossed the Loire six weeks 
before scarcely, 8000 made their way back to la Vendee. Jiany 
of these were hunted down and put to death by the Republicans ; 
while others, among whom were Mesdames de Larochejacquelein 
and Bonchamp, owed their lives to the courageous hospitality 
of the peasants. 

113. While the bulk of the Royalists were absent on this fatal 
expedition, Charette had remained with few thousand men in 
la Vendue, and had fortified the Isle of Noirmoutier as a strong- 
hold. It was captured, however, during his absence, by General 
Thurreau; and the gallant d'Elb6e, who had been removed 
thither, after being disabled by his wounds in the battle of 
Ghollet, was taken and put to death. Larochejacquelein soon 
afterwards fell in a skirmish ; and the Yendean war would have 
ended, had the Republicans used their victory with moderation. 
But the darkest period of the tragedy was now only commen- 
cing ; twelve corps, aptly denominated iinfemal columns^ were 
formed by Thurreau, with orders to traverse the country in 
every direction — seize or destroy all the cattle and grain — 
slaughter all the people— and burn all the houses. These 
orders were too faithfully executed ; and the fugitives from this 
ruthless proscription formed the germ of the redoubted Chouan 
bands, which, under Stofflet and the indomitable Charette, long 
upheld the Royalist cause in the western provinces. 

114. But even the horrors perpetrated by Thurreau fell short of 
the scenes enacted at Nantes, where a revolutionary tribunal, pre- 
sided over by Carrier, exceeded even the cruelties of Dantou and 
Robespierre. " The principle was," says a Republican historian 

A. D. 1793. BEIQN OF TERBOB. 67 

''that it was necessary^ to destroy all the prisoners en masse;'* 
nor were thej long in carrying it into effect As the guillotine 
and the dagger were too slow in their operations, and the exe- 
cutioners became exhausted with fatigue, the prisoners were 
carried out in vessels, and drowned bj wholesale in the Loire, 
while armed men on the banks cut down all whom the waves 
threw ashore alive. In one of these noyadeSy as they were called, 
100 priests perished together ; in another, 140 women were con- 
signed to death on mere suspicion. Many hundreds of infants 
were among the victims ; and to the entreaties of the citizens 
in their favour, Carrier replied, ^ They are vipers ; let them be 
stifled." The waters of the Loire were infected by the multitude 
of corpses, and even the fish became poisonous from eating putrid 
flesh. In one month 15,000 persons were either slaughtered or 
died in prison at Nantes : the total victims of the Reign of 
Terror at that place exceeded 30,000. 

115. The Yendeans in general met death with the most heroic 
fortitude ; and the Breton peasants, though numbers of them were 
shot for sheltering the proscribed, persevered with generous and 
undaunted humanity in their efforts in behalf of these hapless 
fugitives. ^ The poor people also in Nantes," says Madame de 
Larochejacquelein, " were exceedingly kind ; the ferocious class 
who aided in the massacres and noyades were the little shop- 
keepers and more opulent artisans," — ^words which too truly 
designate the sphere in which revolutionary fervour is always 
most violent and sanguinary. 

VL ^eign of Terror—Exemtum of the Queen Marie-AntoineUey 

and ofDanton. 

116. On the fall of the Girondists, the most extravagant joy 
prevailed among the Jacobins at their decisive triumph, and they 
forthwith proceeded to form a new government, of which the 
Committee of Public Salvation was the nucleus. Robespierre, St 
Just, Couthon, Billaud Yarennes, and Collot d'Herbois, were 
elected members, and speedily ejected their more moderate col- 

68 REIQM OF TEBBOR. «. d. 1793. 

leagues ; Camot became miniater-of-war, aud the other depart- 
ments of government were divided among the remainder. Tbe 
Convention, gilent and powerless, was compelled to pass a decree 
vesting all the povrera of the state in the Committee till the 
conclusion of a general peace ; and thns the Terrorists, having 
leted the destraction of tbeir enemies, prepared to arrest 
'ila which thej themselves had cansed, by the sanguinary 
>f despotism. 

. The control of the Jacobins was not, however, established 
lut resistance in the provinces. In almost all the towns, 
itional guards were at first refractory ; but the mnnicipsl 
rities, elected by universal suffrage, were everywhere in the 
st of the democrats,and the power thus wielded universally 
ilod. In the south, whence came most of tha Qirondbt de- 
I, the abhorrence of anarchical principles burst out in the 
I whose bloody suppression has been previously narrated, 
. The terrific power held over the lives and fortunes of iu- 
lals by the Committee of Public Salvation was nveted more 
r than ever by the Law of the Suspected (Sept. 17), which 
ited to arrest all who were in any way obnoxious to the 
; powers, or even related to any of the emigrants. Tbe 
itionary committees were frightfully multiplied through- 
ranee — 50,000 were soon in operation, embracing not less 
640,000 member^ each of whom rec^ved three franca in 
lats daily from the state ; and in the immense numbers thus 
oally interested in its preservation, is to be found the true 
. of the long duration of the Beign of Terror. The prisons 
everywhere crowded with victims; the federalists and 
ists were sent to the scaffold ; and many, whose only crime 
vealth, were forced to purchase safety by surrendering it 
) state. In the Parisian prisons, the ordinary malefactors 
mingled with all yat remaining of dignity, beauty, or 
9 ; and the scenes which ensued, from the action of the 
]qiierableelasticity of the French character on thb unparal- 
asBociation, exhibited the most extraordinary of spectacles, 
). In the midst of these eventa, one of the tyrants fell by the 


hand of a female enthnsiast. Charlotte Corday, a youDg lady 
of Bonen, of great beauty and masculine courage, conceived the 
idea that the bloodshed might be checked by the death of Marat, 
whom she regarded as the originator of all the atrocities. Filled 
with this resolution, she repaired to Paris, and, obtaining access 
to him under pretence of communicating intelligence of some 
Girondist deputies who had found refuge at Caen, stabbed him 
to the heart. Sbe suffered death with the serenity of a heroine 
and a martyr ; and the apotheosis of Marat was celebrated with 
extraordinary pomp by the Jacobins, who took this opportunity 
to arrest 73 members of the Conyention, the broken remains of 
the Girondist party. 

120. Marie- Antoinette was the next victim. Since the death of 
the King, the royal family had continued in the Temple, subjected 
to every privation and insult ; the young Dauphin, by an inge- 
nious refinement of cruelty, had been separated from his mother ; 
and on the 2d August the Queen was transferred to a dungeon of 
the Conciergerie. After being closely confined there more than 
two months, she was brought (Oct. 14) before the Revolutionary 
Tribunal. The trial of a queen by her subjects was new in the 
history of the world ; and though sorrow and confinement had 
whitened her once beautiful hair, her figure and air still excited 
admiration ; but she was condemned as soon as the form of trial 
was gone through, and suffered (Oct. 16) on the same spot where 
her husband perished, with a firmness and Christian hope worthy 
of the daughter of the Caesars. Few human beings have passed, 
in a life of thirty-nine years, through more awful vicissitudes, 
and her character passed pure and unsullied through the revolu- 
tionary furnace. 

121. The death of the Queen was followed by an act of wanton 
barbarity — ^the violation of the royal tombs at St Denis. The 
bodies of the deceased kings were scattered in the air ; the glo- 
rious names of Turenne and Duguesclin could not save their 
graves from profanation ; and the example was followed up by 
a general destruction of the monuments of antiquity through 
France. Nothing now remained to the Revolutionists but to 

70 BEIGN OF TEBBOB. a. d. 1793. 

defy heaveu itself ; and accordingly (Not. 7} Christianity was 
solemnly abjured, at the instance of the mnsidpality, by Oobel, 
thn nnostate bishop of Paris. The contagion of infidelity soon 
la universal. The churches were plundered ; and a femala 
traordinary beauty, but loose character, was introduced 
the Convention, and afterwards publicly enthroned in 
' Dame, as the lepresentative of the Goddess of Reason [ 
nlendar bad already been changed ; the Sabbath and the 
es of religion were now abolished, and each month was 
id into three decades. Marriage was declared a civil cen- 
and divorce made legal on any grounds, however frivolous ; 
rtural consequence of which was an unexampled corruption 
rals. All academies, school!i,and colleges, were suppressed ; 
the hospitals and public charities were not spared in the 
al havoc, and all their domiuns were sold as national pro- 

I. The Decemvirs next proceeded to destroy their former 
is, the earliest supporters of the Bevolntion. Bailly, the first 
lent of the Assembly, was the first who fell (Not. 11) under 
lin vengeance ; fiarnare, Dutertre, and others soon fol- 
1 ; and Condorcet only avoided the guillotine by suicide. 
^nerals Cuatine and Houchard atoned with their lives for 
ill success ; and the Duke of Orleans, doomed by the voice 
I former friend Robespierre, died, regretted by none, with a 
less of which his former life had shown no promise. Still 
parties remained opposed to the DecemTirs, and yet more 
riy to each other — the Anarchists of the municipality and 
lantonists or moderate Jacobins, headed by Dan ton, Wesler- 
1, Camille Desmoulins, &,c This latter party had become 
aged from Robespierre tance the revolt of the 31st Maf, 
the real objects of which they had been imperfectly 
tinted ; and the schism was gradnally approaching an open 
ire. The exasperation of the strife between the Dantonists 
the Anarchists, however, prevented this for a time from 
ning apparent ; and Robespierre, dexterously profiting if 
singular utuation of parties, came to a secret agreement 


with the municipality, by which he gave up the Dantonists to 
their yengeance, on condition of their abandoning the Anarchist 
leaders — ^Hebert, Clootz, Gobel the apostate bishop, Ghauinette, 
and their followers — ^to the Decemvirs. 

123. The Anarchists were first proscribed, and fell (March 24, 
1794) almost without a struggle. Their efforts to rouse the popu- 
lace once more to insurrection proved fruitless, and the unmanly 
cowardice of these wretches in their last moments showed the 
native baseness of their dispositions. But Danton and his parti- 
sans were not long allowed to exult over their downfall. The 
effort to reconcile him with his former friend Robespierre failed ; 
and on the night of 30th March he was arrested with Herault de 
Sechelles, Camille Desmoulins, Lacroix, and Westermann. On 
entering the prison, Danton exclaimed, ^ At last I perceive that 
in revolutions power finally rests with the most abandoned ! *' 
Memorable words from such lips ! 

124. Their arrest produced a violent agitation, both in Paris and 
the Convention, and Legendre loudly protested against it. But 
the fetters of the Assembly were too firmly riveted to be shaken 
off, and they crouched before the denunciations of Robespierre 
and St Just, who charged the accused with having been accom- 
plices in every conspiracy, royalist or anarchist. The absurdity 
of thus supposing them in league with their bitterest enemies 
was obvious ; but the overawed Assembly sent them to the 
Revolutionary Tribunal. Their indignant defence was cut short 
by Fouquier Tinville, the public a6cuser — a man in whom every 
human passion, even that of avarice, seemed extinct, and who 
was intent only on bloodshed. They were sentenced to death, 
and met their fate with stoical intrepidity. '' We are sacrificed,*' 
said Danton, " to the ambition of a few rascally brigands ; but 
they will not long enjoy their triumph. I drag Robespierre 
after me in my fall." 

72 BEIQN OF TEBBOB. a. d. 1794. 

Vir. Selgn of Terror— FaU of Rohespierre. 

126. The death of Danton was followed by immediate and un- 
qualified submission from every part of France, and even his old 
friend Legendre declared himself satisfied of his guilt. TheOoro* 
mittee of Public Salvation, now confident in its own strength, 
proceeded to disband the rerolntionaiy army of Paris, and su^^ 
press all popular societies which were not offshoots from the 
great parent olnb of the Jacobins. The situations of the dif- 
ferent ministers were also abolished, and twelve committees 
appointed to carry on the details of government. The anarchy of 
revolution had destroyed itself ; and from its ruins rose the 
stem and relentless despotism of a few political fanatics. Robes- 
pierre was their nndispnted leader ; but he was associated with 
two others more pitiless than himself — St Jnst and Conthoo. 
The former, the true picture of an austere and gloomy fanatic, 
was at once the most resolute, the most sincere, and the most 
inflexible of his party ; the latter, mild in countenance and half 

lysed in figure, was the creature and tool of Eobespierre, 

led by this triumvirate, who excluded all who retained any 
iments of humanity, the Jacobin Club became the complete 
itessence of cruelty, and the work of extermination went 
ly on. "The vessel of Revolution," said St Just, "can arrive 
ort only on a sea reddened with waves of blood !" 
:6. Seven thousand captives weresooncollected in theParisian 
ms, and the number throughout France exceeded 200,000. 
the comforts at first allowed to prisoners of fortune were 
idrawB, and only the coarsest and most unwholesome fare 
allowed. The progress of the executions not proving rapid 
igh for the views of Fouquier Tinville, he pretended to have 
ivered a conspiracy in the prisons ; and those whom he 
ired implicated were instantly led to the guillotine. The 
esaion of death left the prison each day at a stated boor ; 
rst fifteen victims were selected daily, but the number was 
augmented to thirty, and ultimately to eighty. The arrests 
!ased in proportion ; no one felt secure for an hour ; and 

A. 0. 1794. SEIGN OF TERBOS. 73 

numbers committed suicide from inability to bear suspense. 
*^ Had the reign of Robespierre," says Fr^ron, " lasted longer, 
multitudes would have thrown themselves under the guillotine : 
the loye of life was extinct in every heart" 

127. In the midst of these atrocities, the Convention was occu- 
pied in honouring the civic virtues, to the celebration of which 
were appropriated a certain number of the decadal fdtes. A re- 
markable speech was pronounced by Robespierre at this period, 
in which he distinctly avowed his belief in the existence of God, 
and the immortality of the soul ; and on the 2l8t Prairial 
(June 7) a magnificent f6te, in honour of the Supreme Being, 
was celebrated in the garden of the Tuileries, in which Robes^ 
pierre officiated as pontiff. As a commentary on this, a decree 
appeared on the following day, by which evidence against the 
accused was dispensed with when the tribunal felt convinced ; 
and, armed with this accession of power, the proscriptions pro> 
ceeded during the next two months with redoubled vigour. 
Among the crowd of victims were the venerable Malesherbes, 
the intrepid defender of Louis XYI. ; Madame Elizabeth, the 
sister of the monarch ; Beauhamais, the first husband of the 
Empress Josephine ; and Madame Dubarri, the infamous mis- 
tress of Louis XV. The son of Buffon, the daughter of Yemet, 
perished without regard to the illustrious names they bore: 
Lavoisier was cut off in the midst of his profound chemical 
researches : a little time longer would have swept away all the 
literary talent, as well as the nobility of France. A few ques- 
tions sufficed for a trial ; and on leaving court, or next morning 
at latest, they v^re led to die. Fouquier Tinville even proposed 
to erect a guillotine in the court-room for instant use; but 
OoUot d'Herbois objected to this, as "tending to demoralise 
punishment." The cruelties in the provinces kept pace with 
those of the capital ; and Carrier at Nantes, and Lebon at Arras, 
even went beyond their models. 

128. But there is a limit to human suffering — an hour when na- 
ture will no longer submit, and courage rises out of despair. The 
middle classes, who formed the strength of the national guard. 

74 IHPEACHHENT OF B0BG8P1EBEE:. a. d. 17«. 

hegui to be alanned at the rapid progress aod evident deteent 
of the proBcriptioDB, nbich, beginning with the nobles and 
clergy, were fast approaching every class above the lowest. In 
the last days of the Reign of Terror, mechanics and artisans 
are found on the lists of the doomed ; and the revulsion of 
! feeling was openly manifested. The Convention itself 
to tremble, as it was known that many of its leading meni' 
rere objects of suspicion to the tyrant, whose apprehension a 
een increased to the higheit degree by a fniitless attempt 
assinate him. Eenriot, with others of his violent parti- 
itrongly urged a new insurrection against the Convention ; 
«bespierre himself in the Jacobin Club, made little secret 
I intention to decimate the Assembly by the extermioa- 
f his old associates of the Mountain, — Tatlien, Bourdon de 
Thuriot, Yadier, &e. On the Sth Tbermidor (July SS) 
ntest began in the National Convention. The discourse of 
pierre was dark and enigmatical ; he declared that a con- 
y existed in the bosom of the Convention, and demanded 
inishment of the traitors. The menaced deputies, how- 
defended themselves with intrepidity. " It is no longer 
'or dissembling," was the bold exclamation of Cambon ; 
man paralyses the Assembly, and that man is Robes- 
." Billaud Varennee, Vadier, and Fr^ron followed in the 
strain ; and Robespierre retired, surprised at the reeia- 
he had experienced, but confident of success from the armed 
nent which had been £xed for the following day. 
, The respite thus afibrded was employed by his antagonists 
icting a coalition of their forces ; the relicsof the Girondists, 
le Jacobins of the Mountain, moved by the imminence of 
mmon danger, agreed to bury their differences in oblivion ; 
«bespierre was confronted in the Convention, on the 27th 
byaphalanxofdeterminedand desperate men. Tallien,in 
passioned harangue, recapitulated the enormities of which 
rant bad been guilty, denounced the plot which be was 
raming against the Convention, and ended by impeaching 
F treason, with Dumas, Henriot, and others of hb satellites. 


Robespierre in Tain endeayonred to obtain a hearing in the midst 
of the tnmult of applause which followed this address ; his voice 
yns drowned by vociferations of " Down with the tyrant ! " He 
quitted the hall in dismay, and was immediately arrested and 
imprisoned, with his principal adherents. But the municipality 
was still firm : Robespierre was released by a detachment of 
national guards, and brought in triumph to the Hotel de Yille ; 
and the armed sections, surrounding the hall of the Convention, 
pointed their artillery against its walls. The fate of the Assembly 
for the moment appeared to tremble in the balance. 

130. In this dreadful extremity, the firmness of Tallien and 
his friends did not desert them. They instantly passed decrees 
dedaring Robespierre, Henriot, and all their associates of the 
municipality, to be hors la loi (outlaws), and summoned the 
national guard to rally for the defence of their representatives. 
The agitation in the city became dreadful ; but Henriot, unable 
to persuade his cannoneers to fire on the Convention, withdrew 
to the Hotel de Yille, whither he was pursued by Barras, at the 
head of such of the national guards as remained faithful to the 
goyemment. A terrible contest appeared inevitable ; but the 
insurgent troops at first hesitated, and finally refused to resist the 
decree of the Convention ; and the conspirators, finding them- 
selves unsupported, gave way to despair. Lebas died by his 
own hand ; but Robespierre, whose jaw had been shattered by a 
pistol-shot, was seized and dragged in triumph to the Conven- 
tion, with St Just, Henriot, Couthon, Cofi&nhal, and all their 
party. Their trial and condemnation by the Revolutionary 
Tribunal was soon despatched; and at four in the morning 
(July 29) they were sent to the scaffold. All Paris was in motion 
to see the death of the tyrants, none of whom, except St Just, 
showed any of the firmness which had been so often displayed by 
their victims. Couthon wept with terror ; and Robespierre, man- 
gled and bleeding, uttered a dreadful yell when the executioner 
tore the bandage from his mutilated features. For some minutes 
he was exhibited, a ghastly spectacle, to the multitude, whose 
shouts of execration rang in his ears as the axe descended. 


TIIL Internal State qf France dwrwiy the Reign ef Terror. 

131. Nothing coold have enabled France to make head, agaiiut 
ler internal difficulties, and the attack of the Boropean 

in 1793, except the immense levies of I,SOO,000 men, and 
nfiscation of half the land in the kingdom, on which was 
id a boandlees issue of assignats. These great measnres, 
QonebutarevolntioDarygoTernmeiitcould have attempted, 

the same timetheeffectof perpetuating the revolntionuy 
1, hj the important interests thus made to depend npon it. 
g the nnparalleled and almost demoniac energy thus sud' 
and powerfully developed, France was unconquerable; and 

their combined operation which brought it triumphant 
;Ii that unprecedented crisis. 

The Nvil force exerted at this period was not less wonderful 
he military power ; 50,000 rerolntionary committees were 
sod, embracing above 500,000 members, whose joint salaries 
ited to ^34,000,000 annually. All the active and resolute 
1 France were thus drawn into either the civil or the mili- 
srvice. After the fall of Robespierre, it appeared that the 
lal expenditure had exceeded £12,000,000 a-month — an 
ions ontlay, which could only be met by an incessant issue 
>er-money, in which all government payments were made. 
3 a natural consequence, the depreciation of these securities 
sed in proportion with their qnantity, till they at length 
■o a twentieth part of their nominal value. The prices of 
■s of consumption consequently rose, while the means of 
aae were wanting ; and the alarming height to which the 
» and discontent of the lower orders speedily mounted, 
itated the law of the inazimuni (May 4, 1793), by which 
Ideis of grain, &c, were compelled to bring it in, and sell 
irices fixed by each commune. The necessity of feeding 
vereign multitude was obvious and imperative : in Paris, 
I time, not fewer than 636,000 persons reeeived daily rations ; 
he forced requisitions not only of grain, but of horses, 


ammnnition, and stores of every sort, became an almost intoler- 
able burden to proprietors, i^ho were paid only in worthless 
assignats. The armies, the state, and the imperious populace of 
the cities, were in fact supported by public robbery committed 
on the agriculturists. 

133. Another expedient of the goyernment, during the Reign 
of Terror, was tL farced loan on the opulent classes, according to 
the amount of their incomes ; while the capital of the previous 
national debt was virtually extinguished, by being converted 
into perpetual annuities at five per cent, the state being for 
ever relieved from discharging the principal. All the measures of 
government, however, notwithstanding their despotic severity, 
oonld not sustain the value of the assignats, or keep down the 
price of provisions ; the inevitable ruin which soon overtook the 
shopkeepers did not diminish the evil ; and the Convention was 
besi^ed with violent petitions from the starving people. Metallic 
currency had almost wholly disappeared ; and the change of all 
the weights and measures, with the introduction of the system of 
decimal notation, bewildered the ignorant as much as the con- 
stant fluctuations of the paper-money alarmed the merchants. 
A Committee of Subsistence was appointed, with absolute 
powers extending over all France ; laws were passed, forbidding 
the baking bread of superior quality ; all the animals intended 
for consumption in the capital were slaughtered in public, and 
the butchers allowed to deliver only half a pound of meat per 
head every five days to each family. But all these arbitrary 
measures did little to mitigate the scarcity ; and the impossi- 
bility of maintaining the needy and imperious mob, on whose 
pleasure their own existence depended, was the grand difficulty 
of the ruling powers throughout the Reign of Terror. 

134. Such were the efi'ects produced by the Revolution, before 
the overthrow of Robespierre, on the value of property. Never 
in the world before had so great an experiment been made, and 
never were the disasters of popular ascendency so fully exem- 
plified. The changes which had been begun in order to avert 
national bankruptcy, had led to the most unheard-of disasters. 


The King, the nobles, and the clergy, who hfMl resigned their 
"— '""'ve rights to forward the cause of liberty, had either fallen 
I guillotine, or were wandering, hooselesi and destitute 
in foreign lands. The merchantg, whose jealousy of the 
had first fostered the flame, «ere consnmed in the eon- 
ion ; the commerce, colonies, and mannhctnres of the 
f were blasted bj a relentless despotism, and a ruinous 
of paper currency. The capitalists, who were the 
lal public creditors, were crushed by the operation of the 
ftuse ; while the miserable fundholders of small amounts 
3 whole of their little incomes, and were reduced to otter 
tion. As the movement advanced, the shopkeepers, whose 
i», and whoeo popular fervour so long supported the 
al Assembly, sank before the fury of plebeian revenge 
B law of the maximum ; the artisans, deprived of omploy- 
by the same causes, became needy suppliants on the 
meat for their daily bread ; and the peasants, ground 
>y the maximum, found themselves stripped of the fruits 
ir labour at nominal prices, and themselves and their 
«m from thdr homes for the service of the armies. 

IX. 27ie War in Poland. 

Poland, the Sarmatis of the ancients, formerly extended 
be Borysthenes to the Danube, and from the Euxine to 
Itic. Prussia, Horavia, Bohemia, Hungary, the Ukraine, 
nd, Livonia, all are fragments of its mighty dominion ; and 
ins, Qoths, and Sclsvonians, who overspread the greater 
' Europe, enierged from its vast uncultivated plfuns. But 
hstanding its primitive power and extent, the history of 
., from the earliest times, has been one of continual decay ; 
atest triumphs have been immediately succeeded by the 
t reverses, till at length it became the prey of its andent 
ces ; and the deliverer of Europe in one age was in the 
vept from the book of nations. 
The cause of this strange phenomenon is to be found in the 


institutions of the nation, which retained up to modem times all 
the anarchical independence of the pastoral life. Placed beyond 
the bounds of the Roman empire, Poland received no infusion 
of ancient civilisation ; it was never either conquered by, or the 
conqueror of, more polished nations than itself. The feudal 
system and the representative system continued alike unknown ; 
municipalities and burghers there were none ; the clergy had 
power only as temporal chiefs, and society consisted of only two 
classes — the serfs who were held in degrading bondage, and the 
freemen or citizens of the republic. Among these last the most 
complete and democratic equality prevailed, and it was by the 
concourse of the whole body that the diets of the nation were 
constituted. Armed and equipped in all the martial pomp of 
nomadic life, 100,000 horsemen met on the field of Yolo, near 
Warsaw, to legislate and discuss public afiairs sword in hand ; 
and as each individual possessed the right of an absolute veto, 
the unanimity, which would otherwise have been hopeless, was 
generally attained by the slaughter of the recusants. Liberty 
and equality had been the ruling principles in Poland for 500 
years before they became the watchwords of the French Revolu- 
tion ; and so jealously were they guarded that the jurisdictions 
of the waywodes, palatines, dec, were never sufifered to become 
hereditary ; even the crown, though long enjoyed by the Piast 
and Jagellon families, was always elective. The kings them- 
selves, unsupported by any military force, were little more than 
supreme judges ; and all the efforts qf the greatest monarchs, 
either for the increase of their own power, or the formation of a 
regular government, were unable either to overawe or subdue 
the fierce independence of the nobles. 

137. It is true that the impossibility ^of summoning a general 
diet on every occasion necessitated the introduction (in 1467) of 
the representative system to a certain extent ; but the deputies 
sent by the palatinates represented only the nobles, and were 
rigidly controlled by the mandates of their constituents. Fre- 
quently the meetings were superseded by the electors themselves 
proceeding to hold what were termed ^ diets under the buckler ; " 

80 FIfiST PAETITION OP POLAND. a. d. 1772. 

and after each session post-comitial diets were held, when the life 
of the deputy was in danger if he had deviated from his instruc- 
tions. But in 1573, on the death of Sigismund- Augustus, the 
last Jagellon, even the command of the armies and the adminis* 
tration of justice were taken from the crown — the former beiug 
Tested in the two hetmans or marshals of Poland and Lithuania, 
and the latter in great supreme tribunals composed of nobles. 
Their history is throughout a series of desperate struggles with 
the Muscovites, the Tartars, the Turks, and the revolted Cossacks 
of the Ukr|ine ; or of murderous civil wars between the armed 
confederations of the nobles, by whose unconquerable valour the 
state was, however, repeatedly saved, when apparently on the 
brink of ruin. Blindly attached to their customs, they were 
destined to drink to the dregs the bitter consequences of a piti- 
less aristocracy and a senseless equality. 

138. The ceaseless anarchy and consequent weakness of Poland 
had early suggested to the adjoining states the idea of dismember- 
ing her territory ; and there can be no doubt that her existence 
was prolonged a hundred years by the glorious triumphs and 
widespread renown of John Sobieski. Tet the whole reign of this 
heroic monarch was one incessant and fruitless struggle to 
^'rescue the republic" (in his own words) '^from the insane 
tyranny of a plebeian noblesse ; " and with the death of this last 
of their national sovereigns the Polish power was virtually 
extinguished. From that day till the first partition in 1772, 
strangers had never ceased to reign in Poland ; the Saxons, 
Swedes, Muscovites, Imperialists, and Prussians, by turns ruled 
its destiny, and the partitioning powers needed not to ccmqMr 
a state which had already fallen to pieces. Taught by this 
terrible lesson, the Poles at length strove to amend their insti- 
tutions : the ruinous privileges of the nobles were voluntarily 
abandoned ; and the new constitution of May 1791, besides the 
abolition of the veto, secured religious toleration, and the gradual 
enfranchisement of the serfs. But it was now too late. The 
partisans of the old anarchy instantly took up arms, confede- 
rated at Targowitz, and invoked the willing aid of the Empress 

i. D. 1793. SECOND PARTITION. 81 

Catherine^ to restore the disorder so profitable to her. The result 
was the second partition, hy Russia and Prussia, in 17d3. 

139. But the individual courage of the Poles still remained 
unbroken. Headed hj the illustrious Kosciusko, they raised the 
Dational standard at Cracow (March 3, 1794), while the populace 
of Warsaw succeeded in defeating and expelling the Russian gar- 
rison of the capital. Notwithstanding the almost total want of 
regular troops, the native valour of the patriots enabled them to 
repulse a combined force of Russians and Prussians from before 
Wanaw. But thd Russians, under SuwarroflP and Fersen, 
speedily poured into the country in such numbers as to make 
resistance hopeless ; and the insurrection received a death-blow 
from the loss of Kosciusko, who was taken prisoner (Oct. 4) in 
the fatal battle of Maczieiowicz. Warsaw, with its fortified 
suburb of Praga, still held out ; but it was stormed (Nov. 4) by 
Suwarroff, and 20,000 of the garrison and inhabitants put to the 
sword— a dreadful carnage, which Russia expiated in the confla- 
gration of Moscow. Poland was now no more ; the king was 
sent prisoner into Russia^ and the final partition of the monarchy 
followed. The remains of Kosciusko's bands, disdaining to live 
under Muscovite oppression, sought and found an asylum in the 
armies of France, and contributed by their bravery to bring 
Napoleon in triumph to the Kremlin. 

X. Campaign of 1794. 

140. While the land forces of France were gradually rising 
superior to the obstacles which first opposed their efforts, a dif- 
ferent fate awaited her fleets. Power at sea cannot spring from 
the mere energy of destitute warriors with arms in their hands, — 
a nursery of seamen must be of gradual formation ; and hence 
the naval superiority of Great Britain was apparent from the 
first. France, at the opening of the war, had 70 frigates and 75 
ships of the line ; but most of the officers had emigrated, and 
had been replaced by men deficient both in education and ex- 
perience. Britain had 129 ships of the line, and above 100 


frigates^ while 85,000 seamen of the best description were easily 
drawn from her extensive merchant service. 

141. At the commencement of the session of 1794, the British 
government, in order to check the rapid growth of illegal and 
revolutionary societies, resorted to the decisive step of proposing 
the suspension for six months of the Habeas Corpus ; and this 
measure, notwithstanding the vehement opposition of Mr Fox, 
passed hj a large majority. The trials of Hardj, Thirlwall, and 
Home Tooke, for high treason, immediately followed ; but their 
acquittal, in spite of the strong evidence adduced against them, 
was eminently fortunate at the period, as it demonstrated the 
independence of the courts of justice, and pleased the people 
with an apparent triumph. The continuance of the war was 
again fiercely contested in parliament ; but the Commons, by a 
majority of 208 to 55, supported the government. The army 
was raised to a total amount of 140,000 men, including fencibles 
and militia^ besides 40,000 foreign soldiers on the Continent in 
British pay ; and a fresh loan of jCI 1,000,000 supplied the defi- 
ciencies of the revenue. 

142. Meanwhile the ascendency of the British navy produced 
its natural efi^cts. In the West Indies, Tobago, Martinique, St 
Lucia, and Guadaloupe, were all taken in less than a month by 
Sir John Jarvis and Sir Charles Grey ; and in the Mediterranean, 
where the destruction of the Toulon fleet had totally paralysed 
the French navy, Corsica, which was disaffected to republicanism, 
was subdued by a small force ; and the offer of its crown to the 
King of England, by Paoli and the aristocrats, was accepted. But 
a more glorious triumph was to come. Twenty-six ships of the 
line, which the French had, by great exertions, eqiiipped at Brest, 
put to sea under Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse, for the protection of 
a large convoy of provisions coming from America, and were 
encountered (May 28) by the English Channel fleet, of equal force, 
under Lord Howe. Threedays were spent in distant manoBuvring ; 
but on the 1st of June, a day ever memorable in the British 
naval annals, the decisive action was fought. Bearing down 
obliquely on the hostile fleet, with the advantage of the wind. 

A. o. 1794. CAMPAIGN OF 1794. 83 

Lord Howe broke their line near the centre, and thus brought a 
preponderating force to bear on one-half their squadron. Twelve 
French ships were thus cut off and overpowered \ but so shat« 
tered were the British bj the gallantry of the defence, that four 
of the number escaped after having struck their colours* The 
Yengeur sank with most of her crew ; but six remained in the 
hands of the British^ while the remains of the defeated squadron 
took refuge in Brest 8000 were kiUed or wounded on the side 
of the French, with a loss of only 1158 to the victors ; but the 
American convoy escaped in the confusion, and got safe into a 
French port 

143. The vast military preparations of the Biopublic were 
meanwhile pushed on with unabated activity : 1,200,000 men in 
arms were at the orders of the Convention ; and after all deduc- 
tions of garrisons, invalids, ke^ upwards of 700,000 remained 
disposable — a force much greater than all the European monar- 
chies could bring against them. The genius of Camot, and the 
system of merit-promotion on which he rigidly acted, gave in-* 
creased efficiency to these formidable numbers ; and incredible 
efforts were made to forward their organisation and equipment. 
The jealousies of the Allies, at the same time, had reached the 
verge of a rupture ; and the King of Prussia, engaged in the siege 
of Warsaw, and unable to support a war at once on his eastern 
and western frontiers, gave official notice of his intention to 
withdraw from the confederacy. The Prussians were already 
retreating from the Rhine, when this injurious secession was 
prevented by the remonstrances of Mr Pitt ; and the cabinet of 
Berlin, in consideration of an enormous subsidy from Great 
Britain, engaged to retain 62,000 troops in the field. 

144. The campaign was opened on the part of the Allies by 
the capture of Landrecies, which yielded (April 27} after a severe 
bombardment of ten days, in spite of all the efforts of the 
Biepublicans to relieve it. But this advantage was counterbal- 
anced by the defeat of Clairfait (April 25 j, whose corps, form- 
ing the right of the Allied line, was overwhelmed by a superior 
force under Souham and Moreau, and driven back on Toumay. 


64 CAMPAIGN OP 1794. a. d. 1734. 

VarioDS bloody bnt indecisive actions followed on the Sambr^ 
••"■* the French were at length repnlsed across that river ; bnt 
eat Flanders tbe Allies were less successful. On the 18th of 
. tbe scattered columns of the Augtrians were attacked and 
ted near Turcoing by Souham, with the loss of 3000 meo 
sixty gam : tbe Duke of Tork himself owed bis safety to 
eetness of bis horse ; and it was only tbe opportune arrival 
[airfait's division which saved tbem from total rout and 
action. An attempt to force the pasaage of the Scheldt 
' 22) by the main force under Fichegru, led to a sanguinary 
a near Pont-a-chiu, in which the French were repulsed ; 
lone of these encounters led to any decisive result 
>. The policy of Austria had by this time undergone a change. 
Imperial councillors, dismayed by tbe increasing energy of 
'rench, and finding that no cordial or effective co-operatiou 
o be expected from Prussia, began to regard tbe loss of the 
Countries, for a time at least, as inevitable, and to speculate 
curing an equivalent on the side of Poland and Italy. This 
ition, however, was for the present kept a profound secret ; 
bough the Emperor quitted the army for Vienna, tbe eon' 
ontinned to he waged with unabated vigour. At the end 
ly, the Republican generals, stimulated by a threat of tbe 
itine, attempted to recross the Sambre, and though at first 
sed, at length forced the passage and invested Cbarleroi. 
were routed before the town (June 3), and again driven 
l.he river ; but on the arrival of Jourdan with 40,000 men 
tbe Moselle, they again appeared before the fortress, again 
defeated by Cobourg, whose army on this occasion was little 
than half that opposed to him. On the 18th of June, how- 
the indomitable Republicans crossed tbe Sambre for the fifth, 
commenced the bombardment of Cbarleroi for tbe third 
and Cobourg assembled all his forces for it« leliet Ficbegru 
advantage of his absence to besiege and take Ypres, and . 
eroi capitulated to Jonrdan on the 2fith. | 

. Thesurrenderof Cbarleroi wasunknown tothelmperial- 
rho, on tbe following day, offered battle for its relief with 

A. D. 1794. WAR IN PLANDERS. 85 

75,000 men to 89,000 French on the plains of Fleurus. The battle 
was one of the most obstinately contested which had yet been 
fonghtj and ended without any decisive result. The French had 
giyen way on both wings, and their centre was shaken, when the 
fall of Charleroi became known to the Austrian generals, who, 
in obedience to their secret orders, immediately fell back. The 
advantages of victory thus remained with the French, who, press- 
ing their opportunity, advanced from Charleroi ; and Cobourg, 
first evacuating Mons, abandoned Brussels, after some partial 
encounters, in the beginning of July, and retired behind the 
Dyle. The Prussians, meanwhile, had lain inactive on the 
Rhine during the whole campaign, and in spite of the indignant 
remonstrances of the British and Dutch, now peremptorily re- 
fused to co-operate with their allies ; and in consequence, Clairfait 
and the Duke of York, in Maritime Flanders, found themselves 
utterly unable to make head against Fichegru. Tournay was 
evacuated ; Nieuport capitulated ; and at length' (July 10) the 
victorious armies of Fichegru and Jourdan met at Brussels. 

147. But the Austrian cabinet, also, was no more able than the 
Prussian to bear the weight of a double contest on the Bhine 
and the Vistula, and was already desirous of an honourable 
extrication from the war. The Allied forces retired by diverging 
lines— the British and Hanoverians intent only on covering 
Antwerp and Holland, the Imperialists on approaching their 
magazines at Cologne and Coblentz ; thus affording every oppor- 
tunity of attack to an enterprising enemy. But in pursuance 
of a secret convention with Cobourg, the Austrians were allowed 
to retreat unmolested ; while Landrecies, Quesnoy, Cond6, and 
y&lenciennes, were recaptured by the French, after slight resis- 
tance, before the end of August. 

148. The rear of the Republicans being thus secured by the re- 
capture of the frontier fortresses, they resumed the offensive at 
the end of August. The Duke of York, whose forces were very 
inferior in number to those opposed to them, retired behind the 
Meuse ; and after a number of partial actions during September, 
a general battle was fought at Buremonde (Oct. 2) between Jour- 

86 CAMPAIGN OF 179*. *. d. 1791. 

dan and Clairfiut, who had superseded Cobourg iii the chief com- 
mand. The result was adverse to the Austrians, whose position 
was forced by the enthusiasm of the French grenadiers, headed 
by Bernadotte, and they retreated with the loss of 3000 men- 
This battle decided the fate of Flanders, which the ImperialiBte 
idoned, withdrawing their whole force beyond the Rhine, 
n and Coli^e were occupied by the French ; and the strong 
teas of Maestrieht, with 350 pieces of cannon, was forced to 
tnlate (Nov. 4). TheBuecessof Fichf^mou tbeside of Hol- 
. was not less decisive. Bois-le-Duo was taken in a fortnight 
. 10), after a resistance disgraceful to the Butch arms ; and 
Duke of York, after a fruitless attempt to maintain the line 
he Waal, was forced to &U back behind that riTer. The 
ich immediately beueged and took Venloo ; and the capture 
imeguen (Nor. 4) completed the dismay of the Dutch, who 
istly reproached the British with having fuled to save this 
Drtant place from anarmy double their numbers. The Duke 
ork Booa after set out for England, leaving the command to 
eral Walmoden. 

t9. But itwasnowevident that the coalition was rapidly ap- 
ching its dissolution. Frussiahad thrown off the mask, and 
led negotiations with Franceat BMe; and in theDiet of the 
nan Empire (Dec fi) G7 votes were gi ven for peace, and 36 fer 
mediation of Prussia. The Dutch Btates-Qeneral, alarmed by 
ipread of Jacobinism among their subjects, and considering 
nselves abandoned by the further retreat of Walmoden to De- 
er, made urgent proposals of peace ; but they were rejected by 
French government, and orders were sent to Pichegru to in- 
I the country, while the unusual severity of the frost rendered 
lanals passable. The French accordingly (Jan. 8, 1795) crossed 
Waal in force ; and the Stadtholder, perceiving all further 
lance hopeless, embarked for England. Revolutionary move- 
ts in all the great towns immediateljt ensued : Amsterdam, 
len, Utrecht, and Haarlem, welcomed the invaders as deli- 
re; and, to complete the wonders of thecamp^gn, the Dutch 
, frozen up at the Texel, was captured by a body of French 

A. D. 1794. WAB IN SPAIN. 87 

cavalry which crossed the Zuyder Zee on the ice ! The discipline 
and moderation of the Republican soldiers during this tide of 
success was admirable ; but forced requisitions were made on 
the Dutch government to an enormous amount, and the famous 
Bank of Amsterdam with difficulty withstood the shock of this 
first taste of military domination. 

150. Meanwhile^ little advantage had been gained by either 
party on the Upper Rhine ; but in the south, the Republican 
armies, after their forces were released by the fall of Lyons and 
Toulon, attained a decisive superiority. During April and May 
the passes of Mont Cenis and the Little St Bernard were carried by 
the French under Dumas; and Generals Massena and Buonaparte 
were equally successful in obtaining possession of the defiles on 
the frontier of Nice. But these advantages were not followed up 
by the government, and the troops remained inactive during the 
summer months. 

151. The war with Spain was more decisive in its results. The 
efforts of the cabinet of Madrid were paralysed by the disorder 
of their finances ; and their troops, recently so triumphant, were 
no longer able to cope with the Republicans under Dugommier, 
flushed as they were with their success at Toulon. The French, 
assuming the offensive, attacked the Spanish commander, La 
Union (April 30) in his lines at Ceret ; the Spaniards, seized 
with a panic, fled in confusion to Figueras, abandoning 140 
guns, with all their baggage and ammunition ; and Collioure 
was retaken, after a brave defence, by the French. In the Wes- 
tern Pyrenees, Spain was invaded (June 3) through the valley 
of the Bastan ; and during June and July all the Spanish posi- 
tions were forced in detail. San Sebastian capitulated (Aug. 4) 
without a shot being fired, and Colomera had difficulty in 
arresting the advance of the enemy on Fampeluna ; while the 
guillotine was erected at San Sebastian, and the blood of priests 
and nobles shed without mercy. On the eastern frontier, mean- 
while, the fortress of Bellegarde had surrendered (Sept 12) not- 
withstanding the efforts of La Union ; and Dugommier, entering 
the Spanish territory, stormed the formidable lines near Figueras 

89 CHOtTAN WAR. a. d. 1794. 

(Sept. 17), bat was himeelf killed in the moment of victory. A 
second general action (Not. 20) terminated in another defeat of 
**"■ ""iniarda, who here lost thoir general, La Union. Fignenu 
lered on 24th November; and Rosas, though strongly 
oed, was reduced before the end of January 1795. These 
sited disasters induced tho Spanish government to make 
«s for peace ; but operations were suspended for a time 
severity of the winter. 

The contest in la Vend^ hod, in the mean time, been re- 
y the barbarities of the Convention, and theinfernal system 
Tnination pnrsued by Thurreau. The Boyolists again rose 
) under Charette, and stormed several of his intrenched 
while a new and terrible warfare, called the Chouan 
'OS kindled in Brittany by the cruelty with which the 
peasants were persecuted for sheltering the fugitive Veu- 
Puisaye, fiourmont, George Cadouhal, and other Breton 
were the leaders of these new insurgents, 30,000 of whom, 
ilia bands of 2000 or 3000 each, overspread the conntry. 
nunication was opened with Britain ; and so formidable 
I insurrection soon become, that, before the end of the 
it less than 80,000 troops were employed in its suppression. 

SI. Campaign of 1795. 

The conquest of Holland, and the other successes of the 
during 1794, led to a dissolution of the confederacy against 
ublic early in the following year. On the 22d of January 

with Prussia was signed at B&le, by which the King 
ledged the R«pnblic, and engaged not to oppose the exten- 

the French frontier to the Rhine : Holland, already in 
ds of the French, was compelled to conclude with them 
nee offensive and defensive ; — and the whole weight of 
r thus fell on Austria and Britain. A treaty was 
igly concluded between these two powers (May 4), by 
he Emperor, in consideration of a subsidy of .£6,000,000, 
I to maintain 200,000 men in the field during the ensuing 

A. D. 1795. CAMPAIGN OP 1795. 89 

campaign ; — ^the British land forces Vere raised to 150,000, 108 
ships of the line put in commission, new taxes imposed and new 
loans contracted. An alliance, offensive and defensive, was fur- 
ther signed (Feb. 18) between Austria and Russia, and Britain : 
but the co-operation of the Czarina went no further than 
sending a squadron to join the North Sea blockading fleet under 
Admiral Duncan. 

154 During the winter, the French had succeeded in equip- 
ping 13 ships of the line in Toulon, which sailed early in March 
with the intention of recovering Corsica. They were engaged, 
however (March 13), by an equal British' force under Lord 
Hotham,and driven back with the loss of two ships captured : the 
land forces were disembarked, and the expedition given up. On 
the Piedmontese frontier, also, the Sardinian troops, reinforced 
by 15,000 Austrians, obtained some partial advantages during 
May and June against the French, whose troops were almost 
starving : but powerful reinforcements enabled the Republicans 
to hold their ground. The peace with Spain, however, — by which 
(July 20) the French Republic was recognised, and the Spanish 
half of St Domingo ceded, — enabled the government to detach 
the whole Pyrenean army to the support of General Scherer, 
who had succeeded Kellermann in the command of the army of 
Italy. On the 23d of November, the French attacked the Aus- 
trians in their position at Loano, and, after a conflict of two days, 
the enemy's centre was forced by Massena and Augereau, and 
the Imperialists fled with the loss of 7000 men, 80 guns, and all 
their stores. But the season was too far advanced to prosecute 
this success, and the victors took up winter quarters on the 
ground they had occupied. 

155. The unconquerable Charette had maintained the contest 
in la Vendee, with a few thousand men, throughout the winter ; 
but the fall of Robespierre had disposed the government to 
entertain more moderate views, and a pacification (which com- 
prehended Stofflet and the Chouans) was at length concluded 
(April 1795) on terms highly advantageous and honourable to 
the insurgents. But the calm was not of long continuance. 

90 CHOUAN WAB. a. d. 1795. 

Theemigrants had long been soliciting ttie British government to 
assiat them in effecting a landing on the western coaat ; and the 
nndertakingwaa facilitated by the defeat of the Brest fleet, which, 
after a partial action, had been driven into rOrient by Lord Brid- 
port, with the low of three ships eaptored. On the 27th of June, 
accordingly, 10,000 men under Fnisaye and d'Hervilly were 
' '' ~ ' in Quiberon Bay, with 60 guns, and stores and military 
; to an immense amount, intended to equip all the Boyal- 
restem France. The Chouans flocked to join them ; bat 
laultory mode of fighting was found unsuited for co-opeT' 
ith K^lar troops ; and after some indecisive actions, the 
B returned to their own districts, while the emigrants 
ockaded by Hoche in Fort Penthi&vre and the peninsula 
)eron — Cbarette and the Tendeans, in consequence of 
ous ormisunderstoodorders from the Royalist Committee 
, remaining inactive. On the arrival (July 15) of a strong 
lement under the Com te de Sombrenil, Fuisaye attempted 
I the Republican intrenehment^-^but he was repnleed 
iss into his own lines ; and on the 20th, Eoche took 
^ of a dark and windy night to attack the fort, and 
sd in carrying it by escalade. A horrible carn^e ensued, 
yalislfl were driven into the sea, while the wind prevented 
itish squadron from standing close in to their relief: 
rs were drowned, or fell under the fire of the enemy — 
mil, with the remainder, capitulated, on promise of safety, 
jral Humbert. But Tallien, who had been sent down as 
nent commissioner, prevailed on the Convention to dis- 
this compact ; and, notwithstanding the el!brts of the 
loche, the prisoners, to the number of 800, men of the beat 
>f France, were tried by a military commission as rebels, 
amed to die. They perished with heroic fortitude ; and 
iodow, near Auray, where they met their fate, is still 
^ by the inhabitants under the name of "the field of 
8." This dreadful blow ruined the Royalist cause in the 
:he efforts in &vour of which amounted thenceforward 
' an inconsiderable guerilla warfare. 

A. D. 1795. WAE ON THE EHINE. 91 

156. The armies on the Rhine had remained almost motionless 
thronghont the earlj part of the campaign ; the surrender of 
Luxembourg (June 25), which had long been blockaded by the 
Republicans, being the only event of importance. This inaction 
arose partly from the extreme destitution of the French troops, 
of which the over-caution of the Austrian generals prevented 
their taking advantage ; and partly from secret negotiations, 
by which it was hoped that Fichegru might be induced to 
follow the example of Dumourier, and embrace the cause of the 
Bourbons. These overtures, however, proved fruitless. Jour- 
dan's army crossed the Rhine (Sept. 6) in the direction of Dnssel- 
dorf ; and Fichegru, passing the river near Mannheim, compelled 
that important city to capitulate (Sept. 20). Jourdan now invested 
Idayence on the right bank ; but Clairfait, who had received a 
reinforcement of 15,000 Hungarians, succeeded in turning the 
French left, and in compelling Jourdan to repass the Rhine in the 
utmost confusion, though with no great loss of men. Clairfait 
now. assailed the lines before Mayence ; and these vast works, 
with all their stores and artillery, were carried (Oct. 29) by the 
well-directed attacks of the Austrian general. Fichegru was at 
the same time compelled to fall back before Wurmser ; and 
Mannheim, left to its own resources, was recaptured by the 
Austrians (Nov. 28), with its garrison of 9000 men. The French 
arms were thus everywhere worsted : but the Imperialists were 
equally exhausted with their opponents, and a suspension of 
hostilities was agreed on (Dec. 16), both armies going into 
winter quarters on the left bank of the Rhine. 

167. ThecaptureoftheCapeofGoodHope(Sept.l6)bytheBrit- 
ish under Sir James Craig, was the only other important event 
of this year — the French marine being too completely broken 
by their defeats in the Mediterranean and at TOrient to attempt 
anything of consequence. Thus the results of the campaign had, 
on the whole, been highly favourable to the Allies : the Repub- 
licans had been checked in the career of conquest, and driven 
with disgrace behind the Rhine, by the able movements of Clair- 
fait and Wurmser ; and the lassitude and financial embarrassments 


following in the train of the previous unparalleled revolutionarj 
exertions, seemed to indicate the approach of a successful termi- 
nation of the war. 

XII. EstaJblishment of the Directory, 

158. The leaders who had overthrown Robespierre were little 
better than himself : it was the effort of one set of assassins to save 
their own lives from the vengeance of another faction. But the 
revulsion of public feeling was not the less decisive. A new 
party now arose, formed of the moderates of all parties and the 
remnant of the Royalists, who were styled Thermidorians, from 
the day on which the tyrants fell, and who soon placed them- 
selves in determined opposition to the Jacobin Club and the 
remnant of the formidable committees. 

159. The first trial of strength took place (July 80) on the mo- 
tion of Bar^re to continue Fouquier Tinville as public accuser, to 
which Fr6ron boldly replied, " I propose that we purge the earth 
of that monster, and send him to lick up in hell the blood which 
he has shed !" He was accordingly tried >and condemned, dying 
with the saturnine insensibility which characterised him. The 
law of suspected persons was repealed, the Revolutionary Tribunal 
remodelled, and the captives gradually released. Ere long, the 
Thermidorians derived powerful support from a body called the 
Jeunesse Dor^e, composed of youths of respectable birth, who 
-were pledged to hostility to the Reign of Terror by the loss of 
parents or relations during its continuance. Their contests with 
the democrats were incessant, and a threat of Billaud Yarennes, 
who hinted at the revival of past atrocities, occasioned the clos- 
ing of the Jacobin Club. That ancient den of blood was assailed 
by the Jeunesse Dor6e, supported by the national guards : the 
members were dispersed, and an attempt at reunion (Sept. 8) 
was punished by a more signal discomfiture. The reaction to- 
wards humanity was still further evinced by the condemnation 
of Carrier, the infamous agent of the noyades and other barbari- 
ties at I^antes, and by the repeal of the penal decree against 


priests and nobles. The popular feeling ran every day more 
strongly in favour of the Jeunesse Dor^e, whose favourite air, 
Le ReveU du Feuple, supplanted the Marseillaise h3'mn in the 
orchestras of the theatres. The maximum and other oppressive 
enactments were rescinded ; and the reappearance of Louvet, 
Laujuinais, Isnard, and other Girondists who had escaped pro- 
scription by flight, gave fresh strength to the Thermidorian party. 

160. Tallien and his friends at length ventured on the impeach- 
ment of the remaining Jacobin leaders — Billaud Varennes, Collot 
d'Herbois, Harare, and Yadier ; but this bold step inflamed all 
the fears of the democrats, already irritated by the scarcity of 
provisions and the depreciation of assignats. A revolt was orga- 
nised in the faubourgs (April 1, 1795) ; and a formidable band of 
pikemen, drunken women, and all the revolting concomitants of 
the early revolutionary mobs, broke into the hall of the Con- 
vention ; but the insurgents were dispersed by Pichegru and the 
Jeunesse Dor6e ; and the victory of the Thermidorians was used 
with a humanity to which France had been long a stranger. 
Collot d'Herbois, Billaud Varennes, and Bar^re were transported 
to Cayenne, and the remainder of the Jacobin leaders confined 
in the castle of Ham. 

161. But the remnant of that sanguinary faction was not sub- 
dued ; and they skilfully availed themselves of the misery to 
which famine had reduced the armed and ferocious masses of the 
faubourgs, to excite one more desperate eflbrt for the recovery of 
their lost ascendency. The conspiracy, which had been for some 
time in agitation, exploded on the 20th May (1st of Prairial) : 
— 30,000 pikemen, vociferating for " Bread, the Jacobins, and 
the constitution of 1793,** surrounded the Assembly — and the 
national guard mustered tardily and ineffectually to the rescue. 
The chair was occupied by Boissy d'Anglas, whose conduct in 
this extreme peril was worthy of Rome in its best days. His 
friend Feraud was murdered by the savage mob before his eyes ; 
but he maintained his post throughout the day, and was only 
at last forced from it by his friends. The insurgents believed 
their victory complete, and were proceeding forthwith to orga- 


nise a dbw goTeniment ; but the Jennesse Dor^ and the troops 
of the Sections at length arrived in force, and, after a bloody 
strife, the ^ikemen were routed and expelled from the ball. On 
the following daj, however, thej returned in still greater nnm- 
caunon were planted on both sides ; hot the multitade 
it length appensed, and a pacification effected. Taught hj 
narrow escapes, the Convention resolved on vigorous 
res. Six of the Jacobin remnant suffered death ; and the 
irgs, menaced by an overwhelming forceof national guards 
gular troops (May S4), were reduced to unconditional sub- 
u. Their cannon and the formidable pikes were taken 
them, and the revolutionary committees suppressed : tbe 
lal guards themselves were newly organised, andthework- 
nd indigent citiienB excluded ; and on 17th June the Revolu- 
y Tribunal itself was quietly suppressed by asimple decree, 
tinsendedthoreignof themultitude, six years after its estab- 
mt at the storm of the Bastille. The populace, now dis- 
I, took no share in the further changes of government, which 
irought about by the middle classes and the army. 
. The gradnal relaxation of the rigours of the Beign of Ter- 
rms an interesting epoch in this history. The assignats, 
1, presented an inextricable difficulty ; they were originally 
led tobe withdrawn from circulation asfunds were realised 
3 sale of the national lands ; but as no purchasers could be 
,theevil increased, till anational bankruptcy (as will appear 
I sequel) was the result. These securities fell to a hundred 
ftieth part of their nominal value ; and the abolition at the 
time of tbe maximum, and the forced requisitions of food, 
3d the inhabitants of cities to almost inconceivable distress. 
'arisinns experienced for months the horrors of a besieged 
; for several weeks each citizen received only two ounces 
Tse black bread daily, by virtue of a government ticket ; 
, was the despair thence arising which produced the great 
3 by which the Thermidorians were so nearly over- 
n, and the Reign of Terror restored. 


fall of the Jacobins, the reaction, as is usual, went into the oppo- 
site extreme. Many of the Jeunesse Do^ openly became Royal- 
ists ; and in the southern provinces terrible measures of retalia- 
tion were directed against the Terrorists, who were everywhere 
slaughtered by the relatives of those whom they had murdered. 
The death (June 9) of the infant king, Louis XVIL, whom the 
9th Thermidor came too late to save from the effects of previous 
ill-treatment, powerfully awakened the public sympathy ; and 
the surviving child of Louis XYI. (afterwards Duchess of Angou- 
Ume) was liberated shortly after. Meanwhile the Convention 
was occupied in framing the new constitution, (the third within 
a few years,) which differed widely from its predecessors. The 
ruinous error of uniting all the legislative powers in one body 
had now been fully demonstrated; and the Assembly was 
divided into two councils — ^the Council of Five Hundred, which 
alone originated laws, and the Council of Ancients, composed of 
men of forty years of age and upwards, which had the power of 
passing or rejecting them. The privilege of electing members 
was at the same time transferred from the body of the people to 
the colleges of delegates ; and the executive power was vested in 
five Directors, nominated by the Five Hundred, and approved by 
the Ancients, one of whom by rotation was to retire every year. 

164. This new constitution excited the most violent ferment 
throughout France, in which Paris as usual took the lead, and 
'which was brought to its height by a decree that two-thirds of the 
present Convention should remain in the new legislature. The 
Koyalist agents, joined by many of the Therm idorians, who were 
disappointed in their expectations of power, fomented the popular 
discontent, and a fresh revolt was openly talked of. The Section 
Lepelletier, the richest and most powerful in Paris, became the focus 
of the Royalist effervescence ; and a provisional government, called 
the Central Committee, was established by its leaders. The Con- 
vention, however, lost none of its energy. Though both the 
Jacobins and Royalists were opposed to them, the army still re- 
mained ; and 5000 regular troops were soon assembled near Paris. 

1 66. The collision commenced on 3d October (1 1 th Vendemiaire), 

96 REVOLT OF THE SECTIONS. a. d. 1795. 

when, the electors of Paris having assembled at the Th6£ltre Fran- 
9ais, under the protection of the national guards, General Menou 
was ordered hj the Convention to disperse them. But Menou 
lacked the decision. requisite for civil contests : he entered into a 
parley, and withdrew without effecting anything ; giving by his 
retreat fresh courage to the insurgents, who resolved to attack 
on the following day. But during the night Menou had been 
superseded in the command by Barras, who chose as his lieu- 
tenant a young artillery officer, named Napoleon Buonaparte, 
who had distinguished himself at the siege of Toulon. By his 
advice, the artillery at the camp of Sablons, amounting to fifty 
guns, was instantly brought in, and placed so as to command 
all the avenues to the Tuileries, against which the columns of 
national guards, 30,000 strong, advanced from all quarters. The 
defenders did not number more than 6000 ; but their powerful 
artillery gave them a decisive advantage over their opponents, 
who were without cannon, and whose dense ranks were enfiladed 
at every point by the murderous grape-shot of the regulars. By 
nine in the morning of the 4th, the victory of the troops was 
everywhere complete ; and thus ended the last popular insur- 
rection, the promoters of which were not the rabble, who had so 
long stained Paris with blood, but the flower of its citizens. 

166. The Convention, swayed by the influence of the Girondists, 
used its triumph with moderation and magnanimity. Few exe- 
cutions followed ; and the voice of Buonaparte was constantly 
heard on the side of clemency. The elections of the Councils of 
Ancients and of Five Hundred were equitably conducted. The 
Assembly, however, took the precaution, in order to guard against 
a return to royalty, to name for Directors five persons who had 
voted for the King's death — Lareveill^re-Lepaux, Letoumeur, 
Rewbell, Barras, and Carnot. Their last acts were the publication 
of a general amnesty, and the change of the name of the Place de 
la Revolution into that of Place de la Concorde. And thus the 
last days of an Assembly, stained with so much blood, were gilded 
by an act of clemency, of which, as Thibaudeau justly said, the 
annals of kings furnished few examples. 

a. D. 1795. STATE OP EUROPE. 97 



I. Campaign of 1796 in Germany, 

167. When the Directory were called to the helm, on the sup- 
pression of the revolt of the Sections, they found the affairs of 
the Republic, both abroad and at home, in a very critical situa- 
tion. The finances were in such inextricable confusion, that 
10,000 francs in paper was equivalent to scarce 20 francs in 
specie ; and the taxes, according to the estimate of the minister 
Ramel, were 1,500,000,000 francs (£60,000,000) in arrear. The 
troops, destitute of everything, had been disheartened by the late 
disasters on the Rhine, and the soldiers were deserting in great 
numbers ; and the civil war in la Vendee was still unextin- 
gnished. On the other hand, the peace with Spain had enabled 
them to reinforce their armies both in la Vendue and on the 
Italian frontier. Prussia had retired from the struggle, and the 
Low Countries were subdued. Britain, baffled on the Continent, 
was not likely to take any effective part by land ; and it was 
plain, therefore, that the whole weight of the contest must fall 
on the unaided strength of Austria. 

168. A triple alliance had indeed been concluded (Sept. 27, 
1795) between Austria, Russia, and Britain : but Russia was too 
far distant to afford material assistance ; and Britain, at the end 
of 1795 and beginning of 1796, was internally little less distracted 
than France. Party spirit had become so violent, that many of 
the popular leaders had come to wish, and hesitated not to betray 
their wish, for the success of the enemy. The cry for parlia- 
mentary reform was exasperated by the tigh price of provisions, 
^hich, though naturally resulting from the increased consump- 

98 CAMPAIGN OP 1796 IN GERMANY. a. d. 1796. 

tion required by the war, waa attributed by the demagogues 
solely to the ministry : and the King himself was attacked by 
the populace when proceeding to open parliament (Oct. 29, 1795). 
Addresses for the continuance of the war were nevertheless car- 
ried by large majorities in both houses, in spite of the vehement 
opposition of Mr Fox and the Whigs. But still more violent 
debates arose, both in the parliament and the country, on the 
bills for preventing sedition, &c., popularly stigmatised as the 
Pitt and Grenville Acts ; which prohibited all ^^ublic meetings 
not held under the sanction of a magistrate, and authorised the 
instant arrest of all who used seditious language on these occa- 
sions. Mr Fox and his followers inveighed against these measures 
as equivalent to the establishment of despotism : but they were 
passed by overwhelming majorities ; and were certainly not found, 
in practice, to produce the mischief which their opponents so 
confidently predicted. As a concession to the other party, an 
overture for peace was made (March 8, 1796) to the Directory ; 
but the announced determination of France to retain the Low 
Countries at once closed the attempt at negotiation. 

169. The first active operations of this memorable campaign 
were in la Vendee, where Hoche, one of the ablest and most mo- 
derateof the Republican leaders, heading an army of 100,000 men, 
succeeded in terminating the contest by the capture and execu- 
tion of the Royalist chiefs, Stofflet and Gharette. Meanwhile 
the cabinet of Vienna prosecuted its levies with activity. Glair- 
fait, the victor of Mayence, was superseded in the chief command 
on the Rhine by the Archduke Charles — a step which, however 
ill-deserved by Clairfait, was soon justified by the great abilities 
of the young prince, " whose soul " (in the words of his great 
antagonist Napoleon) " belonged to the heroic age, but his heart 
to that of gold." The forces on the Rhine were nearly equal on 
both sides, but the Imperialists were greatly superior in cavalry. 
On the Lower Rhine, the Archduke had 71,000 infantry and 
21,000 cavalry, to oppose the army of the Sambre and Meuse 
under Jourdan, which amounted to 63,000 foot and 11,000 horse ; 
while Moreau on the Upper Rhine, with 71,000 infantry, and 

A. D. 1796. CAMPAIGN OF 1796 IN GEBMANT. 99 

6,500 cavalrj, confronted Warmser, who was at the head of 
62,000 foot, and 22,000 horse. Bat of this latter force, 30,000 
men and the general were despatched, early in the campaign, to 
reinforce the army of Italy. 

170. The plans of the Aulie Council were, on the Upper Rhine, 
to attack Landan and Strasburg, while the Archduke passed the 
Moselle and reconquered Flanders. But they kept theiv armies 
unaccountably inactive till the end of May ; though a victory at 
that time on thi) Sarre or Moselle would probably have called off 
Buonaparte from Italy, by compelling the French army on the 
Khine to break up into garrisons for the frontier fortresses. At 
length (May 30) the French general, Kleber, passed the Rhine at 
Dnsseldorf, and gained some advantages over the corps opposed 
to him : but the Archduke, bringing down on him his main forces 
from Mayence, drove him back with loss across the river. 
Moreau in the mean time, after misleading the Austrians by a 
feigned attack on Mannheim, succeeded, on the night of 23d Jun^ 
in passing the Rhine at Strasburg with his whole army, and sur- 
prising Eehl — an exploit which has been highly celebrated, but 
the hazard of which was much lessened by the weakness and 
dispersion of the enemy's forces. The Archduke (now left sole 
in command by the departure of 'Wurmser for Italy) instantly 
hastened to repel this new danger ; and a series of bloody but 
indecisive encounters ensued on the banks of the Murg and the 
skirts of the Black Forest. The Archduke at last, fearing the 
intermption of his communications, drew off, in the middle of 
July, towards Stuttgard and the Keckar ; while the French de- 
tachments spread through the Black Forest to the Swiss frontier. 
At the same time, on the Lower Rhine, General Wartensleben 
had been forced back to the Maine by the now superior forces of 
Jourdan : and the French general, following up his advantage, 
had occupied Frankfort. 

171. Germany was thus invaded at two separate points, by 
armies greatly superior in numbers to those opposed to them — ^that 
under the Archduke having left 30,000 men in garrison on the 
Rhine. But it was now that the consummate generalship of the 

100 CAMPAIGN OF 1796 IN GERMANY. a. d. 1796. 

prince showed itself. BetiriDg slowly, and dispu ting everyinch of 
ground without risking a pitched battle, he fell back from the 
Neckar to the Danube, breaking all the bridges ; while Wartens- 
leben, pursued by Jourdan, retreated in a similar manner to the 
Kaab. But on 16th August, the Archduke, leaving Latour with 
35,000 men to make head against Moreau, suddenly marched north- 
wards with 28,000, and joining Wartensleben, fell with united 
and superior forces on Jourdan. The French yanguard, under 
Bemadotte, was crushed at Teining on the 22d ; and two days 
later the main body was defeated at Amberg, and saved from 
destruction only by the firmness of Ney and the rearguard. 
The battle of Wurtzburg (Sept. 2) ended in a still more decisive 
overthrow of the Republicans, who fled rather than retreated 
across the Lahn, abandoning great part of their artillery. At 
Aschaffenburg, being reinforced by Marceau with the corps 
which had blockaded Mayence, Jourdan agahi (Sept. 16) awaited 
the attack of the Archduke, only again to be routed at all points; 
and another engagement (19th) at Altehkirchen, where the 
gallant Marceau was mortally wounded, completed the discom- 
fiture of his army. The French recrossed the Rhine in the most 
complete state of disorganisation, having lost 20,000 men in their 
retreat from the frontiers of Bbhemia. 

172. While the Austrian prince was pursuing this victorious 
career on the Maine, Latour was hard pressed on the Danube by 
Moreau, whose army nearly doubled in number the force opposed 
to him. After defeating the Austrians, however, at Friedberg, 
(Aug. 26), Moreau continued for three weeks occupied in incon- 
siderable movements in Bavaria ; till the tidingsof an attack upon 
Kehl, (Sept. 13), after the battle of Wurtzburg, roused himtoasense 
of his critical position. On the 25th of that month,he commenced 
his retreat of 200 miles from the Iser to the Rhine, with the 
hostile columns gathering round him from all quarters ; but his 
army of 70^000 men was yet unbroken, and full of confidence 
in its commander. Tumingon Latour before his oommunicati(»i 
with the other corps was complete, he inflicted on him a severe 
defeat (Oct. 2) at Biberach ; and so ably were his mqasuies 

A. 3>. 1796. CAMPAIGN OF 1796 IN OEBMANT. 101 

concerted, that he passed the dangerous defiles of the Black 
Forest without confusion or loss, and debouched into the valley 
of the Bhine before the Archduke arriyed to intercept him. 
But here his good fortune ended : — in two successive battles at 
Emmendingen (Oct. 19) and Hohenblau, (Oct 20), the victory 
remained with the Austrians ; and Moreau sought shelter for 
his shattered battalions on the left bank of the Rhine. 

173. Germany being thus delivered from invaders, the Archduke 
proposed to the Aulic Council to detach a powerful reinforce- 
ment into Italy, in order toco-operate with Alvinzi and liberate 
Wurmser ; but this well-judged advice was rejected, and positive 
orders given for the attack of Huningen and £ehl, which the 
French still held on the right bank of the Ehine. Kehl was 
accordingly invested (Oct. 9) : but the siege, from the advanced 
season of the year, and the presence of the French army on the 
opposite bank, presented obstacles of no ordinary kind ; and the 
obstinacy and length of the defence did honour toDesaix and St 
Cyr. At length, after the outer works had been stormed and 
the bulwarks riddled by 100,000 cannon-shot and 25,000 bombs, 
it capitulated on 9th January 1797 — and Huningen shared the 
same fate on 1st February. Thus ended the German campaign 
of 1796, the military successes of which, on the part of the 
Austrians, were mainly owing to the application, by the Arch- 
duke, of those strategic principles which simultaneously conduced 
to the Italian triumphs of Buonaparte. But the moral effects 
which resulted from the French irruption into Germany were 
not less important. The cruel exactions and arbitrary conduct 
of the Republicans effectually opened the eyes of the people 
to the true nature of democratic ambition — their retreating 
lumies were harassed, and the stragglers cut off, by the peasantry ; 
and hence may be dated the growth of that patriotic spirit which 
ultimately rescued Germany from foreign subjugation. 

174. The same year also saw a still closer bond formed between 
Prussia and France, by the conclusion of a convention at Berlin 
(Aug. 6) ostensibly for no other purpose than securing the 
neutrality of I^ortheru Germany. But there was also a s^cr^t 

102 / TREATY OF ST ILDEFO^SO. a. d. 1796. 

understandiDg, by which Prussia recognised the French boundary 
of the Rhine, and the principle of indemnifying the princes 
thus dispossessed by the secularisation of the ecclesiastical states 
of the Empire, — an atrocious system, the immediate result of 
which was to put the cabinet of Berlin at the mercy of France 
as to German affairs, and which soon after brought about the 
fall of the Germanic constitution and empire. 

175. While these important transactions were in progress on the 
Continent, the British flag continued to ride triumphant on 
every part of the ocean ; while the French fleets, blockaded in 
their ports, could neither protect their commerce, nor acquire 
maritime experience. During the present year, Grenada, St 
Lucia, Essequibo, and Demerara in the West Indies, and the 
Batavian settlements of Oeylon, Malacca, and Cochin in the East, 
were reduced by the British ; and a powerful Dutch armament, 
destined to retake the Cape, was captured in Saldanha Bay by- 
Admiral Elphinstone. St Domingo still continued distracted by 
the servile war which had been kindled by the extravagant 
visions of the French philanthropists ; and neither were the 
British able to acquire, nor the French to retain, any control 
over its savage and infuriated population. But notwithstanding 
her naval successes, the situation of Britain was sufliciently 
discouraging. The easily excited jealousy of Spain against the 
British naval power had been artfully fanned by the Directory, 
till the court of Madrid was induced (Aug. 19) to conclude the 
treaty of St Ildefonso, for an offensive and defensive alliance with 
France; and this fatal compact, whence arose all the subsequent 
disasters of Spain, was followed up (Oct. 2) by a formal declara- 
tion of war against Great Britain. Thus Britain saw the whole 
European coast, from the Texel to Gibraltar, arrayed against her ; 
and Mr Pitt, impressed with these dangers, again made overtures 
for a general peace. Lord Malmesbury, the British envoy 
reached Paris on 22d October, and the negotiations continued 
for two months ; but as the British government, in return for 
the offered recognition of the French Republic, and restoration 
^of the French and Dutch colonies, insisted on the restoration of 

A. o. 1796, INVASION OF IRELAND. 103 

Holland, the Low Oountries, and Lombardy^ to their fonner 
owners, they were at length abruptly broken off, and Lord 
Malmesburj ordered to leave Paris. 

- 176. The Directory were probably induced to act in this man- 
ner by their hopes of the success of a measure, from the peril of 
which, in truth, Great Britain was saved rather by the winds of 
heaven, than her own exertions. This was the invasion of Ire- 
land, where a vast republican conspiracy, pervading the whole 
country, had for some time been organised^ with the view of 
overturning the government, and breaking off the British con- 
nection. Hoche, with 25,000 of his best troops, was appointed 
for the service ; and the expedition (15 ships of the line and 18 
frigates and corvettes, besides transports) sailed on the 15th 
December. But the fleet was scattered by a storm : Hoche himself, 
who was on board a frigate, was separated from the rest, and 
with difficulty regained the French coast ; and though Admiral 
Bouvet reached Bantry Bay with part of his squadron, he was 
unable to effect a landing, and arrived again at Brest on 31st 

177. The close of this year was marked by the death of the 
Empress Catherine of Russia, after a reign of 36 years, in which 
her masculine abilities and great qualities as a sovereign contrast 
forcibly with her vices as a woman. Her latest project was the 
formation of a European confederacy against France, and she 
had given orders for a levy of 150,000 men for the German cam- 
paigns — a design which, if then carried into effect, might have 
hastened by nearly twenty years the close of the war, but which 
was speedily abandoned by her successor, the Emperor Paul. 
The end of the same year also witnessed the voluntary resigna- 
tion of power by the most spotless character whom modern 
history has to commemorate — the illustrious Washington, who, 
having raised his country by his exertions to the rank of an in* 
dependent state, closed his career by relinquishing the authority 
which a grateful people had bestowed. 

104 RISE OP bxjokaparte; 

11, Italian Campaign of V79M. 

178. Napoleon Buonaparte was born at Ajaccio in Corsica^ 
Aug. 16 j 1769, in the same year with the Duke of Wellingtdh : 
'" Providence, " said Louis XVIII^'" owed us that counterpoise." 
His family, though in reduced circumstances, was noble ; but 
his father died at the age of thirty-eight of a cancer in the 
stomach, the same complaint which afterwards proved fatal to 
Kapoleon himself; and his early education devolved on bis 
mother — a woman of great beauty and remarkable powers of 
mind. At an early age he was sent to the military school of 
Brienne, where he was the fellow-pupil of Pichegru ; but bis 
proficiency, though respectable, was not remarkable, except in 
his favourite study of mathematics. The quickness of his tem- 
per, though partially subdued, could never be extinguished ; and 
in the private notes transmitted to government by the masters, 
he was characterised as '< domineering, imperious, and head- 
strong." When fourteen, he was sent to complete his studies at 
the Ecole Militaire of Paris, and in 1785 received a commission 
as- lieutenant of artillery. At this period he was not popular 
among his companions, who considered him haughty and iras- 
cible ; but high expectations were even then formed of him by 
the few whose acquaintance he thought proper to cultivate. His 
powers of reasoning were already remarkable ; his knowledge 
a^ general information not less so, considering his age and 
ibpportunities ; and there can be little doubt that, had he not 
become the first conqueror, he would have been one of the 
greatest writers, as he was certainly one of the profoundest 
thinkers, of modern times. 

179. On the outbreak of the Revolution, he adhered, like most 
of the young subalterns, to the popular party ; but with the 
Beign of Terror his sentiments changed, and he then imbibed that 
profound hatred of Jacobinism, which he evinced and avowed 
throughout his after-life. .His first service was in his own conn- 
try; but he shortly afterwards received the direction of the 
artillery at the siege of Toulon, the successful result of which 

A. n. 1796. RISE OF BUONAPARTE. l05 

was mainly dae to his adyiee and exertions. Here lie first 

encoantered Junot, afterwards Marshal-Duke of Abrantes^ and 

Daroe, one of his few personal friends ; and the high reputation 

which he here aequired procured for him the command of the 

artillery in the army of Italy in the campaign of 1794. But in 

July of that year he was arrested after the fall of Robespierre, 

with whose brother he had been intimate ; and though speedily 

released from confinement, he was deprived (Sept.) of his rank 

as general, and remained in obscurity, and almost iu want, till 

brought forward by Barras in the manner detailed in page 96, 

to save the Directory and the Convention on the 13th Yen- 

demialre. A scarcely less important event, in reference to 

his ultimate fortunes,. was the accidental acquaintance which he 

formed at this juncture with Madame Beauharnais (afterwards 

the Empress Josephine), whose first husband had fallen by the 

guillotine in the Reign of Terror. The grace and beauty of this 

celebrated lady produced an impression on the young general, 

which motives of ambition contributed to strengthen, as she was 

known toexercise considerable influence over Barras. Buonaparte 

married her, March 9, 1796, and with her received, through the 

joint interest of Barras and Camot, the command of the Italian 

armies, for the headquarters of which he set out twelve days 

after his nuptials. 

180. The force of which he now assumed the command did not 
amount to more than 42,000 men, in the most miserable state 
of equipment — the cavalry was almost dismounted, and the 
artillery did not exceed 60 pieces. They had neither tents, 
magazines, nor pay, and had for a longtime been on half rations. 
The arsenals and garrisons in the rear, however, in some degree 
supplied these deficiencies ; the soldiers themselves were mostly 
yonng, hardy, and inured to privation ; and their chiefs, Massena, 
Augerean, Serrurier, and Berthier, already began to give tokens 
of their future eminence. Opposed to these, the Allies had 50,000 
men and 200 guns,, under Beaulieu and Colli ; while 24,000 
Sardinians confronted Kellermann's army of nearly equal 
strength, and guarded the avenues of Savoy — ^the French mostly 

106 ITALIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1796-7. a. d. 1796^ 

occupying the crests of the mountains, and their opponents the 
valleys leading to the Italian plains. 

181. The plan of Buonaparte was to separate the Austrians from 
the Sardinians under Colli, by penetrating into Piedmont through 
the Col di Cadibone; but as. this manoeuyre necessitated the 
accumulation of the bulk of his troops on the extreme rights 
Beaulieu moyed towards Genoa, in order to counteract it, and the 
armies came into contact at Montenotte. Had the attack of the 
Austrians been successful, it would have cut in two the French 
line of march ; but the determined valour of Colonel Bampon and 
the advance, gave Buonaparte time to cross the ridge by night, 
and get in the rear of the enemy, who were enveloped and com- 
pletely routed (April 12). Such was Buonaparte's first victory ; 
and this success was followed up by Augereau, who routed the 
Sardinians at Millesimo, and captured General Provero with 1500 
men ; while Buonaparte himself, with Massena and La Harpe, 
carried the position of Dego by storm from the Austrians, and 
maintained it in spite of the gallant efforts of Wukassovich to 
regain it. The fertile plains of Piedmont now lay open to the 
"^ctorSywho turned all their efforts to crush the remaining strength 
of the Sardinian army : the intrenched camp of Ceva was turned ; 
and Colli, defeated by Serrurier in a severe action at Mondovi 
(April 21), was compelled to abandon Cherasco to the French. 
The danger of the capital now struck the court of Turin with 
consternation ; and though the French had no si^e artillery, 
and were still inferior, particularly in cavalry, to the Allies, a 
negotiation was opened with Buonaparte, and the fortresses of 
Coni, Ceva, and Alessandria, given up as the price of an armis* 
tice. The definitive treaty was signed on 15th May, by which- 
the King of Sardinia withdrew from the coalition, and ceded 
Savoy, Nice, and Western Piedmont to the French B.epublic, 
whose troops were allowed a free passage through his remaining 

182. Beaulieu had retired behind the Fo in order to cover the 
Milanese territory ; and Buonaparte, whose rear was now 
secured by the Sardinian treaty, lost no time in pursuing him. 

A. D. 1796. ITALIAN CAMPAiaN OP 1796-7. 107 

While the attention of the enemy was directed to Yalence, he 
succeeded {Maj 7) in passing the Po at Placentia, below its 
junction with the Ticino ; thus at once turning the river defences 
of Lombardy. The Austrian general forthwith advanced from 
Pavia with his army, now considerably reinforced, to repair 
this mischance; but his divisions were routed in detail at 
Fombio and Pizzighitone, and compelled to concentrate them- 
selves behind the Adda for the defence of Milan. The Duke of 
Parma was now compelled to purchase terms from the French 
by the payment of 2,000,000 francs, and the surrender of twenty 
of his most valuable paintings — an unjustifiable species of spoli- 
ation now first introduced into warfare, but which was perse- 
vered in through all the subsequent conquests of the French. 
In the mean time Bu6naparte pushed rapidly onwards for Milan. 
The passage of the Adda, at the wooden bridge of Lodi, was 
defended by 12,000 foot and 4000 horse, the elite of the Austrian 
army ; but the French general, heading his grenadiers in person, 
forced the perilous defile (May 10) in the face of a tremendous fire 
of grape-shot, and the enemy retreated with the loss of 2000 men 
and 20 guns. The heroism displayed by their young commander 
in this action had an extraordinary effect on the soldiery, who 
bestowed on him the familiar surname, ever afterwards remem- 
bered, of the Little Corporal. Beaulieu now retired behind the 
Mincio, and Buonaparte entered Milan (May 15) with all the 
pomp of a victor, and amid tbe acclamations of the populace, 
who enthusiastically hailed him as their regenerator from the long 
thraldom of Transalpine oppression, and the destined restorer of 
republican freedom ; while national guards were organised, and 
revolutionary authorities established throughout Lombardy. 

183. But the hopes of the Milanese were soon cruelly dispelled 
by the heavy contributions levied by the victors, whose system 
of ''making war support war'' now began to develop itself. 
The enormous sum of 20,000,000 of francs (;£800,000) was exacted 
from Milan alone ; the Duke of Modena was compelled to pay 
10,000,000, and to surrender his choicest paintings ; the soldiers 
lived at freequarters ; and Zi6erato<^lta1y was treated more severely 

108 ITALIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1796-7. a. d. 1796. 

than a conquered state. Hie peasants atlengthrose in fierce revolt, 
but the insurrection was crushed with merciless severity ; and 
Pavia, which had fallen into their hands, was given up to plun- 
der, while the chief citizens were shot in cold blood by order of 
Napoleon. Having thus stifled the spirit of disaflfection in hia 
rear, he again moved in pursuit of Beaulieu, who, after strongly 
garrisoning Mantua^ lay in position along the Mincio. The 
neutral territory of Venice was violated by each of the bellige- 
rents in the course of these operations, but the reclamations of 
the senate were equally disregarded by both ; and Buonaparte, 
after dislodging Beaulieu from the Mincio by a successful action 
at Valleggio on 29th May, and establishing himself on the Adige, 
not only occupied Verona and Porto-Legnago, belonging to Venice, 
but so intimidated the Venetian commissioners, that they agreed 
to furnish gratuitously all the supplies which he required. 
Beaulieu retired with his beaten army to Roveredo, to defend the 
passes of the Tyrol ; the King of Naples, alarmed at the retreat 
of the Austrians, obtained an armistice from the French, and 
withdrew his troops from the Imperial camp ; and Buonaparte 
availed himself of the leisure thus obtained to crush the remain- 
ing hostility of Northern Italy. The Genoese Republic submit- 
ted at the first summons, renounced the Austrian alliance, and 
received French troops into its fortresses. The Pope was more 
severely dealt with, purchasing a respite only by the surrender 
of his frontier towns and most precious treasures of art, and a 
payment of 20,000,000 francs. But the seizure of Leghorn by 
Murat, though chiefly directed against the British merchandise in 
the port, was an outrage the more flagrant, as the Grand-duke of 
Tuscany, in whose territories it was committed, was one of the 
earliest allies of the French Republic, and was even then giving 
a splendid reception to Buonaparte at Florence. 

184. During these transactions, Mantua, the only fortress retain- 
ed by the Austrians in Lombardy, had been closely blockaded by 
Serrurier, and the Aulic Council of Vienna i^esolved upon the 
most energetic measures for its relief. Marshal Wurmser, as 
already mentioned, was summoned with 30,000 men from the' 

A. D. 1796. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN OP 1796-7. 109 

Upper Rhine to assume the chief command ; while to oppose a 
force now again raised by these reinforcements to 60,000 effective 
men, Buonaparte had only half that number of disposable troops 
—15,000 (out of 65,000 which formed his entire army) being 
engaged before Mantua, and 10,000 in keeping up his communis* 
cations. The aristocratic party already anticipated the verifica- 
tion of the proverb — that Italy was the tomb of the French ; 
but the tactics of the Imperialists were fettered by their orders, 
drawn up by the Aulic Council in the distant cabinet of Vienna i 
and their army was split into two great divisions, commanded 
seyerally by Wurmser and Quasdanovich, and separated by the 
lake of Garda. Still the first renewal of the struggle was 
highly disadvantageous to the French : their outposts were every- 
where driven in ; and while Milan was threatened by Quasda- 
novich, the siege of Mantua was raised (Aug. 1) by the advance of 
Wurmser himself. But the passage of the Mincio at Castiglione 
was the term of Wurmser's success ; by extending his line too 
widely, in order to effect a junction with Quasdanovich, he laid 
himself open to the attack of Buonaparte, who forced his centre 
with great loss (Aug. 3) at Lonato, while Augereau retook Cas- 
tiglione. A decisive conflict at Medola (Aug. 5) ended in the 
defeat of the Austrians ; and Wurmser again withdrew his shat« 
tared battalions to Roveredo, having in seven days lost 20,000 
men and 60 guns, with no compensating advantage except the 
relief of Mantua. 

185. For three weeks after this terrible struggle the contest waa 
suspended, while both sides recruited their ranks : the French 
receiving important accessions, not only from France and Lom- 
hardy, but from the arrival of numerous Poles who were deprived 
of a home by the last partition of their country, and who formed 
the nucleus of the famous Polish legion. The two armies 
(each about 50,000) broke up at the same time — ^Wurmser 
descending the Brenta, while Buonaparte ascended the Adige, 
and fell on the detached corps of Davidovich, which had been 
left to guard Roveredo. After two days' severe fighting (Sept. 
4-5) the Austrians were routed both at Roveredo and Calliano, 

110 ITALIAN CAMPAIGN OP 1796-7. a. d. 1796. 

and the French entered Trent, the capital of the Italian Tyrol. 
But Wunnser still continued to press on for Verona, with the 
view of getting into the rear of the enemy ; and Buonaparte, 
leaving Yaubois to deal with Davidovich, hastened back through 
the terrible gorges of the Yal Sugana to encounter the indefati- 
gable veteran. The battle of Bassano (Sept. 8), at the mouth of 
the defiles, ended in a disastrous defeat of the Imperialists ; but 
the gallant Wurmser, with 20,000 men, succeeded in forcing his 
way, after a number of bloody skirmishes, into Mantua, which, 
before the beginning of October, was again blockaded by the 

186. But the indomitable perseverance of the cabinet of Vienna 
was not yet exhausted : fresh drafts from the German armies, and 
new levies among the brave and loyal Tyrolese, raised their 
force once more to 60,000 men, the supreme command of whom 
was given to Alvinzi, a general of high reputation. Though 
Buonaparte had been reinforced by twelve fresh battalions from 
la Vendue, his strength was still far from adequate to cope with 
these masses, and with the formidable corps shut up with Wurm- 
ser in Mantua ; and his letters to the Directory express his de- 
spondency. The first events of the renewed campaign appeared 
to confirm his anticipations: Vaubois was overwhelmed and 
driven from the Tyrol, all the country between the Brenta and 
Adige was rapidly lost ; and at Galdiero (Nov. 11) the Repub- 
licans were, for the first time during the campaign, defeated in 
a pitched battle, with the loss of 3000 men. The situation of 
Buonaparte for a moment appeared desperate : but his genius 
did not desert him at this crisis ; and on the night of the 14th, 
passing the Adige by a rapid movement, he plunged into the 
morasses of Areola^ and thusoutfianked the impregnable position 
of Galdiero. The battles of the three next days were among the 
most terrible of the war. The soldiers on both sides fought with 
the most heroic gallantry : but the French were animated by 
the example and personal prowess of their leaders, particularly 
of Massena, and Buonaparte himself, who with his own hand 
planted the standard on the disputed bridge of Areola ; while 

A. D. 1797. ITALIAN CAMPAIGN OF 1796-7. Ill 

the efforts of their opponents were paralysed by the timidity of 
Alvinzi, and the treachery of some of his subordinates. The 
Austrians at length retired, baffled rather thto defeated, and the 
remainder of the year was occupied by fruitless negotiations for 
peace at Yicenza. 

187. The garrison of Mantua was by this time reduced to the 
last extremity by sickness and famine ; and, on the reopening of 
hostilities, a division of 15,000 men under Provera was destined 
especially to force a way by the plain of Padua, and raise the 
si^e of this important fortress ; while Alvinzi, with the main 
body of 35,000, combated Buonaparte on the Upper Adige. On 
Ihe 13th January 1797, Joubert was attacked by a vastly supe- 
rior force on the elevated plateau of Rivoli ; and when Buona- 
parte came up to his support on the following night, he found 
the position nearly surrounded by the watch-fires of five strong 
columns, which at daybreak on the 14th assaulted the plateau by 
different routes. The French left was broken by the onset of the 
Imperialists; but Massena (afterwards Duke of Rivoli), instantly 
charging with his corps, which had marched all night, restored 
the combat iu that quarter. Still the battle raged in the front and 
on both flanks, and the Republicans were on the point of being 
taken in the rear by Lusignan, who had wound round them un- 
perceived, when Buonaparte, by sending a flag of truce to Alvinzi, 
to announce some pretended propositions from Paris, gained time 
to alter his formations. The critical period was suffered to pass 
away, and when the action was resumed, the columns in front 
were crushed by the plunging fire from the heights, and driven 
back in inextricable confusion ; while the corps of Lusignan, cut 
off in its turn, laid down its arms. But, not content with this 
hrilliant victory, Buonaparte hastened on the same night to the 
environs of Mantua, where Provera was on the point of forcing 
the leaguer and releasing Wurmser. The arrival of the general- 
in-chief, howeyer, changed the aspect of affairs ; and Provera^ 
surrounded by superior forces, was forced to surrender, with 
6000 men (Jan. 16). Thus in three days did Buonaparte rout 
two Austrian armies of much greater force, taken together, than 


his own— taking from them 18,000 prisoners, 24 standards, and 
60 guns ; and inflicting on them, besides, sueh loss in killed and 
wounded, as totally disabled them from making any further 
effort to save Italy. History exhibits few examples of successes 
so decisive achieved by forces so inconsiderable. 

188. While the broken detachments of the Austrians, driven from 
Trent and the valley of the Adige, were only at length rallied on 
the Tagliamento and the head of the Drave, the pressure of famine 
and hopelessness of aid left Wurmser no alternative but capitu- 
lation. The terms granted by Buonaparte were honourable both 
to himself and his adversary; and the aged marshal, issuing 
from Mantua with 18,000 men, surrendered (Feb. 2) to Serrurier. 
Napoleon had already marched southwards to chastise the Pope, 
who had rashly plunged into hostilities during the strife on the 
Adige. The feeble forces of the Church vanished at the approach 
of the French ; and Pius VI. with difficulty purchased the peace 
of Tolentino (Feb. 19) by the cession of Avignon, Bologna, Fer- 
rara,and the Bomagna, and a second heavy mulct in money and 
works of art. 

189. With this treaty closed the campaign of 1796-7, glorious 
to the French arms, and memorable in the history of the world. 
From maintaining a painful contest on their own frontier, the 
Eepublicans found themselves transported to the Tyrol and the 
Tagliamento, threatening the Austrian Hereditary States, and 
subduing all Southern Italy. Much of Buonaparte's success was 
no doubt owing to the character of the troops he commanded. 
The overthrow of the fabric of French society, and the warlike 
spirit of the population, had filled the rank| from the middle 
and even higher classes of the people ; and the result was a union 
of intelligence, skill, and ability among the private soldiers, 
such as had never before been witnessed in modem warfare. 
But, much as was owing to the troops, still more was to be 
ascribed to the general. In this struggle is to be seen the com- 
mencement of that new system of tactics which he afterwards 
brought to«uch perfection — ^that of accumulating troops on a 
central point, piercing the line of the enemy, and compensating 


by rapidity of movement for inferiority of nnmberB. The mis^ 
fortunes of the Austrians, on the other hand, were mainly owing 
to their injudicious system of dividing th^r foree into separate 
bodies, and attacking, at the same time, at points so far distant 
that the different columns could give each other little aid. 

III. Internal Transouiions and Naval Campaign ofOreat 

Britain in 1797. 

190. The aspect of affairs in Britain had never been so clouded 
daring the eighteenth century as at the beginning of the year 
1797. The failure of Lord Malmesbury's mission to Paris had 
elosed every hope of an honourable termination to the war, 
while of all her original allies, Austria alone remained ; the 
national burdens were continually increasing, and the three 
per-oents had fallen to fifty-one ; while party spirit raged with 
uncommon violence, and Ireland was in a state of partial insur- 
rection. A still greater disaster resulted from the panic arising 
from the dread of invasion, and which produced such a run on 
all the banks, that the Bank of England itself was reduced to pay- 
ment in sixpences, and an Order in Council appeared (Feb. 26) 
for the suspension of all cash payments. This measure, at first 
only temporary, was prolonged from time to time by parliamen- 
tarj enactments, making bank-notes a legal tender ; and it was 
not till 1819, after the conclusion of peace, that the recurrence to 
metallic currency took place. 

191. The Opposition deemed this a favourable opportunity to 
renew their cherished project of parliamentary reform ; and on 
26th May, Mr (afterwards Lord) Grey brought forward a plan 
chiefly remarkable for containing the outlines of that subse- 
quently carried into effect in 1831. It was negatived, however, 
after violent debates, by a majority of 258 against 93. After a 
similar strife of parties, the motion for the continuance of the 
war was carried by a great majority in both houses ; and the 
requisite supplies were voted. The expenses of the war, for the 
year^ amounted to no less than M2fiWifiQ0. The land force 

114 MUTINY OP THE FLEET. x. n. 1797. 

amounted to 190,000 men, 61,000 of whom were in Britain, the 
remainder in the colonies. The ships in commission were 124 of 
the line, 198 50-gun ships and frigates, and 184 sloops : hut this 
great force, heing scattered all over the world, could not readily 
he concentrated in any considerahle strength on one point. The 
naval forces of France and her allies were now, on the other 
hand, hecome very considerahle ; and Truguet had devised apian 
for raising the hlockade of the Dutch and French harhours by a 
Spanish fleet of 27 sail, and thus assembling 60 or 70 ships of the 
line in the Channel — a far greater force than Great Britain could, 
in that quarter, oppose to them. Tet this peril, great as it was, 
was as nothing compared to the famous Mutiny of the Fleet, 
which unexpectedly broke out at this juncture. 

192. Unknown to the government, great discontent had for a 
long time prevailed in the navy. The exciting causes were prin- 
cipally the low rate of pay (which had not been raised since the 
time of Charles II.), the unequal distribution of prize-money, and 
undue severity in the maintenance of discipline. These grounds 
of complaint, with others not less well-founded, gave rise to a 
general conspiracy, which broke out (April 15) in the Channel 
fleet under Lord Bridport. All the ships fell under the power of 
the insurgents ; but they maintained perfect order, and memori- 
alised the Admiralty and the Commons on their grievances : their 
demands being examined by government, and found to he reason- 
able, were granted ; and on the 7th of May the fleet returned to its 
duty. But scarcely was the spirit of disaffection quelled in this 
quarter, when it hroke out in a more alarming form (May 22) 
among the squadron at the Nore, which was soon after (June 6) 
joined by the force which had been cruising off the Texel under 
Lord Duncan. The mutineers appointed a seaman named Parker 
to the command ; and, blockading the mouth of the Thames, 
announced their demands in such a tone of menacing audacity 
as insured their instant rejection by the government. 

193. This second mutiny caused dreadful consternation in Lon- 
don ; but the firmness of the King remained unshaken, and he was 
nobly seconded by the pa,rliament.. A bill was passed, prohibit- 


ing all communication with the mutineers under pain of death. 
Sheemess and Tilbury Fort were armed and garrisoned for the 
defence of the Thames ; and the sailors, finding the national feel* 
ings strongly arrayed against them, became gradually sensible 
that their enterprise was desperate. One by one the ships 
returned to their duty ; and on 15th June all had submitted. 
Parker and several other ringleaders suffered death ; but clemency 
was extended to the multitude : and the ultimate consequences 
of this formidable mutiny, from the redress given to the real 
grievances of the seamen, and the improvement thence arising 
in the condition of both officers and men, were highly beneficial 
to the service. In the reign of George III., and the administra- 
tion of Mr Pitt, there is no more glorious event than the effectual 
and almost bloodless suppression of this dangerous revolt. 

194. Notwithstanding all these dissensions, the British navy 
was never more terrible to its enemies than during this event- 
ful year. On the 14th of February, the Spanish fleet of 27 sail 
of the line and 12 frigates, which had put to sea for the 
purpose of raising the blockade of the French harbours, was en- 
countered off Cape St Vincent by Sir John Jarvis, who had only 
15 ships and 6 frigates. By the old manoeuvre of hreaJcing the 
IvMy 9 of the Spanish ships were cut off from the rest ; and 
the admiral, while attempting to regain them by wearing round 
the rear of the British line^ was boldly assailed by Nelson and 
GoLLiNOWOOD,— the former of whom, in the Captain of 74 guns, 
engaged at once two of the enemy's gigantic vessels, the Santis- 
nma Trinidad of 136 guns, and the San Josef of 112 ; while the 
Salvador del Mundo, also of 112 guns, struck in a quarter of an 
hour to CoUingwood. Nelson at length carried the San Josef by 
boarding, and received the Spanish admirars sword on his own 
quarterdeck. The Santissima Trinidad — an enormous four- 
decker — ^though her colours were twice struck, escaped in the 
confusion ; but the San Josef and the Salvador, with two 74-gun 
ships, remained in the hands of the British ; and the Spanish 
armament, thus routed by little more than half its own force, 

retired in the deepest dejection to Cadiz, which was shortly after 



insulted hj a bombardment from the gallant Nelson. A more 
important victory than that of Sir John Jarvis (created in con- 
sequence Earl St Vincent) was never gained at sea, from the 
evident superiority of skill and seamanship which it demon- 
strated in the British navy. 

195. The battle of St Vincent disconcerted the plans of Trugnet 
for the naval campaign ; but later in the season a second 
attempt to reach Brest was made by a Dutch fleet of 15 sail of 
the line and 11 frigates, under the command of De Winter, a 
man of tried courage and experience. The British blockading 
fleet, under Admiral Duncan, consisted of 16 ships and 3 
frigates ; and the battle was fought (Oct. 16) off Camperdown, 
about nine miles from the shore of Holland. The manoeuvres 
of the British admiral were directed to cut off the enemy's retreat 
to his own shores; and this having been accomplished, the 
action commenced yard-arm to yard-arm, and continued with 
the utmost fury for more than three hours. The Dutch sailors 
fought with the most admirable skill and courage, and proved 
themselves worthy descendants of Van Tromp and De Ruyter ; 
but the prowess of the British was irresistible. 12 sail of the 
line, including the flag-ship, two 56-gun ships, and 2 frigates, 
struck their colours ; but the nearness of the shore enabled two 
of the prizes to escape, and one 74-gun ship foundered. The 
obstinacy of the conflict was evidenced by the nearly equal 
nuinbers of killed and wounded, who amounted to 1040 English, 
and 1160 Dutch. But no triumph was ever more complete and 
decisive ; and its moral effects were equally important, since it 
was gained by the same fleet which had so lately struck terror 
into every class by the mutiny at the Nore. 

196. The only remaining operations of the year were theeapture 
of Trinidad in February, by a force which soon after was repulsed 
from before Porto Bico ; and an abortive attempt at a descent in 
Pembroke Bay by about 1400 French. But the great domestic 
event of the year was the death of Mr Burke^ in whom the force 
of intellect, ardour of imagination, and richness of genius, were 
combined to an extent unrivalled perhaps in any other age 

ju D. 1797. ITAUAN CAMFAIGir OF 1797. 117 

or coniitr7, and to whonl it was just permitted to see the com- 
mencement of those triumphs, the way to which had been opened 
by his own genius and foresight. 

ly. Gampaignof 1797 :^Fallof Vmwe-^TrecUy of ChmpoFormio. 

197. The death of Catherine had dissolved the projected arma- 
ments of Russia — her successor, the Emperor Paul, evincing little 
disposition to mingle in the wars of Southern Europe. Austria 
was thus still left single-handed ; and the length of time requisite 
to withdraw troops from the Rhine, to defend the Alpine frontier 
of the Hereditary States, gave an opportunity for a blow to be 
struck, by an early effort, at the heart of her power. But the 
jealousy of the Directory prevented them from adequately rein* 
forcing the army of Buonaparte ; and while Hoche received the 
command of the army of the Sambre and Meuse, only 20,000 
men, under Bernadotte and Delmas, were sent to the army of 
Italy, which was thus raised to an effective total of 61,000, ho* 
sides 16,000 employed in securing the rear &nd communications. 
Anxious, however, to anticipate the arrival of the reinforcements 
from the Rhine and the Hungarian levies, Buonaparte resolved 
on hazarding an irruption into Austria, while the Archduke 
had as yet only 35,000 men on the Tagliamento — an enterprise 
fraught with fearful risk, from the insecure nature of his relations 
with Venice, and the insufficient protection which he could^fford 
to bis communications on the flank and rear. 

198. On the 10th of March, therefore, all the columns moved for- 
ward from Bassano, though the higher passes were still encum- 
bered with deep snow. The plan of Buonaparte was to turn the 
Austrian right by means of Massena's division ; and . this ma- 
noeuvre having so hx succeeded as to compel the Archduke to 
fall back from the Piave to the Tagliamento, Buonaparte with 
the main body passed the latter stream (March 16) by stratagem. 
A partial action ensued, in which the Austrians were repulsed ; 
and thus the prestige of the first encounter between the deliverer 
of Germany and the conqueror of Italy remained with the latter. 

us • Armistice of leoben. ' a. d. irar. 

•Bernadotte and Serrurier now passed the Isonzo (March 19), 
and occupied Laybach and Trieste. Massena seized the Col-de- 
Tarwis (an importaDt pass on the crest of the Alps, commandiog 
the Carinthian and Dalmatian valleys), and maintained it, amid 
ice and snow, against the utmost efforts of the Austrians, under 
the Archduke in person (March 22). The corps of Bayalitch, 
retreating up the Isonzo, was cut off by this movement, and 
eapitulated to the number of nearly 4000 men, with 25 guns ; 
and the French, descending the northern side of the Alps^ and 
crossing the Drave at Villach, advanced to Clagenfurth. 

199. Soon after this they were joined by Joubert, who, after im- 
portant successes in the Tyrol, had been at length compelled to 
evacuate it by the general rising of the warlike peasantry. On 
the 3l8t March, Buonaparte made an unsuccessful attempt to 
negotiate by letter with the Archduke, but without suspending his 
pursuit of the retreating Imperialists, On the 2d April, the 
stupendous defiles of Neumarkt, though defended by the Arch- 
duke in person, were forced by the invaders, who pushed on 
to Judemburg ; while the Austrian corps were hastily collected 
from all quarters, to make a final effort before Vienna. But the 
firmness of the court at length gave way before the imminence 
of the danger ; and on 7th April a suspension of arms was 
agreed to at Leoben. 

200. The danger of Buonaparte, by his own subsequent confes- 
sion, was at this moment extreme. With the armies of (Germany 
and Hungary gathering in his front, and his rear threatened by a 
fiank movement from the Tyrol, the occupation of Vienna would 
only have made his ruin more signal i and the victor being 
thus disposed to moderation, preliminaries were soon signed 
(April 9). Flanders and Savoy were to be ceded to France ; the 
Cisalpine Republic, including Lombardy, with Modena, Cremona^ 
&c., was to be established ; while, in return for these concessions, 
the Emperor was to receive the whole Continental possessions of 
Venice, with the Oglio as his boundary — ^Venice being again 
indemnified at the expense of the Pope* Buonaparte himself 
has owned that these arrangements were made 'Un hatred of 

A. D. 1797. FALL OP VENICE. 119 

Yenice ; ** and both their injustice, and the subseqilent Uie of 
the Venetian Republic, must be laid entirely to his own charge. 
201. The wealth and population of the Venetian territories still 
entitled the republic to a respectable rank among European 
states ; but, without any rude external shock, its power had been 
sapped at the core by ages of corruption ; and the Queen of the 
Adriatic had long veiled her weakness by a cautious neutralityi 
But the progress of the French arms had inspired the youth of 
her cities with an ardent wish to throw off the yoke of the 
obligarehy ; and these democratic aspirations had been fomented, 
by Buonaparte's order, by Landrieux, one of his staff, who at the 
same time, with double perfidy, sought to alarm the Venetian 
government by exaggerated reports of the conspiracies which 
had come to his knowledge* On the 12th of March, the revolt 
openly broke out at Bergamo, and the example was followed by 
Brescia, Crema, and all the large towns ; while the French sol* 
diers, though taking no overt part in the movement, encouraged 
the insurgents. Buonaparte, when applied to by the Venetian 
envoys, refused to interfere ; and the government was still vacil* 
lating between the necessity for action and the fear of offending 
the French, when a furious counter-insurrection broke out early 
in April. The peasants of the mountain valleys poured down 
on the plains, and, attacking indiscriminately the democrats and 
the French, gained considerable advantages : at Verona, the 
wounded French in the hospital were cruelly put to death-^^nd 
thus Buonaparte was furnished with only too fair an excuse for 
the work of retribution. 

202. No sooner was the armistice of Leoben concluded, than the 
plains were covered with French troops — ^the peasants were di£h 
armed and their leaders shot ; while the senate, thunderstruck 
at this new aspect of affairs, did all in their power to avert their 
fate. They had still 14,000 troops in the capital, which waa 
powerfully defended by batteries and gun-boats, and well pro- 
visioned : but.the poison of democracy had pervaded the people ; 
and when Buonaparte (May 3) published from Palma-Nuova his 
declaration of warj the knell of the republic was sounded. The 

12D CAMPAIGN IN 0ERMANT. X d. 1797. 

rabble instantly rose a^inst the bligajrcby, revolutiotiary com- 
mittees were formed, and the senate was compelled to abdicate 
its authority (May 12). The labouring classes in vain attempted 
to resist ; the French were introduced in triumph, and brought 
by Venetian boats to the Place of St Mark, where no foreign 
standard had been seen for fifteen hundred years, but where the 
colours of 1 ndependence were never again to wava The treasures, 
ships, and works of art (among which were the famous brazen 
Horses of St Mark), were seized by the French ; and the €k>lden 
£ook, the record of the aristocracy, was burnt at the foot of the 
tree of liberty. 

203. During these memorable transactions in the Alps, the war 
had languished on the Rhine, where the French army, from the 
cfxhaustion of the public finances, was destitute of the equipage 
necessary for passing th^ river. Moreau at length supplied the 
deficiency from his private resources, and made the attempt at 
Biersheim (April 19). The French failed in surprising the 
Austrians ; but eiffecting a lodgment, first on an islet, and at 
length on the opposite bank, they at last made good their landing 
in face of the enemy, and repulsed them with considerable loss — 
an exploit regarded as one of the most memorable deeds of arms 
in the war. Hoche, on the Lower Rhine, had passed the river at 
Neuwied (April 18), but the armistice of Leoben put a stop to 
all operations on both sides. 

204. On 16th November, in this year, the King of Prussia died, 
leaving to bis son, Frederick-William III., a kingdom of which 
he had augmented the territory nearly one-third, mostly out of 
the spoils of Poland. The new King, who was twenty-^seven 
years of age at his accession, differed greatly in character from 
his father. Severe and regular in private life, he was a pattern 
of conjugal fidelity and the domestic virtues ; but his diffidence 
of his own capacity threw him, in the early part of his reign, 
too much under the government of his ministers. He com- 
menced his rule by the redress of various abuses, and by com- 
pelling the Countess Lichtenau, the profligate mistress of his 
father, to surrender great part of her enormous wealth—- a mea- 


sure forced on him by the public voice ; but the foreign policy of 
Prussia was still, utfortnnately for herself and Europe, directed 
to preserve even increased amity with France. 

205. Meanwhile Buonaparte, sheathing his victorious sword, 
was holding with Josephine a court of more than regal splendour 
at the Chateau of Montebello, near Milan, while the n^otiations 
for the final treaty were in progress. (}enoa had hitherto main- 
tained both its neutrality and its aristocratic constitution,.. as 
settled by Doria ; but a democratic revolt was fomented, as at 
Venice^ by the agents of France ; and though the senate at first 
succeeded (April 23) in defeating the insurgents, the threat of 
armed intervention from France compelled submission ; and 
Genoa, with a new democratic constitution, became a mere out- 
work of the French republic^ Piedmont also experienced the 
bitter humiliation of the French alliance ; and a fresh attempt 
at n^otiation at Lisle, on the part of Great Britain, was almost 
instantly broken ofif by the arrogance of the Directory. The 
conferences at Montebello and Udina were in the mean time 
prolonged for many months ; for though the high contracting 
parties, Austria and France, perfectly agreed on the principle of 
indemnifying each other at the expense of their weaker neigh- 
bours, the details were not so easily arranged ; and threats of 
recommencing hostilities had already been vented, when the 
impetuosity of J^apoleon overawed the Imperial commissioners, 
and the treaty of Campo Formic was signed on the 17th 

206. By this peace France acquired Flanders, with the Rhine 
and the Maritime Alps as a frontier. The Ionian Isles, Mantua, 
and Mayence, were also ceded ; and Lombardy, with Modena, 
Bologna, Bomagna, &c., and the Venetian territory to the Adige, 
formed the Cisalpine Republic. On the other hand, Austria 
aoi^uired the city of Venice, with Istria and Dalmatia, as well as 
aU its continental possessions in Italy, with Verona^ Peschier% 
and Porto-L^gnago — a very sufficient equivalent for what had 
been resigned. There were also various secret articles relative to 
Germany, which were to be settled by a congress at Rastadt# 

122 EXPEDITION TO EGYPT. a. d. 1798. 

y. Expedition to Egypt, 

207. The importanoe of Egypt has been dulyappreciated only by 
the greatest conquerors of ancient and modem times — ^by Alex- 
ander the Great and by Napoleon. Placed in the centre between 
Europe and Asia^ on the confines of Eastern wealth and Western 
ciyilisation, this celebrated country is indicated by its geographi- 
cal position as the great emporium of the commerce of the world. 
The greatest and most durable monuments of human industry^ 
and the earli^t efforts of ciyilisation, are to be sought in this 
primeval seat of mankind ; which the revolution of ages must 
inevitably, sooner or later, reinstate in its pristine importance. 
Even under Louis XIY. the great Leibnitz had pointed out that 
'^ the true commercial route to India " lay through Egypt — and 
Buonaparte early conceived the opinion, which he held through 
life, that it was only by the possession of Egypt, and the conse- 
quent conversion of the Mediterranean into a French lake, that 
India could be reached, or the British power seriously affected. 
After the conclusion of the Italian campaign, his visions of East- 
em conquest revived ; and so completely was his mind engrossed 
by this idea, that he spent hours in examining the books relative 
to Egypt, which had been brought from the Ambrosian library 
to Paris. 

208. After settling the affairs of the Cisalpine Republic, and 
delivering over Venice to Austria, Buonaparte returned from 
Italy across Switzerland to Paris. His progress was a continual 
triumph ; and soon after his arrival, he was received in state 
(Jan. 2, 1798) by the Directory in their palace of the Luxembourg, 
on the occasion of the presentation of the treaty of Campo 
Eormio. A magnificent standard, inscribed with the wondrous 
enumeration of the triumphs of the army of Italy, was borne by 
Joubert and Andreossi ; and Talleyrand, then minister of foreign 
affairs, addressed the youthful general in a strain of eloquent 
panegyric, his reply to which was characteristically terse and 
laconic. Numerous other fStes were given him by the public 
bodies ; but he studiously withdrew himself from the general 


gaze, associating chiefly with members of the Institute, and 
wearing its costume. The Directory, in truth, already began to 
fear the conqueror of Italy as a formidable rival : his dislike of 
the Jacobin party, now dominant, had been more than once 
openly expressed ; and the expedition against England, to the 
command of which he had been named, seemed to afibrd a pre* 
text for getting creditably rid of him. Under the name of the 
Army of England, 150,000 troops were collected on the shores of 
the Channel ; but the battles of St Vincent and Camperdown 
had secured the British government from apprehension ; the 
fleets ofT Brest and the coast of Spain had been strengthened, and 
a squadron under Nelson formed in the Mediterranean ; and 
Buonaparte, after a short visit to the coast, gave up the project 
as hopeless. He now again turned his energies towards the 
Egyptian expedition, to which the Directory at length consented. 
The 3,000^000 francs lately seized at Berne (p. 133), were assigned 
for the expenses ; and the fleet of Admiral Brueys, consisting 
of 13 ships of the line and 14 frigates, was destined for this 
service, the vast preparations for which filled all the ports 
of Italy and Southern France. Among his lieutenants, besides 
those who had so ably seobnded him in Italy, were Desaix and 
Eleber, who were as yet unknown to him : and the most illus- 
trious savants of the age, Monge, Geoffiroy St Hilaire, Denon, <fec., 
joined the expedition for the purpose of scientific research. The 
news of a disagreement between the court of Vienna and 
Bernadotte, the French ambassador, retarded its departure for 
fifteen days : but the Directors were now too thoroughly alive to 
their danger from Buonaparte, to allow him a chance of evasion 
in order to reap laurels in another Austrian war. 

209. At length (May 9) Buonaparte arrived at Toulon ; and on 
the 19tli the magnificent armament under his orders, amid the 
acclamations of the people and the thunders of artillery, set sail 
from the harbour. The fleet, after the junction of the squadrons 
from Genoa and Ajaccio, consisted of 15 men-of-war, 14 frigates 
and numerous smaller vessels, with a convoy of 400 transports, 
bearing 36,000 soldiers. This formidable force appeared off 

124 EaCPEDITXON TO EGYPT. a. d. 1798. 

Malta on 10th June ; asd the impregnable fortifications, which 
had baffled all the efforts of the Turks in the. days of Soliman the 
Magnificent, were yielded without firing a shot, by the cowardice 
of the Grand- Master Hompesch, and the treachery of the French 
knights, who had been previously tampered with by Buonaparte's 
agents. The accumulated treasures of the Order, the plate of the 
churches and hospitals, and the vast warlike stores of the arsenals, 
were seized and embarked : a garrison of 3000 men under Gene- 
ral Vaubois was lefi to maintain this important conquest ; and 
after a delay of only nine days, the fleet, laden with plunder, 
resumed its voyage to Egypt. On the night of the 22d, they 
crossed the track of Nelson s squadron, which was seeking to 
intercept them, at so short a distance that the British signal- 
^ns were distinctly heard. An encounter at this juncture might 
have changed the future history of the world : but the French 
held on their course unobserved ; and at daybreak (July 1), the 
low sandy shores of Egypt lay stretched before them. On the 
morning of the following day, before the disembarkation of the 
troops was completed, Buonaparte pushed forward with 5000 
men against Alexandria, which, after a short resistance from the 
Turks, was carried by assault. 

210. The population of Egypt at this period consisted of about 
2,500,000, divided into four classes. Two of these, the Copts or 
native Christians, and the Turks or Janissaries, descended from 
the troops left in the country on the Ottoman conquest, did not 
number more than 200,000 each : the great mass of the people 
were the Arabs, of whom there were upwards of 2,000,000. The 
highest class of these comprised the landed proprietors, the doc- 
tors of the law, &e. : the great body of the people were fellahs 
Gt cultivators, and many still adhered to the wandering life of 
their Bedoween forefathers. Bnt the actual rulers of the land 
were the Mamlukes, a singular militia, amounting to 10,000 or 
12,000 of the finest cavalry in the world, who were constantly 
recruited by young slaves from Circassia, bred up in the house- 
holds of their Beys. Of these chiefs there were ordinarily twenty* 
four, who divided the country in feudal ^vereignty, tyrannising 

▲. o. 1798. BATTLE OF THE PTRAMIDS. 125 

over the inhabitants, and left scarcely a shadow of anthoritj to 
the Pasha sent from the Porte. At this period the sovereignty 
was yirtually divided by two of the most powerful Beys, Ibrahim 
and Mourad ; the former of whom managed the civil govern- 
ment, while Monrad, younger and more warlike than his col- 
league, commanded the troops. 

211. As the season of the rise of the Nile was approaching, 
Buonaparte was anxious to advance on Cairo before military 
operations were stopped by the inundation ; and on 6th July the 
army, reduced to 80,000 men by the garrisons left in Malta and at 
Alexandria, set out on its march. He had previously addressed .to 
the troops a proclamation exhorting them " to manifest for the 
Koran the same respect they had shown for the religions of Moses 
and Christ ! " — a phrase conveying a faithful picture of the feel- 
ings of his soldiers, who were mostly ignorant, not only of the 
faith, but of the very tenets of Christianity ; hardly one of them, 
as Lavalette has recorded, had ever been in a church 1 Another 
proclamation assured the Egyptians that tlie French were also 
tnteMoslemSy and that, having destroyed the Pope and the knights 
of Malta, the eternal enemies of Islam, they had now come to 
rescue Egypt from the usurped sway of the Mamlukes ! 

212. During the passage of the desert the troops experienced all 
the horrors of thirst ; but their sufferings were relieved by their 
arrival on the Nile, where they joined their flotilla. The first 
encounter with the Mamlukes at Chebreiss (July 14) terminated 
in the repulse of the enemy; and the decisive battle of the 
Pyramids was fought on the 21st. Six thousand Mamlukes, with 
12,000 Arabs and auxiliari^, were assembled under the command 
of Mourad Bey for the defence of Cairo ; and their camp was 
intrenched and strengthened with artillery. But Buonaparte 
directed his attack to the extreme right beyond the range of 
their guns : and all the reckless gallantry of the Mamlukes, who 
charged the French squares on every side, and dashed their 
horses headlong on the bayonets, was unable to withstand the 
tremendous fire of grape and musketry with which they were 
met and repulsed. They were finally driven from the field in 

126 EXPEDITION TO EGYPT. a. d. 1798. 

horrible confusion: 2000 fell in the battle; and many were 
drowned in the Nile. Mourad Bey, with a small force, escaped 
into Upper Egypt, — ^Ibrahim fled into Syria ; and, two days 
after the battle, Buonaparte entered Cairo, where his soldiers at 
length forgot their toils in the indulgence of Oriental luxury. 

213. The French were now virtually masters of Egypt, and 
the battle of the Pyramids struck terror &r into Asia and Africa ; 
while the impartiality of the civil government established by 
Buonaparte, and his studied compliance with their religious and 
national usages, in some measure conciliated the sheikhs and 
people. Ibrahim Bey, who had returned to E^ypt, was agun 
routed and driven back to Syria ; and while Buonaparte was 
planning at Cairo the dismemberment of the Othman empire, 
all the diplomacy of Talleyrand and Buffin was exerted at 
Constantinople to lull the Porte into the belief that the hostility 
of France was directed only against the rebellious Beys. But it 
was impossible long to blind the Divan to the tendency of French 
policy : Buffin was sent to the Seven Towers ; and a Turkish 
manifesto appeared (Sept. 10) denouncing the treachery of the 
Republic with all the eloquence of honest indignation, and 
formally declaring war against France. Even the national ani* 
mosity of the Turks and Russians was suspended by their joint 
hatred of the common enemy ; and the united squadrons, steer^ 
ing through the Hellespont, blockaded Corfu. 

214. But in the mean time a desperate reverse had befallen 
Buonaparte by sea, brought about by the geniusof that illustrious 
man who seemed to have been at this time the instrument of 
Providence to balance the destiny of nations. After having nar^ 
rowly missed the French fleet on its voyage to Egypt, Nelson had 
traversed the Levant backwards and forwards in search of them ; 
and at length (Aug. 1) returned to Alexandria, where he found 
the men-of-war under Brueys at anchor in the bay of Aboukir, 
the inner harbour of Alexandria not having sufficient depth of 
water. Their order of battle, supported on one extremity by 
land batteries, and on the other by shoals, had been considered 
impregnable to attack : but Nelson at once resolved to penetrate 

^A. D. 1798. BATTLE OF THK NILE. 127 

between the shore and the hostile line ; and thns commenced the 
battle of the Nile. The number of ships was equal on either side : 
but the French had greatl7 the advantage in the number** of guns 
and men over the British, whose vessels were all sevent7-fours, 
while their opponents had the Orient of 120, besides two 80-gun 
ships. The British ships, led by Captain Foley in the Goliathi 
successively passed between the outmost French ship and the shoal, 
opening their fire as they ranged innshore ; in such a way that an 
overwhelming force was brought to bear against two-thirds of 
the enemy's squadron, while the remainder were moored at too 
great a distance to join with effect in the action , In spite, there* 
fore, of the determined resistance of the French, the battle, which 
had begun at 3 p. M., soon inclined in favour of the British : 
before nine, three ships had struck and two were dismasted ; and 
the huge Orient, bursting into flames, which all the efforts of 
her crew were unable to subdue, blew up with an explosion so 
tremendous that the fire on both sides was for some timesuspended 
as if by consent. The fire slackened after midnight, and by day« 
break the magnitude of the victory was apparent ; the whole 
French line had struck, except twa men-of-war and two frigates 
which stood out to sea — tholhattered state of the British ships 
preventing pursuit. No sooner was the triumph complete, than 
perfect stillness pervaded the victorious armament; while 
thanksgivings were offered up by the whole fleet for the success 
Touchsafed to them by the Almighty. 

215; Early in the battle, the British admiral had received a 
severe wound on the head : but he would not allow it to be in- 
spected till those wounded before him had been attended, and 
regained the deck to give orders for the assistance of the Orient's 
sinking crew. Nor was the enthusiastic courage of the French 
less conspicuous. Brueys fell on his quarter-deck ; Gasa-Bianca, 
captain of the Orient, was mortally wounded before his ship blew 
up ; and most of the other captains were either killed or disabled* 
Of 13 ships of the line, 9 were taken and 2 burnt ; of 4 frigates^ 
1 was sunk and 1 burnt ; 5225 men were killed, wounded, or 

* English, 1012 guns, 8068 men; French, 1196 guns, 11,230 men. 


missing ; 3105 taken prisoners and sent on shore. The British 
lost 895 killed and wounded. 

216. Sach was the battle of the Nile, which Nelson tmly 
termed, '' not a victory, but a conquest ! " Had Nelson possessed 
a few frigates, or bomb-yessels, all the transports in the harbour 
of Alexandria might have been destroyed ; but even as it was, it 
was a mortal stroke to the French army, who were thus exiled, 
without hope of return, on an inhospitable shore. 

217. In this critical situation, however, the firmness of Buona- 
parte, &r from forsaking him, only prompted him to redouble 
his efforts for organising the resources of the country in which he 
was now isolated. Mills, hospitals, printing-presses, and foun- 
deries were established ; canals re-explored, and the geography 
and antiquities of the country sedulously investigated. Desaix 
pursued Mourad Bey into Upper Egypt, and completely routed 
him at Sidiman (Oct. 7) ; and the French sway was further riveted 
by the suppression of a formidable revolt (Oct. 21) in Cairo, the 
leaders of which were thrown into the Nile. But the ardent 
mind of Buonaparte had now begun to conceive new and gigan- 
tic plans of conquest : not only did he resolve on anticipating 
by an invasion of Syria, the advance of a Turkish army there 
mustering for the attack of Egypt, but he confidently expected 
that, by rousing the natives of that country and Asia Minor, he 
might assemble an Asiatic host round a nucleus of French 
veterans, which would enable him either to march on Constan- 
tinople, and erect a new empire in the East, or to invade India 
through Persia, and overturn the dominion of the British ! But 
for the accomplishment of these magnificent projects, only 13,000 
infantry, with 900 horse, could be spared from the reduced army 
of Egypt; and with these Buonaparte marched, Feb. 11, 1799. 
Arish, the frontier town of Syria, surrendered, but Jafia held out 
and was taken by storm (March 6) after a gallant resistance. Four 
thousand of the Turkish garrison laid down their arms on the 
promise of quarter ; but it was found impossible to feed this 
multitude of captives, and they were all shot in cold blood — an 
act of atrocious cruelty, which Buonaparte and his apologists have 

A. I). 1799. SIEGE OF ACBK 129 

in Tain endeavoured to extenuate, and which probablj, wrought 
its own speedy retribution by animating the desperate defence 
of Acre. 

21& It was on the 16th of March that the French appeared 
before this celebrated fortress, where Achmed^Djezzar, Pasha of 
Syria, had shut himself up with his troops and treasures. Though 
the battering-train had been captured on its passage from Egypt 
by sea by a well-known English officer, Sir Sidney Smith, who 
lay with a squadron in the roads of Acre, the besiegers pushed 
their advances so vigorously, that an assault was made on 28th 
March ; but this, and a second attack on 1st April, were repulsed 
with loss by the Turks. A force of 30.000 Syrian Moslems had in 
the mean time been drawn together in the rear of the invaders ; 
but these irregular masses were repulsed near Nazareth (April 8) 
by Kleber, and finally routed and dispersed with great slaughter 
(April 15) at Mount Tabor, by Buonaparte with only 6000 men. 
The siege of Acre was now resumed, but with no better success 
than before : the defenders, reinforced by the arrival of a Turkish 
squadron, and aided by the British seamen and marines, held 
their ground with a fanatic bravery which all the e£Ports of the 
French were unable to overcome ; and after losing 3000 men in 
repeated fruitless assaults, Buonaparte, for the first time in his 
life (May 20), ordered a retreat. 

219. Buonaparte was deeply affected by this repulse, which 
destroyed his splendid dreams of Oriental conquest ; and he 
frequently referred to it afterwards as " the event which made 
him miss his destiny." The retreat to Egypt was marked by all 
the horrors of war : the plague broke out in the army, and the 
Arabs and British incessantly harassed the march. At Jaffa, as 
is generally believed, a number of the sick, whom it was impos- 
sible to remove, were poisoned by the general's orders ; but as they 
were thus saved from a cruel death at the hands of the Turks, the 
act may perhaps be justified on grounds, not only of necessity, 
but of humani ty. Mean while the government of Egypt had been 
administered with prudence and success, in Buonaparte's absence^ 
by Pesaix, who had repressed a fanatical revolt in Lower Egypt^ 


and had driyen Mourad Bey into Kubia. But a fresh danger 
now presented itself in the disembarkation (Julj 11) of a strong 
Turkish force at Aboukir. Baonaparte attacked them here (July 
25) ; and the Turks, who had no cavalry, were overpowered, after 
a gallant resistance, by the impetuous charges of the horse under 
Murat. Hardly one of their force escaped : 5000, disdaining 
quarter, were drowned in the bay ; 2000 were slain ; and 2000, 
with their general, Mustapha Pasha, taken prisoners, 

220. But the intelligence which now reached Buonaparte of the 
reverses of the French in Italy and Switzerland, in the renewed 
war with the Allies, joined with the hopelessness of further great 
successes in Egypt, determined him to return to the scenes of his 
early triumphs ; and on 22d August he suddenly embarked at 
Alexandria, with Lannes, Murat, Berthier, Marmont, and others 
of 4iis most trusted followers, and sailed with two frigates for 
Europe. Though several times in danger from the British 
cruisers, his good fortune did not desert him ; and after touching, 
for a few days, at his native town of Ajaccio, he arrived in the bay 
of Frejus (Oct. 8), and was received with unbounded enthusiasm 
by the people. The quarantine laws were by common consent 
disregaorded : Buonaparte landed in a few hours, and set off the 
same day for Paris. 

YI. Sstahlishment of the Affiliated Republics, 

221. The two years of Continental peace which followed the 
treaty of Oampo Formio are eminently instructive in a political 
point of view, as putting to the test the alleged pacific tendency 
of the revolutionary system, and showing by actual experiment 
how wholly the existence of a turbulentdemocracy, like that of 
France, the popular passions roused by which can find an ade- 
quate vent only in the enterprise of foreign warfare, is incompa- 
tible with the independence of adjoining states. 

222. Of all the late enemies of the Republic, Great Britain 
alone remained in arms ; and the contest was continued, on her 
part, not from inclination, but from the apparent impossibility of 

A. D. 1796. BATAVIAN KEPUBLia 131 

obtainiDg peace on reasonable terms. Her preparations, therefore, 
were principally defensive : the seas were guarded by 104 ships 
of the line, with 300 frigates and smaller vessels, manned by 
100,000 seamen :— -109,000 regulars, and 63,000 militia, were in 
arms. .But the threat of invasion had given rise to a new feature 
in her military policy, the volunteer system, or general arming of 
the people — a measure strongly proving the confidence which 
the ministers now placed in the general patriotism of the people* 
and which the result showed to be well founded. In a few weeks, 
150,000 volunteers were enrolled and equipped ; and in the suc- 
cess of this first great attempt to enlist popular energy against 
revolutionary principles, may be found the model of those daunt- 
less bands by which, fifteen years later, the liberation of Ger- 
many was accomplished. The budget for the year, exclusive 
of the charges for the debt and the sinking-fund, amounted to 
£28,450,000— and the interest of a fresh loan of Jl5,000,000 was 
provided for, as far as practicable, by trebling for a limited period 
part of the assessed taxes. 

223. The ruined finances of France, meanwhile, were partially 
reinstated by the summary measure of national bankruptcy 
(p. 154), and the policy of the Directory began to evince that 
passion for foreign aggression which invariably characterises de- 
mocracy. The first victim was Holland, which — ^though a central 
democratic government had been established on its conquest by 
Fichegru — still adhered to the ancient federation of the provinces, 
the diets of which were mostly swayed by the old patrician fami- 
lies. Openly supported by the French minister Delacroix, and 
an armed force under Joubert, the democrats rose in revolt (Jan. 
22, 1796), imprisoned the leaders of the opposite party, and de- 
clared the federal union superseded by a republic one and indivir 
gible. A Council of Ancients, and a Chamber of Deputies, with ^yb 
Directors, were established, in every respect like those at Paris : 
but this new government soon became so hateful to the people 
that the French Directory, fearing the loss of their influence in 
Holland, authorised General Daendels to overthrow it. A revo- 
lution was accordingly effected, by military force (May 4), withr 


132 CISALPINE REPUBLIC. a. d. 1797. 

out pretence even of authority from the people : and a provi- 
sional government was formed, consisting of Da^idels and two 
associates, all entirely in the interest of France. 

224. Even the seclusion and perfect neutrality of Switzerland 
could no longer save it from the samedevouringambition. Though 
the constitutions of the cantons were various, — Berne and others 
being highly aristocratic, and the Forest Cantons no less demo- 
cratic, — security to persons and property, and religious free- 
dom, were enjoyed by all ; and the practical blessings of the 
system were demonstrated by the prosperity of the peasantry 
and the density of the population — features rarely found in 
unison. The principal defect of the general constitution was 
the political subjection of some cantons to others, and the exclu- 
sion of the subject districts from equality of rights : thus the 
Pays de Yaud was subject to Berne, the Italian bailiwicks to 
Uri, &c. Of this circumstance the Directors availed themselves 
to carry into effect their projects, which had long b^en concerted 
with Ochs, La Harpe, and other leaders of the Swiss democrats. 
Their first demand (1797), for the dismissal of the British resi- 
dent Wickham, had been complied with by the Diet ; but, in 
October of the same year, an open rupture was brought on by 
Buonaparte, who not only supported the Yalteline in its insur- 
rection against the Orisons, but seized the disputed territory, and 
annexed it, by his own authority, to the Cisalpine Republic. 

225. Revolts in the Yalais and the Pays de Yaud immediately 
followed ; and the Diet, which assembled at Aran to deliberate on 
this emergency, received a notification (Dec. 17) from the French 
envoy, Mengaud, that the insurgents had been taken under the 
protection of the Directory. To support this iniquitous pro- 
cedure, 10,000 troops were advanced to the frontier ; while Oeha 
and Mengaud were busily revolutionising northern Switzerland, 
and the tricolor was already hoisted at Zurich and B&le. The 
Directory now openly announced that they would be satisfied 
only by the establishment of a revolutionary constitution ; and 
the senate of Berne, driven to desperation, summoned the Alpine 
shepherds to arms. The call was instantly obeyed by 20,000 

A. D. 1797. HELVETIC BEPUBLIC. ^ 133 

heroic mountaineers, who, headed by Steiger and d'Erlach, 
opposed an undaunted front to the invaders. But this glorious 
example was not imitated by the towns : Soleure and Friburg 
surrendered (March 2) ; and many of the peasants, believing 
themselyes betrayed, disbanded and returned home. A bloody 
battle, however, took place before Berne on the 6th : but the 
patriotic resolution of the Swiss, in whose ranks old men, chU- 
dren, and even women, fought with the courage of despair, was 
overborne by the numbers and artillery of the French : the 
gallant d'Erlach was murdered by his own men, who accused 
him of treachery ; and Berne capitulated the same evening. 

226. The first care of the victors was to seize the arsenal and the 
public treasure, which was estimated at ^800,000, the savings of 
ages, and which is said to have been their chief incentive, as its 
capture enabled the Directory to fit out the expedition to Egypt. 
A Directory, with its usual democratic concomitants, was 
appointed, and the new constitution proclaimed (Feb. 12) at 
Arau. Lucerne, Zurich, with all the level parts of Switzerland, 
speedily joined the innovating party ; and Geneva was seized 
and united to France. But the enormous exactions of the French 
speedily alarmed all classes ; and the mountain cantons, Schwytz, 
Uri, Unterwalden, &c., stimulated by their clergy, and animated 
by the traditions of their forefathers, unanimously rejected the 
new constitution, and prepared to resist it to the uttermost. 
They assumed the ofiensive without delay, and occupied Lucerne ; 
but were soon driven back into their mountains, where 3000 
Schwytzers, under the heroic Aloys Reding, encountered and 
held at bay more than twice their number of French, at Mor- 
garten. But the contest was too hopeless to be continued ; and 
a convention put a stop, for some months; to hostilities. The 
exaction of an oath to the new Swiss Directory, however, re- 
kindled the flame ; and 3000 peasants of Unterwalden, with a few 
auxiliaries from Schwytz and Uri, after opposing 16,000 French 
troops with devoted valour (Sept 9), perished to a man on their 
bayonets. An alliance, offensive and defensive, with France had 
already (Aug. 4) been forced on the new Swiss government ; the 

134 SEIZURE. AND DEATH OF THE POPE. a. d. 1798-9. 

Grisons alone (bj inyoking the aid of Austria, which was guaran- 
teed by old treaties) preserved their freedom and ancient insti- 
tutions. No act of the whole revolution was so effectual in 
opening the eyes of its European partisans, as this cruel and 
unprovoked attack on the unoffending Swiss : even the Whig 
leaders in England confessed that " the mask had fallen from the 
face of revolutionary France, if, indeed, it had ever worn it." 

227. Since the French conquests in Italy, and the treaty of 
Campo Formio, the Pope had been entirely at their mercy. His 
resources were exhausted by the immense payments stipulated 
by the treaty of Tolentino ; and the French embassy at Rome 
became a focus of revolutionary intrigue. The great age and 
feebleness of Pius V I., whose decease was daily expected, induced 
the Directory to forward orders to their agents, Jerome Buona- 
parte and Duphot, to delay the explosion till after his death ; 
but their activity had been too quick for these instructions. On 
27th December an immense crowd assembled before the French 
embassy, loudly demanding the proclamation of the " Roman 
Republic ;" but a skirmish ensued with a body of Papal dra- 
goons, and Duphot was killed while encouraging the insurgents. 
The ambassador, Jerome Buonaparte, immediately left Rome : 
war was declared ; and Berthier, rapidly advancing with 18,000 
men, appeared before the Eternal City (Feb. 10, 1798), where 
he was tumultuously welcomed by the noisy multitude. The 
aged Pope, refusing with the firmness of a martyr to abdicate 
or submit, was dragged by force from his palace : even his rings 
were torn from his fingers ; and he was sent under a guard into 
Tuscany. But the veneration with which he was here treated 
excited the apprehensions of his persecutors ; and after frequently 
changing the place of his confinement, he was dragged across the 
Alps and Apennines to Valence, where he died (Aug. 29, 1799), 
in the 82d year of his age and 24th of his pontificate. 

228. But, long before the venerable pontiff had sunk beneath 
his sufferings, Rome had experienced the bitterness of republican 
fraternisation. Not only were unheard-of contributions in 
money and stores exacted from the city, but it was subjected to 


a systematic pillage, unexampled even in French revolutionaiy 
warfare. The churches, the convents, the palaces were stripped 
even to the hare walls : the galleries and works of art were con- 
fiscated : even the private clothes of the Pope were sold, and his 
sacerdotal yestments hurned, in order to extract from the ashes 
the gold which adorned them. The cardinals were hanished or 
imprisoned : all the church and monastery lands were declared 
national property ; and so infamous was the spoliation as to 
excite the indignation even of the army. While the generals 
and commissaries were enriching themselves, the inferior officers 
and soldiers were half naked and almost starving ; and the 
arrival of Massena, who was notorious for his previous extor- 
tions, produced a violent mutiny (Feh. 24), hoth at Rome and 
Mantua, which was only appeased hy his departure. The work 
was concluded hy the imposition, on the Roman Repuhlic, of a 
new constitution, on the French model, and an alliance offensive 
and defensive with France. 

229. A treaty had heen concluded (March 29) hetween France 
and its infant offspring, the Cisalpine Repuhlic, hy which 25,000 
French troops were to be quartered in the territory of the latter. 
Bat this virtual subjugation was highly unpopular with the 
Cisalpine democrats ; and various ineffectual efforts were made 
to shake off the yoke of their overbearing ally, till the unequal 
contest ended (Dec. 6, 1798) in the dissolution of the legislature 
by French bayonets, and the establishment of a new constitution 
dictated by a French ambassador. The l^ing of Sardinia was 
the next victim. Since the peace of 1796, this monarch had 
been subject to constant insult and humiliation from his repub- 
lican allies, till at length (June 1798) a democratic revolt was 
fomented, and openly supported by the Ligurian Republic of 
Genoa. The French availed themselves of this outbreak to cajole 
and menace the King into putting the citadel of Turin into their 
bands for security — a concession which rendered him a mere 
state-prisoner in their hands. The violent seizure of the remain- 
ing fortresses, by the French general. Grouchy, soon followed : 
the King, finding his life in danger, with difficulty escaped (Dec.) 

136 FRENCH INVADE NAPLES. a. d. 1798. 

to Sardinia, and all his Continental dominions fell into the 
hands of the French. 

230. While these events were in progress in Northern Italy, the 
kingdom of Naples was already oyerthrown. The Neapolitan 
cabinet, justly alarmed at the fate of the other Italian states, 
had for some time been preparing against the threatened danger 
by increasing their military establishments, and concluding an 
alliance with Austria : but the news of the battle of the Nile, 
and the arrival of Nelson at Naples with his victorious fleet, 
raised to such a height the enthusiasm of the war party, which 
was headed by the Queen and Lady Hamilton (wife of the 
British ambassador), that immediate hostilities were rashly 
resolved on. The Austrian general, Mack, had been sent from 
Vienna to take the command of the army: but this officer, 
though a skilful strategist on paper, was totally without the 
qualities necessary for success in the field ; and the result was 
in accordance. The incapacity of the general, and the cowardice 
of the troops, rendered the campaign one series of blunders and 
disasters ; for though the superiority of their numbers, and the 
wide dispersion of the French corps, enabled the Neapolitans to 
occupy Rome (Nov. 29) and enter Tuscany, they were driven 
back at every point, in the utmost confusion and dismay, as soon 
as the French had collected their forces. Championnet re-entered 
Bome, (Dec 10) ; and the court, not conceiving themselves safe 
in their own capital, embarked, with all their treasures and most 
valuable effects (Dec. 21), on board the British fleet for Sicily. 

231. Championnet immediately followed up his success by the in- 
vasion of Naples, which his troops entered at five different points. 
The enemy everywhere fled at his approach, and Graeta, the 
strongest place in the kingdom, surrendered without firing a 
shot. But his progress was stayed by the strong ramparts of 
Capua ; and the peasantry, whose ferocious valour remarkably 
contrasted with the pusillanimity of the soldiers, harassed his 
insulated columns with such determined fury, that his commu- 
nications were nearly cut off*. But Mack, who had lost all con- 
fidence in the Neapolitans, unexpectedly relieved him by offering 


to give up Capna, with two other fortresses, as the price of an 
armistiee for two months (Jan. 11, 1799), and shortly after con- 
sulted his own safety, which was threatened hy his soldiers, hy 
taking refuge in the French camp. Championnet, having reunited 
his scattered forces, moved on the capital ; hut the lazzaroni of 
Naples, though deserted hy their king, their army, and their 
natural leaders, fought with the most infuriated hravery in 
defence of their country. The desperate conflict continued from 
the 21st to the 2dd of January in the environs, the gate, and 
even the streets of the city ; and it was not till the castles of 
" The ligg " and of St Elmo had heen seized hy a hody of Nea- 
politan democrats in the interest of the French that the lazzaroni 
leaders suhmitted. The usual results of French conquest suc- 
ceeded ; all the puhlic treasures and effects were confiscated ; and 
a new democratic state was proclaimed, under the name of the 
Parthenopeian Bepuhlic. 

232. While Italy was thus everywhere falling under the yoke 
of the French Directory, Great Britain underwent a perilous poli- 
tical crisis on the side of Ireland. Without entering into the 
various causes which had contributed, during the five centuries 
since the English conquest, to the continued sufferings of this 
unhappy country, it must be allowed that the uniform policy 
pursued towards it during the whole reign of George III. had 
been eminently indulgent and beneficent. From 1780 to 1798, 
the most galling parts of the oppressive code, imposed after the 
Bevolution of 1688, had been removed : but sedition continued 
unabated ; and the leaders of the malcontents had beeii for some 
years in intimate correspondence with France. An association 
called the ^' United Irishmen," and comprising many hundred 
thousand members, had been organised throughout the king- 
dom, under a most complete and efficacious system of secret 
subordination, the names of the chiefs being unknown to the 
inferior agents, who obeyed the orders of an invisible power. 
Their real object — the overthrow of the British government, 
and the formation of a republic allied to France — was veiled by 
the pretence of seeking parliamentary reform ; while the lower 

138 IRISH BEBELLION. a. d. 1798. 

orders were allured by the prospect of liberation from tithes to 
the Protestant clergy, and the restoration of the Roman Catholic 
faith. The armed assistance of France had been secured by a 
treaty concluded at Paris in June 1796 by Lord Edward Fitz- 
gerald, Wolfe Tone, and O'Connor, the leaders of the insurreciion ; 
but the dispersion of the French fleet at Bantry, and the victory 
of Camperdown, ruined these hopes. The insurgents, becoming 
desperate, broke out into Tiolence, which was retaliated by the 
Protestant yeomanry and the Orangevnen, a society formed for 
the support of the British ascendency. At the beginning of 1798 
matters came to a crisis : fourteen of the chiefs, whose names had 
been revealed, were seized in Dublin (March 12) ; and Lord 
Edward Fitzgerald, who escaped at the time, was mortally 
wounded some time after in resisting his arrest. 

233. Notwithstanding the capture of the leaders, the rebellion 
broke out at once, in many different points, about the end of May. 
The attempt on Dublin was frustrated by the vigilance of the 
lord-lieutenant; but fierce encounters took place in various 
quarters between the royal troops and the insurgents. The latter 
were generally worsted ; but their main force, 15,000 strong, 
gained a victory at Enniscorthy, and captured Wexford. They 
were, however, again routed at New Ross and Newtownbarry ; 
and at length (June 21) they sustained a total defeat at Vinegar- 
hill, in the county of Wexford. The insurrection was now com- . 
pletely got under, and an amnesty had been granted by the 
government ; when the Directory, which had been unaccountably 
supine during the height of the civil war, made an attempt to 
revive the contest by landing 1100 men (Aug. 22), under General 
Humbert, at Killala. A militia force of 4000 men was utterly 
routed at Castlebar ; but the French were eventually compelled 
to surrender (Sept. 8) to a corps under Lord Comwallis. A 
French squadron, which shortly after repeated the attempt, was 
captured by Sir John Borlase Warren ; and Wolfe Tone, who 
was on board, prevented a public execution by suicide. 

234. The British naval annals of this year (1798) present no- 
thing of note, except the capture of Minorca ; but the unbounded 


arrogance of the Directory had nearly involved France in a naval 
war with the United States. The dispute arose from a decree 
(Jan.) declaring contraband the cargoes of all ships, neutral or 
otherwise, which had touched at a British port : letters of marque 
were issued, and numerous vessels belonging to Americans (who 
were then the great neutral carriers of the world) captured by 
French privateers. The envoys sent to Paris were denied a public 
audience of the Directors ; while it was privately intimated to 
them that a public loan of £1,000,000 from the States to the 
Republic, and a further gift or bribe •f X50,000 for the private 
use of the Directors, was indispensable for their favourable recep* 
tion. This disgraceful proposal was indignantly rejected ; the 
envoys left Paris, and all commercial intercourse with France 
was suspended. The Hanse Towns, less fortunate, were com- 
pelled to purchase inviolability for their neutral flag by the pay- 
ment of £150,000. 

235. At the end of this year, France had no less than six affi- 
liated republics at her side — the Batavian, Cisalpine, Ligurian, 
Helvetic, Roman, and Parthenopeian — and her dominion was 
thus virtually established from the Texel to the extremity of 
Calabria. Meanwhile the negotiations at Rastadt, notwithstand- 
ing their length and intricacy, had led to no satisfactory result. 
When the secret articles of Campo Formio transpired, which 
stipulated the extension of the Republican frontier to the Rhine, 
loud reclamations broke out from the German princes thus dis- 
possessed, against this dismemberment of the Empire ; but the 
Imperial ministers replied with truth, that Austria had exhausted 
her resources in efforts to maintain the integrity of Germany : 
" If she has been unsuccessful, let those answer for it who con- 
tributed nothing towards the common' cause." The question 
of indemnifying the deprived princes next came under consider- 
ation ; but before this was settled, the conferences were brought 
to an unexpected close. The residence of Bernadotte, the French 
ambassador at Vienna, had been attacked and outraged by 
the mob, whom he had irritated by an imprudent parade of 
revolutionary emblems ; — and before this insult had been satis- 

140 CAMPAIGN OF 1799. a. d. 1799. 

factorily explained, the mareh of a Russian army throngh Morayia 
gave fresh umbrage. The Directory declared that the crossing 
of the (Germanic frontier by the Russians would be considered 
a declaration of war ; and as this notice was disregarded, the 
negotiations at Rastadt came virtually to an end. 

VII. Campaign of 1799. 

236. The battle of the Nile, by destroying the spell of Republi- 
can invincibility, had everywhere revived the spirit of resistance 
to France. Austria felt that she might now retrieve her losses, 
and was ready for the field with an admirably equipped army of 
250,000 men, with an immense artillery, and supported by 60,000 
Russians under Suwarroff, whom the Czar had at length sent to 
aid the common cause. Turkey was preparing her fleets and 
armies to enclose the victor of the Pyramids in the kingdom he 
had won ; and an offensive and defensive alliance had been con- 
cluded (Dec. 18, 1798) between Great Britain and Russia, in 
which Britain agreed to advance £225,000, and a monthly sub- 
sidy of £75,000, as the price of Russian co-operation. 

237. Foreseeing the fresh confederacy thus formed against them, 
the French Directory had resorted without scruple to every 
means of recruiting their shattered finances ; while, to fill the 
ranks of the army, which had been greatly thinned by the subsi- 
dence of the revolutionary fervour, they enacted the famous Law 
of the Conscription, by which every Frenchman from 20 to 45 
was declared liable to military service, and to be drawn by lot as 
the youngest, second, or third class was to be called on. A levy 
of 200,000 men on this principle was immediately ordered. Hol- 
land and Switzerland were each called on for a contingent of 
18,000 men ; — and the Republic was again ready for the field. 
But 35,000 of her best troops, and her ablest general, were exiles 
in Egypt ; and of all her vast armies only 170,000 men were 
disposable for the actual shock of war. The Austrian forces were 
superior both in number and equipment ; and the arrival of the^ 
Russians, who had not yet come up, would soon still further 


increase their superiority. Hostilities commenced by the passage 
of the Upper Rhine by Jonrdan, on 1st March ; while Massena 
simultaneously invaded the Orisons and the Tyrol. On 6th 
March the Austrian general AufTenberg, surrounded by Massena 
in the Orisons, was compelled to lay down his arms, with 2000 
men ; while Oudinot on the left drove Hotze within the intrench- 
ments of Feldkirch. Lecourbe, crossing from Bellinzona by the 
terrible defile of the Via-Mala, advanced against the Austrian 
position at Martinsbruck, while Loison and Dessoles assailed 
it in rear (March 25) ; and Laudon, the Imperial commander, 
escaped with only a few hundred men by the Oebatch glacier. 
Bat, in the mean time, Feldkirch, strong both in its fortifications 
and its position, had baffled with great loss all the attacks of 
Massena and Oudinot, and they fell back across the Rhine. 

238. Jourdan, during these movements, had taken up a strong 
position between the Danube and the lake of Oonstance : but 
he was here attacked (March 21) by the Archduke, and compelled 
to fall back with considerable loss before the numerical superi- 
ority of the Imperialists, to Stockach, the point where the roads 
to Suabia and Switzerland unite. As he could not retire further 
without abandoning his communications with Massena, he 
attacked the Austrians on the morning of the 26th March, and a 
general battle ensued. The right wing of the enemy was turned 
by the vigorous onset of Soult and St Oyr ; but the Archduke 
instantly repaired in person to the menaced point with the flower 
of his troops, and a furious struggle took place. The French 
held their vantage-ground with obstinate valour, and the Princes 
of Furstenberg and Anhalt-Bernberg were killed in heading the 
Austrian grenadiers ; but Soult was at length compelled to give 
way, and the retreating columns were charged and overwhelmed 
by the Imperial cuirassiers. The loss was nearly equal — about 
5000 on each side ; but the victory of the Austrians was decisive. 
The orders of the Aulic Oouncil, however, prevented the Arch- 
duke from pursuing the French before Switzerland was cleared 
of the enemy ; and they were allowed to retreat unmolested 
through the Black Forest, and across the Rhine (April 7). 


239. Jourdan soon after resigned the command in disgust, and 
the armies on the Rhine and in the Alps were united under 
Massena. Drawing back his advanced posts on the Inn and 
Upper Adige, and abandoning the Bhine, this able general con- 
centrated his forces on an inner line of defence, on the river 
Limmat or Linth, a stream running through the lake of Zurich, 
in which town he fixed his headquarters. On 30th April, the 
Imperialists made a general attack on his whole line in the 
Orisons, while the peasants of the small cantons rose in insur- 
rection in his rear ; but though the Austrians failed in forcing 
the French communications at Lucieusteg, Massena was com- 
pelled to withdraw his troops from the Engadine, in order to 
crush the revolters, who were punished with all the severity of 
military execution. A second attack on Luciensteg (May 14) 
was more successful : after a desperate conflict, that important 
fortified post was carried by Hotze, and its defenders made 
prisoners. The French were now again compelled to fall back : 
Lecourbe, with the right wing, held the line of the river Reuss, 
while the bulk of the army assembled round the headquarters 
at Zurich ; till the Archduke crossing the Bhine at Stein and 
Eglisau (May 22), forced the French centre at Steigpass (May 
25), and effected his junction with Hotze, who had crossed the 
upper part of the stream in the Orisons. Loison, on the extreme 
right, was meanwhile defeated at Monte-Cenere by Hohenzollern, 
and at length (May 29) driven with loss over the snowy summit 
of the St Oothard to Wasen. 

240. Massena, with his characteristic obstinacy, still held his 
defensive position at Zurich, the natural strength of which he 
had improved by the erection of formidable redoubts. On the 
5th of June, the whole extent of his lines was attacked by the 
Austrian main army under the Archduke ; and though, after a 
bloody conflict, the assailants were repulsed with a loss of 3000 
men, the French commander retreated during the night, and 
took up fresh ground on Mount Albis, between the lake of Zurich 
and the Aar. The vast stores in the arsenals of Zurich fell into 
the hands of the Imperialists ; the provisional government of 4;he 


Helvetic Republic fled from Lucerne to Berne ; and the contin- 
gent of 18^000 men, which the Swiss had been forced to furnish 
for the French armies, deserted their unwelcome allies by whole 
battalions, and were almost entirely dissolved. 

241. The commencement of hostilities in Italy was equally 
unfavourable to the Republican arms. Scherer had only 57,000 
men, including conscripts, ready on the Adige to oppose 58,000 
Imperialists, with 6000 horse lying on the Tagliamento under 
Eray, supported by a reserve of 25,000 in Carinthia, and provided 
with an exceedingly numerous and effective field-artillery, iu 
which arm they had made great improvements during the two 
years' peace. The anxiety of the French general, however, to 
anticipate the arrival of the Russians under Suwarroff, led him 
to commence an attack (March 26) on the Austrian positions, 
which was at first successful, and the Republicans nearly reached 
the walls of Verona ; but this partial advantage was counter- 
balanced by the rout and dispersion of the left wing, and the 
action led to no decisive results. It soon became obvious, how- 
ever, that the genius of Buonaparte was not possessed by his 
successor : the French sustained severe loss in repeated attempts 
to cross the Adlge, till, after numerous counter-marches and 
partial actions, the two armies encountered each other (April 5) 
on the marshy plain of Magnano : the French having 41,000 
men in the field, the Austrians nearly 45,000. The nature of the 
ground, intersected with numerous small streams, was unfavour- 
able to combined operations; each division combated almost 
separately, and the fortune of the day was inclining in favour of 
the French, when it was restored by the advance of Kray in 
person with the reserve. The French right wing was entirely 
routed and driven off the field, and the whole army gave way 
in disorder, with the loss of 4000 prisoners, and the same number 
killed and wounded. The Republicans retreated in confusion 
behind the Mincio, loudly murmuring at the incapacity of their 
general ; while the Austrians, slowly pursuing, were joined, a 
few days aftd^ the battle, by 20,000 Russians under the famous 

144 OPEBATIONB IN ITALY. a. d. 1799. 

242. Moreau at the same time succeeded Scherer in the com- 
mand of the French anny of Italy ; but it was reduced by sickness 
and the sword to 28,000 combatants, and, abandoning the im- 
mense stores and reserve artillery at Cremona, he fell back 
behind the Adda. The frontier fortresses of the Cisalpine 
Republic were thus left to their own resources : Peschiera was 
carried by assault ; Brescia surrendered to Kray (April 20) ; 
Mantua and Ferrara were blockaded, and Suwarroff prepared 
to force the passage of the Adda. All the points favourable to 
this design had been carefully fortified by the French ; but the 
divisions of Ott and Wukassovich succeeded (on the night of April 
25-6) in effecting the passage by surprise at different points, and 
thus intercepting the communications between the French corps. 
Serrurier was totally cut off, and obliged to surrender with 7000 
men : the French retreated in confusion behind the Tidno, and 
Suwarroff entered Milan in triumph (April 29). Moreau, in 
the mean time, whose forces now amounted to scarce a third of 
those opposed to him, continued to retire, in two columns, on 
Turin and Alessandria, there to await the arrival of Macdonald 
and his army from Naples. He repulsed with loss an attempt 
of the Russian corps of Rosenberg to cross the Po at Yalenza 
(May 11); but, finding his ground rendered untenable by a 
general insurrection of the Piedmontese peasants, he attempted 
to retreat by the crest of the Apennines towards Turin. Suwar- 
roff, however, had made a rapid movement towards that city, 
which was surprised (May 27) by his advanced guard under 
Wukassovich : the castle of Milan had fallen on the 24th, thus 
completing the conquest of Lombardy ; and Moreau was com- 
pelled to turn his steps towards Genoa, the only rallying point 
where he could hope to be joined by Macdonald. The great 
road, however, was blocked up by the town of Ceva, which was 
successfully defended by the insurgents, aided by a small Aus- 
trian force ; and Moreau's situation would have been hopeless 
had not the exertions of the French engineers succeeded in mak- 
ing the mountain paths of the Apennines practicable for artillery 
— and by these tracks he arrived safe at Loano, after leaving a 


garrison at Ooni. Suwarroff, well aware of the value of time 
in war, was eager to attack Moreau's discomfited army in the 
Ligurian Alps before the arrival of Macdonald ; but the positive 
orders of the Aulie Council restrained him from attempting any- 
thing further in this quarter till Mantua had fallen ; and he had 
accordingly to confine his operations to spreading his troops 
through Piedmont, and up to the old frontiers of France. 

243. Meanwhile Macdonald — leaving behind him an insurrec- 
tion in Southern Italy, which the co-operation of Nelson's fleet 
soon made successful — moved rapidly northwards with 35,000 
men to the assistance of Moreau. The plan now concerted be- 
tween these two generals was to threaten the communication3 of 
the Allies by a demonstration on the Lower Po~a scheme ren- 
dered feasible by the immense dispersion of the Allied corps. 
Macdonald, accordingly, after re-organising his troops, crossed the 
Apennines, and drove the Imperialists with loss from Modena, 
Parma, and Placentia (June 12 and 13). But no sooner did 
Suwarroff learn his advance, than (emulating the energetic reso- 
lution by which Napoleon had overthrown Wurmser on the 
Adige three years before) he instantly called in all his advanced 
posts, directed Kray to raise the siege of Mantua, and by the 
15th had assembled 30,000 foot and 6000 horse at Garofalo. The 
armies met on the morning of the 17th, in the plain between 
the Apennines and the Po, intersected by the classic stream of 
the Trebbia. The combat of the first day, though severe, was 
indecisive, and the two hosts bivouacked on the same ground 
occupied two thousand years before by the Homans and 
Carthaginians. On the 18th, however, the Russian marshal 
durected his best troops, under Rosenberg and Bagrathion, against 
the division of Victor and the Poles under Dombrowsky, on the 
French left, thus hoping to cut off the communication between 
Macdonald and Moreau. The Republicans were driven over the 
Trebbia ; but at night the Russians resimied their former ground^ 
and it was not till the 19th that the sanguinary conflict was 
decided. On that day Macdonald, assuming the offensive, crossjsd 
the Trebbia, and attempted to turn at once both flanks of the 

146 BATTLE OP NOVI. a. d. 1799. 

enemy ; but the invincible firmness of the Russian infantry 
sustained the shock, and the scale was turned by a well-timed 
charge of the reserve under Prince Lichtensteiu. The victory in 
this terrible battle, the most bloody and obstinate since the 
beginning of the war, remained with the Allies ; and Macdonald 
decamped during the night, having lost 12,000 in killed and 
wounded out of 36,000. 

244. The loss of the victors was almost equally severe ; but 
they pressed with unabated vigour the disastrous retreat of the 
French over the Apennines, inflicting on them a loss in prisoners 
nearly equal to that sustained in the battle. The pursuit of 
Suwarroff was, however, checked by news of the advance of 
Moreau, who had inflicted a severe defeat on Bellegarde, near 
Alessandria ; but who retreated to his former position on learning 
the fall of the citadel of Turin (June 20), and the approach of the 
victorious Suwarroff. Macdonald, meanwhile, gained Oenoa 
(July 17), after a long and painful circuit, with his shattered 
forces in the most deplorable condition ; and Joubert soon after 
arrived to take the command of both armies. At length Mantua, 
after a pertinacious defence against Kray, was compelled to sur- 
render on 30th July ; the citadel of Alessandria had already (July 
21) yielded to Bellegarde, and Tortona and Coni were invested : 
but in the mean time the French force at Genoa had been raise<^ to 
48,000 men, including 3000 horse, by the arrival of the army cf 
Naples (July 29), and Joubert instantly advanced to relieve tho 
beleagured fortresses. He had not, however, learned the fall of 
•Mantua, and was unprepared for the superiority of force which 
the consequent junction of Kray's corps had given the main 
army of the Allies, whose numbers exceeded the French by 
15,000, when the two hosts came in contact near Novi on the 
evening of 14th August. At five on the following morning, the 
French position was assaulted at all points : the Republicans, 
taken by surprise among the vineyards and ravines at the foot 
of the Apennines, were thrown into disorder ; and Joubert him- 
self was killed while gallantly striving to re-form his broken 
battalions. But the arrival of Moreau restored.the battle j the 


Imperialists were again driven down the slopes ; and the firm 
array of the Republicans, though pressed during the whole day 
by combined and furious charges, remained unbroken at four 
P.M. The resolution of Suwarroff was still unshaken ; and a 
fresh attack by Melas, who had just come up with his divisioni 
having at length succeeded in turning the French right, Moreau 
*was compelled to order a general retreat, which was soon con* 
verted into a rout. The whole army disbanded and fled in 
confusion : Colli, with his entire brigade, was made prisoner^ 
Grouchy and Perignon were wounded aiid taken, and the total 
loss amounted to 7000 killed and wounded, 3000 prisoners, and 
37 pieces of cannon. Moreau regained his former position in the 
defiles of the Apennines, and Tortona immediately surrendered 
to the Allies. 

245. Switzerland in the mean time had become the theatre of 
even more important events. Since the capture of Zurich, the 
Archduke had been watching the Republicans on the Limmat^and 
expecting the arrival of Korsakoff; but the Aulic Council, with 
unaccountable infatuation, ordered him at this important junc- 
ture to repair with the bulk of his army to the Rhine, leaving 
Switzerland to Korsakoff and the Russians. Before these iu' 
judicious orders, however, could be carried into effect, Massena 
h?d boldly assumed the offensive (Aug. 14) by a false attack on 
Zurich, intended to mask the operations of his right wing, which 
meanwLile, under Lecourbe, was directed against the St Gothard, 
'n order to cut off the communication between the Allied forces 
in l^y^^tzerland and in Italy. These attacks proved completely 
successful. The Imperialists were driven by Lecourbe and Oudi- 
not from Schwytz, and afterwards from Altdorf, up the valley 
of the Reuss ; and Colonel Strauch having quitted the important 
ridges of the Grimsel and the Furca to repel the advance of 
General Thurreau in the Yalais, they were seized during his 
absence by General Gudin ; while Lecourbe, pursuing his career 
of victory on the Reuss, repaired the chasm of the Devil's Bridge 
in the pass of Schollenen, which had been blown up by the 

retreating Austrians (Aug. 15). The Imperialists, now finding 


148 BATTLE OF ZURICH. a. d. 1799. 

their flank menaced hj Gudin from Urseren, fell back to the 
Crispalt, near the source of the Bhine^ where they were assailed 
(Aug. 16) and repulsed with loss to Ilantz ; a French detachment 
at the same time seizing the St Gothard, and establishing itself 
at Airolo, on the southern decliyity. Lecourbe's left had mean- 
while cleared the banks of the lake of Zurich of the enemy, who 
were driven back into Glarus. 

246. To obtain these brilliant successes on the right, Massena had 
been obliged to weaken his left wing ; and the Archduke, now 
reinforced bj 20,000 Russians, attempted to avail himself of this 
circumstance to force the passage of the Limmat, below Zurich 
(Aug. 16 and 17) ; but this enterprise, the success of which might 
have altered the fate of the war, &iled from the defective con- 
struction of the pontoons ; and the positive orders of the Aulic 
Council forbade his remaining longer in Switzerland. Accord- 
ingly, leaving 25,000 men under Hotze to support Korsakoff, he 
marched for the Upper Rhine, where the French, at his approach, 
abandoned the siege of Philipsburg, and retired to Mannheim ; 
but this important post, the defences of which were imperfectly 
restored, was carried by a coup-de-main (Sept. 18), and the French 
driven with severe loss over the Rhine. 

247. But this success was dearly bought by the disasters in Swit- 
zerland, which followed the Archduke's departure. It had been 
arranged that Suwarroff was to move from Bellinzona (Sept. 
21), and after retaking the St Gothard, combine with Korsakoff 
in a front attack on Massena, while Hotze assailed him in flank. 
But Massena, who was now the superior in numbers, detertnined 
to anticipate the arrival of Suwarroff by striking a blow, for 
which the presumptuous confidence of Korsakoff gave him in- 
creased facility. On the evening of 24th September, the passage 
of the river was surprised below Zurich, and the heights of 
Closter-Fahr carried by storm ; and, in the course of the next 
day, Korsakoff, with his main army, was completely hemmed 
in at Zurich by the superior generalship of the French com-* 
mander, who summoned the Russians to surrender. But the 
bravery shown by Korsakoff in these desperate circumstances 


equalled his former arrogance: on the 28th, the Russian columns, 
issuing from the town, forced their way with the courage of 
despair through the surrounding masses of French, while a 
slender rear-guard defended the ramparts of Zurich till the 
remainder had extricated themselves. The town was at length 
entered, and a frightful carnage ensued in the streets, in the 
midst of which the illustrious Lavater was barbarously shot by 
a French soldier : while Korsakoff, after losing 8000 killed and 
wounded, 5000 prisoners, 100 pieces of cannon, and all his 
ammunition, stores, and military chest, succeeded in reaching 
Schaffhausen. The attack of Soult above the lake (Sept. 25) was 
equally triumphant. The gallant Hotze, who commanded in 
that quarter, was killed in the first encounter ; and the Aus- 
trians, giving way in consternation, were driven over the Thur, 
and at length over the Rhine, with the loss of 20 guns and 3000 

248. Suwarroff in the mean time was gallantly performing his 
part of the plan. On the 23d of September, the French posts at 
Airolo and St Gothard were carried, after a desperate resistance, 
by the Russian main force, while their flank was turned by 
Rosenberg; and Lecourbe, hastily retreating, broke down the 
Devil's Bridge to check the advance of the enemy. A scene of 
useless butchery followed, the two parties firing on each other 
from the opposite brinks of the impassable abyss ; but the flank 
of the French was at length turned, the bridge repaired, and the 
Russians, pressing on in triumph, joined the Austrian division of 
Auffenberg, at Wasen, and repulsed the French beyond Altdorf. 
But this was the limit of the old marshal's success. After effect- 
ing with severe loss the passage of the tremendous defiles and 
ridges of the Schachenthal, between Altdorf and Mutten, he 
found that Linken and Jellachich, who were to have moved from 
Goire to co-operate with him, had again retreated on learning 
the disaster at Zurich ; and Suwarroff found himself in the 
midst of the enemy, with Massena on one side and Molitor 
on the other. With the utmost difficulty the veteran conqueror 
was prevailed upon, for the first time in his life, to order a 

160 BRITISH AND RUSSIAN a. d. 1799. 

retreat, which had become indispensable, and the heads of his 
columns were turned towards Glarus and the Grisons. But 
though the attack of Massena on their rear in the Muttenthal 
was repulsed with the loss of 2000 men, their onward route was 
barred at Naefels by Molitor, who defied all the efforts of Prince 
Bagrathion to dislodge him ; and in the midst of a heavy fall of 
snow, which obliterated the mountain paths, the Russian army 
wound its way (Oct. 5) in single file over the rugged and sterile 
peaks of the Alps of Glarus. Numbers perished of cold, or fell 
over the precipices ; but nothing could overcome the unconquer- 
able spirit of the soldiers : without fire or stores, and compelled 
to bivouac on the snow, they still struggled on through incredible 
hardships, till the dreadful march terminated (Oct. 10) at Ilantz. 
Such was the famous passage of the Alps by Suwarroff. Korsa- 
koff in the meanwhile (Oct. 1-7) had maintained a desperate 
conflict near Constance, till the return of the Archduke checked 
the efforts of the French ; and the Allies, abandoning the St 
Gothard, and all the other posts they still held in Switzerland, 
concentrated their forces on the Rhine, which became the 
boundary of the two armies. 

249. While these desperate conflicts were in progress in Southern 
Europe, Britain was preparing, in conjunction with Russia, an 
expedition against Holland, on a scale more commensurate with 
her power than any which she had yet sent forth. The Direc- 
tory were alarmed by the reports of the vast naval preparations 
in the British harbours ; but they could spare no soldiers to re- 
inforce Brune, who had only 15,000 French and 20,000 Dutch 
troops. On the 28th of Aug[ust the first British division, 17,000 
strong, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, effected its landing at the 
Holder, in the face of the Batavians under Daendels ; and the 
fleet under Admiral Story at the Texel, consisting of eight ships 
of the line and numerous frigates and smaller vessels, sur- 
rendered without firing a shot. An attempt of a greatly supe- 
rior French force under Vandamme (Sept 10) to dislodge the 
British from their positions, was repulsed with considerable 
slaughter ; and between the 12th and 16th^he invaders were 


raised to 35,000 hy the arrival of 17,000 Russians and 12,000 
British, — ^the Duke of York taking the chief command.' The 
Allies now advanced from the Holder, and an obstinate engage- 
ment ensued (Sept. 10) in front of Alkmaar : the British were 
victorious on the centre and left ; but this advantage was neu- 
tralised by the rout of the Russians on the right, and both armies 
reoccupied their former lines. The attack was renewed, how- 
ever, on the arrival of reinforcements (Oct. 2), when Brune was 
routed and driven from the lines of Alkmaar; but a second 
well-contested action (Oct 6), though the barren honours of the 
field remained with the Allies, failed in its intended object of 
giving them possession of Haarlem as a central point whence to 
maintain their footing in the country. Their situation, notwith- 
standing their successes, was now becoming highly precarious, 
from the inclemency of the season, the increasing sickness of the 
troops, and the want of supplies. They were compelled to fall 
back on their former positions, closely pursued by Brune, till 
(Oct 8) the Duke of York, finding that only eleven days' provi- 
sion remained for the troops, whose number was reduced to 20,000 
effective men, entered into a convention with the French com- 
mander for the evacuation of Holland, which was carried into 
effect before the end of November. 

250. In Italy, after the disastrous battle of Novi, the Directory 
had given the leadership of the armies, both of Italy and Savoy, to 
the gallant Championnet ; but he could muster only 54,000 troops 
and 6000 raw conscripts to oppose Melas, who had succeeded 
Suwarroff in the command, and who had 68,000, besides his gar- 
risons and detachments. The proposition of Championnet had 
been to fall back, with his army still entire, to the other side of 
the Alps : but his orders were positive to attempt the relief of 
Goni, then besieged by the Austrians ; and after a desultory war- 
fare for several weeks, he commenced a decisive movement for 
that purpose at the end of October, with 35,000 men. But before 
the different French columns could effect a junction, they were 
separately assailed by Melas : the divisions of Grenier and Victor 
were overwhelmed at Genola (Nov. 4), and defeated with the 


loss of 7000 meD ; and though St Cyr repulsed the Imperialists 
(Nov. 10) on the plateau of Novi, Coni was left to its fate, and 
surrendered with all its garrison (Dee. 4). An epidemic disorder 
broke out in the French army, to which Ohampionnet himself, 
and numerous soldiers, fell victims : the troops, giving waj to 
despair, abandoned their standards by hundreds and returned to 
France ; and it was with difficulty that the eloquent exhortations 
of St Cjrr succeeded in keeping together a sufficient number to 
defend the Bochetta pass, in front of Genoa, the loss of which 
would have entailed destruction on the whole army. The dis- 
comfited Republicans were driven back on their own frontiers ; 
and, excepting Genoa, the tricolor flag was everywhere expelled 
from Italy. 

251. At the same time the campaign on the Rhine was drawing 
to a close. The army of Massena was not strong enough to follow 
up the brilliant success at Zurich, and the jealousies of the Ans- 
trians and Russians, who mutually laid on each other the blame 
of the late disasters, prevented their acting cordially in concert 
against him. Suwarroff at length, in a fit of exasperation, drew 
ofi^ his troops to winter quarters in Bavaria, and took no further 
share in the war ; and a fruitless attempt in November against 
Fhilipsburg, by Lecourbe, who had been transferred to the 
command on the Lower Rhine, closed the operations in that 

VIII. Internal state of France — the Directory — return ofBuonon 
'parte from Egypt — he is elected Mrst Consul. 

252. Meanwhile, in France, the illusions of republicanism had 
passed away ; the rapid vicissitudes had overturned the previous 
ideas of all men, while the rule of the middle classes and of the 
mob had come and vanished like sanguinary but fleeting visions. 
Society emerged weakened and disjointed from the chaos ; and 
all classes, despairing of any real amelioration, rushed headlong 
into the luxuries of private life. Female influence resumed its 
previous ascendency, and society its wonted order ; and never 


mrere manners more corrupt, or festiyities more prodigal, than 
under the Directory. The transition was easy from democratic 
extravagance to sensuality : and the passions, unrestrained by 
any religions belief, were indulged -without control. 

253. The elections of the third part of the deputies who were to 
"be newly chosen (p. 95), ended mostly in the return of men 
of moderate principles ; but their influence was inconsiderable 
compared with that exercised by the remaining members of the 
old Assembly. Two hundred and fifty of their number were 
chosen by ballot to form the Council of Ancients ; and the choice 
of Directors, after some hesitation, fell on Barras, Bewbell, Lare- 
veilldre-Lepaux, Letourneur, and Gamot Of these, Barras was 
evidently the one most qualified to take the lead, from the audacity 
and decision which he had often shown, and particularly on the 
late revolt of the Sections ; but his indolent and voluptuous, 
though haughty temperament, fitted him rather to command in 
perilous emergencies than to conduct the ordinary routine of busi- 
ness. Bewbell, on the contrary, though devoid of distinguished 
talent or eloquence, was useful from his habits of business and 
knowledge of forms. Lareveillere-Lepaux, a sincere Republican 
and Girondist, was of a mild and gentle disposition, with no 
marked characteristic but fanaticism in the cause of natural 
religion against Christianity ; and Letourneur was an old officer 
of artillery. It was on the genius of Carnot alone that the 
administration depended for its general efficiency. 

254. Among the innumerable difficulties which beset the Di- 
rectors on their accession to power, the most pressing was that of 
the assignats, which had fallen at length to one-thousandth part 
of their nominal value. To conceal and check this enormous de- 
preciation, a new paper-money was issued, called territorial man- 
dates, intended to withdraw the assignats at the rate of thirty to 
one ; and this expedient, as the holder was entitled to exchange 
his paper, by a summary process, for the land on which it was 
secured, met with transient success. But it was impossible to 
sustain at par a paper-money which was worth nothing in 
foreign states: the mandates speedily shared the fate of the 


assignats ; and though the gold and silver which began to pour 
in from foreign conquest supplied in some measure the general 
want of a circulating medium, the fundholders and public offi- 
cers, who were still paid in mandates, were reduced almost to 
starvation. The armies in the interior were not less deplorably 
situated ; the roads were covered with troops of brigands, formed 
of deserters, whom hunger had driven from their standards ; and 
the general distress was turned to account by foreign speculators, 
whose command of metallic treasure enabled them to buy up 
the most costly effects at incredibly inadequate prices. 

255. The crisis at length arrived. On the 16th July 1796, the 
national bankruptcy was in effect proclaimed, by a decree which 
authorised all persons to transact business in whatever money 
they chose, and reduced the mandates to their current value. 
Thus ended, after six years, the system of fictitious paper credit, 
which on the one hand had ruined the public creditors, and all 
those formerly opulent ; and, on the other, had virtually annulled 
all debts by the elusory form in which payment might be made, 
and had enabled the holders of government paper to purchase 
the national domains for almost nothing. Such a revolution 
in individual fortunes had never before been effected. The 
Directory was now compelled to adapt the expenditure as 
far as possible to the real revenue, which was calculated at 
^50,000,000 for 1796 : but it fell short of this sum, while the 
outlay far exceeded the estimates. The income of 1797 was only 
£27,000,000 ; and after the trial and failure of various tempo- 
rary schemes, the bankruptcy of the nation was avowed ; and 
two -thirds of the public burdens summarily extinguished, 
(Aug. 18, 1797) byconversion into valueless bills, which obtain- 
ed scarcely even a momentary currency. 

256. The attempts of the Directors, during the first year, to 
restore order to the chaos of society, were eminently successful. 
The odious law of the maximum was repealed ; the press was 
again free ; the metallic currency restored : and the internal 
police of the country restored to its former security. But religion 
stiU remained prostrate ; the churches were closed, and the sacra- 


ments unknown. A generation grew np, ignorant of the first 
elements of the faith of their fathers ; and a chasm was thus 
made in the social institutions of France, which nothing has 
subsequently been able to repair. Lareveill^re-Lepaux attempted 
to establish a system of Theophilanthropy, with temples, and a 
sort of liturgy ; but this and similar attempts to supersede Re- 
Telation wholly failed. 

257. But this repose was not destined long to endure ; and it 
was by the Jacobins that it was first disturbed. This desperate 
faction had formed a new club at the Pantheon, headed by an 
outrageous democrat calling himself Gracchus BaboBuff; but 
their violent declamations attracted the notice of goyemment, 
and the club was forcibly closed. Thus thwarted, the Jacobins 
adopted more covert measures. By means of secret committees, 
they attempted to tamper with the troops in the camp at Ore- 
neHe, and to organise a revolt for 21st May, when the Directors 
wer^ to have been murdered, and the Reign of Terror revived in 
even more than its former horror. But the troops refused to 
join the insurgents ; BaboBufF and Darth6, his principal follower, 
were tried, and after attempting suicide on condemnation, were 
executed ; thirty-one of the inferior agents were shot by a mili- 
tary commission, and the conspiracy was totally crushed. 

258. The terror excited in the public mind by these efforts of 
the Jacobins roused anew the hopes of the royalists, who strove 
to guide the reaction in favour of their own views. Their first 
attempts proved abortive ; but in the elections of 1797, when 
one-third of the members of the two councils were changed, they 
obtained so decided a superiority, as to give them a great majo- 
rity both in the Five Hundred and the Ancients. Pichegru and 
Barbe-Marbois, both royalists, became presidents of the councils ; 
and when Letourneur retired in rotation from the Directory, he 
was succeeded by Barthelemy, an anti-republican. The periodi- 
cal press fell almost entirely into the hands of the royalists^ 
whose movements were directed by the Club of Clichy, while 
the rendezvous of the opposite party was the Club" of Salm. 
Even Garnot, the most sincere of republicans, was known to 

156 KEVOLUTION OF a. d. 1797. 

be disposed to royal ism, from his ayersion to the late scenes 
of violence ; and so strong was the retrograde torrent, that the 
laws against priests and emigrants were repealed, and an attempt 
of the Directors to control the royalist press was negatived by 
the Council of Ancients. It was ascertained that the next elec- 
tion would almost wholly extinguish the revolutionary party ; 
and the Ancients had already resolved to transfer the legislature 
to Rouen, near those western provinces which had always been 
the stronghold of the Bourbonists. But the -army was still 
strongly republican ; and Barras, Bewbell, and Lareveill^re- 
Lepaux, who saw the scaffold before them as regicides in the 
event of a restoration, resolved on decisive measures. 

259. The co-operation of the military chiefs, Hoche and Buo- 
naparte, had been secured by Barras : the latter sent Lavalette 
and Augereau to Paris to support the government, and addressed 
to the army of Italy (July 14) a proclamation breathing the 
strongest republican sentiments, which were vehemently re- 
sponded to by the soldiery. 

260. Thus powerfully seconded, the Directors proceeded to 
act vigorously : the ministers, who were ftll suspected of royal- 
ism, were replaced by a fresh cabinet, including Talleyrand and 
Hoche; and 12,000 men from the army of the latter were 
quartered round Paris, in violation of the new constitution, 
which forbade troops to be brought within twelve leagues of the 
legislature. The opposite party foresaw the impending shock, 
but they were strong only in numbers and eloquence, and had 
little military force at their disposal. On the night of the 17th 
Fructidor (Sept. 3), the troops commanded by Augereau entered 
the city and surrounded the Tuileries ; the guards of the coun- 
cils, in spite of the exhortations of their commandant Kamel, 
refused to act against their fellow-soldiers ; and by six o'clock 
next morning, Pichegru, Barthelemy, Camille-Jourdan, Tronoon- 
Ducondray, Boissy-d' Anglas, and several hundreds of their party, 
were in prison, — Carnot alone escaping to Geneva. 

261. The use made by the three Directors of their victory was 
as tyrannical as the means by which it was gained were uncon- 

A. D. 1797, THE 18TH FBUCTIDOE. 167 

stitntional. Acting nnder their orders, the remnant of the two 
councils condemned fifteen of their most iilnstrious captives, in- 
cluding Pichegra and Barthelemy, to transportation to Guiana, 
a sentence worse than death itself: several hundreds of priests, 
who had recently returned to France, were subjected to the same 
punishment. Pichegru, with a few companions, escaped soon 
after his arrival : of the remainder, only eight priests, with two 
of the political delinquents, survived the pestilential climate for 
two years, when they were recalled on theaccession of Buonaparte. 
The triumphant faction in France meanwhile proceeded in their 
career of despotism : the freedom of the press and trial by jury 
were abolished ; the revolutionary laws against the priests, 
emigrants, and nobles, were re-enacted in their cruel rigour, and 
the terrors of Jacobin rule appeared on the point of revival. 
The judges and anthorities throughout the departments were 
arbitrarily changed ; and the revolution of the 18th Fructidor, 
concerted with the leaders of the army, and carried into effect 
by military force, is the true era of the commencement of mili- 
tary despotism in France. The springs of the movement were 
throughout directed by Buonaparte ; and though he strongly 
disapproved of the abuse of their triumph by the revolutionary 
leaders, he did not the less clearly perceive, in its inevitable re- 
sults, the furtherance of the projects of his own ambition. 

262. Bnt on the removal of the armies to the frontier, on the 
resumption of hostilities in 1799, the public voice could no longer 
be stifled ; and the embarrassment of the finances, with the dis- 
asters at the opening of the campaign, blew the discontent into 
a flame. The new elections of a third part of the legislature 
(March) returned representatives mostly adverse to the govern- 
ment established by the bayonets of Augereau ; and complaints 
arose in all quarters, the first result of which was the restoration 
of the liberty of the press. Bewbell had retired in rotation from 
the Directory, and had been succeeded by 8i^yes, who soon 
entered into a league with his colleague Barras, and the generals 
Joubert and Augereau, for a change in the government, and the 
overthrow of the three other Directors, Lareveilldre-Lepaux, Treil- 

168 EEVOLUTION OP 30TH PKAIRIAL. a. d. 1799. 

hard, and Merlin. The conspiracy was supported by a great mar 
jority in both councils ; and matters were soon brought to a crisis 
by the committees of war, expenditure, and finance, which insisted 
on information relative to the disorders in their respectiye depart- 
ments. Treilhard at length yielded to the storm, and retired 
from office $ Lareveill^re-Lepaux and Merlin, after an obsti- 
nate resistance, were compelled to follow his example— Gohier, 
Moulins, and Roger Duces, being appointed their successors. 
This was called the reyolution of the 30th Prairial (May 25). 

263. The new Directors, however, were no better qualified than 
their predecessors to meet the shocks which assailed the state 
both without and within. Scarcely were they installed in office 
when dismay was spread by the forcing of the lines of Zurich, 
and the defeat at the Trebbia ; and the Jacobins, availing them- 
selves of the general panic, once more emerged from their 
lurking-places, reopened their clubs, and recommenced their 
harangues. To supply the immediate exigencies of the state, it 
was found necessary to levy forced loans, and to put in exercise 
the powers of the conscription ; but the authority of government 
was almost paralysed in the provinces, and the Yendeans and 
Chouans were again in arms and triumphant under Chatillon 
and Bourmont, the future conqueror of Algiers. A barbarods 
enactment, called the Law of Hostages, by which the relations 
of emigrants were made responsible for all disorders committed 
in their native districts, totally failed in its intended effect ; the 
forced loan was slowly and sparingly collected; and the Jacobins 
declaimed with increased fury in favour of an agrarian law, 
which had been the favourite idea of Baboeuff. In this extreme 
peril, the nomination of the celebrated FouchI as minister of 
police produced important results. An old Jacobin, a regicide, 
and atheist, a principal in the massacres at Lyons, he at once 
perceived that the ascendant of his old associates was irrecover- 
ably on the wane, and accordingly addressed himself without 
scruple to their subversion. On the 12th of August the Jacobin 
Club was again and for ever closed ; and the furious attacks 
which this bold measure drew on the government were sum- 


marily crashed by the suppression of eleven journals. Still the 
conviction forced jtself on all minds, that the sinking fortunes of 
the Republic could be saved from utter ruin only by the appear- 
ance of some military chief of commanding talents at the helm : 
" What we want," said Si^yes, " is a head and a sword." At this 
crisis of public opinion, it was announced that Napoleon Buona- 
parte, the victor of Mount Tabor and Aboukir, had landed (Oct. 
8) at Frejus. 

264. The progress of the conqueror of Egypt, from Frejus to 
Paris, wsLS one continual triumph. All day the people flocked 
in crowds to see the hero who was to save the Republic; and his 
course at night was marked by bonfires on the hills. On 16th 
October he arrived at Paris, and on the following day was pre- 
sented in state to the Directory. Splendid encomiums were 
pronounced on his victories, but mutual distrust was visible 
throughout the interview. So general, indeed, had the conviction 
become of the impossibility of longer maintaining the republican 
form of government, that intrigues were far advanced for restor- 
ing monarchy, in which Si^yes, Barras, and even Buonaparte's 
brothers, were deeply implicated. Buonaparte, however, though 
convinced that the moment had arrived for seizing supreme 
power, had as yet no fixed plan of operations ; and his cohduct 
at this critical juncture is a memorable instance of his profound 
knowledge of human nature. Though his saloon was constantly 
crowded with generals and men of distinction, he avoided show- 
ing himself in public, wore only the costume of the Institute, 
and invited none but scientific men to his dinners in the Rue 
Ghantereine. But under this unobtrasive bearing, his ambi- 
tious designs were actively forwarded. Most of the military 
chiefs were already gained to his views ; though Moreau was 
for some time reluctant, and the republicanism of Bernadotte 
proved invincible either by arguments or promises. Si^yes, 
Talleyrand, and Fouch6 were also more or less favourable ; 
but Gohier and Moulins refused their accession. Barras in 
vain endeavoured to sound his intentions ; and it was between 
Si^yes and Buonaparte himself, after a banquet at the Council of 

160 REVOLUTION OP a. d. 1799. 

Ancients (Nov. 6), that the details of the conspiracy were finall7 

265. The chiefs of the different parties, meanwhile, were amused 
with the declarations most acceptable to each ; and on the 18th 
Brumaire (Nov. 8) the first impulse was to be given. On that 
day the officers of the garrison and of the national guard were 
to be presented to him by previous appointment; and three 
regiments of cavalry, which had requested him to review them, 
were desired to be in readiness. The Council of Ancients, 
meanwhile, passed a decree for transferring the legislature to St 
Cloud, the execution of which was intrusted to Buonaparte; and 
the assembled officers, filled with enthusiasm^ unanimously pro- 
mised him their support. Attended by this splendid staff, he 
presented himself at the bar of the Ancients, whom he addressed 
in these words : — '^ Citizen-representatives, the Republic was abott 
to perish, when you, the collected wisdom of the nation, saved 
it. I come, with all the generals, to offer you our support. We 
are resolved to have a repvhlic : I swear it in my own name, and 
in that of my companions in arms." The Assembly broke up, 
and Buonaparte proceeded to pass in review the regiments of the 

266. The decree of the Ancients, meanwhile, was received with 
violent agitation by the Five Hundred, by whom it was wholly 
unexpected ; and Lucien Buonaparte, their president, had diffi- 
culty in restraining their indignation. Meanwhile, the Directory 
was dissolved. Si^yes and Ducos, who were in the secret, 
resigned ; Barras was disposed of without much difficulty ; and 
Gohier and Moulins, who remained firm, were put under arrest 
by Moreau. Fouch6, Cambac6r^ and all the public authorities, 
joined the movement ; and before night the government was 

267. On the following morning (Nov. 9, Brumaire 19) 5000 troops 
surrounded St Cloud; and the legislature was now to deliberate^ 
not under the pikes of the mob, but the bayonets of the soldiery. 
The Five Hundred, however, manifested so violent a spirit of 
opposition, that the minority of the Ancients resumed courage 

A. D. 1799. THE 18TH BBUMAIRK 161 

to protest against the impending change ; and even the troops, 
attached as they were to Napoleon, hesitated to act against the 
legiislature. The peril of Buonaparte was extreme ; and he re- 
sohed to present himself with his staff at the har of the Ancients : 
bat his agitation rendered his address almost unintelligible, 
and his appeal to the soldiers roused the opposition to fury. A 
democrat named Linglet called on him to swear to the constitu- 
tion; but Buonaparte, regaining his energy, denounced the 
repeated violations of the constitution of which the Directors had 
been guilty, and concluded by threatening the vengeance of his 
followers against any one who should dare to propose putting 
him hors la hi. It was a proposition of. this kind which had 
proved fatal to Bobespierre ; and the Five Hundred, who had 
assembled in the Orangery while the scene in the Ancients was 
improgress, were already on the point of forcing Lucien to put 
the question of outlawry to the vote. 

268. No time was to be lost in averting this danger ; and Buona- 
parte hastened to the hall of the Five Hundred, which he entered 
alone, leaving his military attendants at the door. But he was 
instantly surrounded by a furious crowd, exclaiming " Death to 
the dictator ! no Cromwell ! ^ and the soldiers, alarmed at the 
dauger of their general, rushed forwards and tore him from the 
hall Lucien, left unsupported in the president's chair, in vain 
endeavoured to allay the tempest, and defend his brother, till he 
was removed by another party of soldiers. Buonaparte had now 
mounted on horseback, and was haranguing the troops in the 
court, when Lucien, arriving to his support, exclaimed, in a voice 
of thunder, ^ Oitizen-Soldiers ! the President of the Council of 
Five Hundred declares to you, that that body is enthralled by a 
factions band armed with daggers, who interdict all freedom of 
deliberation. Let force expel those who remain in the Orangery : 
they are representatives, not of the people, but of the poniard." 
A battalion, headed by Murat and Leclere, accordingly entered 
the council ; the voices of Jourdan and other deputies, who at- 
tempted to remonstrate, were drowned by the roll of the drums ; 
and the members, seeing the bayonet at their breasts, escaped 

162 NEW CONSTITUTION, AND a. d. 1799. 

in dismay througb. the windows and every exit which presented 

269. The Ancients were thunderstruck at hearing that actual 
force had been employed to dissolve the Five Hundred ; but they 
had no other alternative than to receive the explanations tendered 
by Lucien. The same night about sixty members of the two 
councils assembled, and passed a decree abolishing the Directory, 
adjourning the councils for three months, and vesting the autho- 
rity meanwhile in three provisional consuls — ^Buonaparte, Si^yes, 
and Duces. All ranks of the people, worn out with past convul- 
sions, felt that repose could be obtained only under the shadow 
of military authority, and joyfully acquiesced in the change : 
the nation was as unanimous in 1799 to terminate the era of 
revolution as in 1789 it had been to commence it. The universal 
satisfaction was augmented by the clemency with which Buona- 
parte used his victory. No proscriptions and few arrests followed 
the triumph of order over revolution ; on the contrary, the law 
of the hostages, and the forced loan, were abolished ; the priests 
and others proscribed on the 18th Fructidor were allowed to 
return ; and liberty was restored to no fewer than 9000 state 
prisoners. Thirty-seven only of the more violent Jacobins and 
Republicans were ordered to be transported to Guiana: but even 
this senteuce was never put in execution. 

270. The new constitution yet remained to be fixed ; and on 
this point Si^yes and Buonaparte were at variance. The former 
wished to vest the executive in a Grand Elector, who was to be 
irresponsible, but to exercise no immediate power except that of 
naming two consuls of the exterior and interior, who were to 
wield the actual powers of government. The practical absurdity 
of this plan was obvious to every one ; and it was decidedly 
negatived by Buonaparte, who clearly saw the necessity of mo- 
narchical rule for France ; but in order to disguise this fact, and 
soothe republican jealousy, it was at last agreed that there should 
be three consuls, of whom one alone should possess real authority, 
the other two being only his advisers. Government alone had 
the right of proposing laws ; and the legislature consisted of — 


1. A Conservative Senate, nominated by the consuls, and of which 
the members held their places for life ; 2. A Tribunate, which 
yna to discuss the legislative measures with the Council of State, 
and which comprised one hundred members ; and, 3. A Legis- 
lative Body of three hundred, without the power of debate. The 
members of these bodies were to be taken from a list called the 
Notablesof France, chosen by an election of one-tenth from among 
the notables of the departments, who again were ono-tenth among 
the notables of the communes ; and it was only in the elections 
of these last that the citizens at large were now to be allowed a 
voice. The notables of France, under this system, amounted to 
no more than 6000 persons, and from them all the offices of state 
were to be filled ; while the influence of the people was in effect, 
by the process of triple election, completely destroyed. All the 
members of the legislature received pensions from the state, — 
the senators, ^£1000 a-year, the tribunes £650, and the members 
of the legislative body ;£400 a-year. 

271. On the 24th of December the constitution was proclaimed ; 
and, though destroying all the objects for which the people had 
combated during ten years, was gladly adopted by the immense 
majority of the nation, who hailed in it the termination of revo- 
lutionary convulsion. The appointments were at once filled up 
without waiting for the lists of notables, from which according 
to theory, they were to have been selected. Si^yes and Duces 
withdrew from the consulate, and their places were filled by 
Cambac6r^ and Lebrun, men of moderation and probity, and 
well fitted for their functions ; Talleyrand became minister of 
foreign a&irs, and Fouch6 of police. Thus ended the changes 
of the French Kevolution, in the establishment, by universal 
consent, of a government which swept away every remnant of 
freedom, and consigned the state to the tranquillity of military 

164 STATE OF OBEAT BBITAIN. a. o. 180O. 


FROM Buonaparte's election to the consulate to his 


I. Measures of France and Britain. 

272. The first step of Buonaparte, on mounting the consular 
throne, was to propose peace to EngUind, through a letteraddressed 
directly to the King (Dec. 25) ; but his overtures were deemed 
inadmissible^ and the negotiation came to nothing. Buonaparte, 
as he afterwards admitted, had no serious intention at this time 
of concluding peace : for he "^as well aware that his power de- 
pended on his glory, and his glory on his victories ; and that it 
was only by the splendour of fresh military triumphs that he 
could hope to render ilT permanent. 

273. The British government, finding the continuance of the 
war inevitable, took the most vigorous measures for its prosecu- 
tion. The state of public credit, as exhibited in the budget, was 
in the highest degree favourable. The boundless wealth of Great 
Britain was proved by a loan of £18,600,000 being obtained, in 
the eighth year of the war, at 4} per cent ; but both the finan- 
cier and the public overlooked the grievous burden ultimately 
destined to result by borrowing in the three per cents, in which an 
obligation of ;£iOO wasT incurred for every j£60 advanced. Since the 
great financial crisis and limitation of cash payments in 1797, Bri- 
tish prosperity had steadily and rapidly increased ; the stimulus 
given to national industry by the vast government expenditure 
arising from the war, had occasioned a general rise both in 
prices and incomes, which was not afibcted to any considerable 
extent even by the severe scarcity of provisions which followed 
the bad harvest of 1799. The armaments for the year amounted 
to 168,000 regular troops, and 80,000 militia ; 510 ships of war, 
including 124of the line, were in commission, and 120,000 seamen 

A. D. 1800. UNION OF IRELAND. 165 

and marines voted for the sea-service. Since the beginning of 
the war (as appeared from parliamentary returns) only 208,000 
men had been raised for the troops of the line — a number which 
might easily have been levied in a single year from the popula- 
tion ; and which, if ably conducted and thrown into the scale 
against France, would certainly have terminated the war. A 
subsidy of j£2,500,000 was likewise voted to Austria, who, as the 
secession of Russia from the league against France was soon 
unequivocal, was making great efforts to bear the brunt of the 
contest alone. 

274. The session was signalised by several domestic measures 
of importance — ^the renewal of the Bank Charter for twenty-one 
years, in consideration of which a loan of £3,000,000, without 
interest, was advanced by the Directors — ^the continuance of the 
suspension of the Habeas-Corpus Act — the Indian budget of Mr 
Dnndas— «nd, lastly, the memorable union of Ireland with Great 
Britain. The debates on this great question, though highly im- 
portant in British, are not of sufficient moment for quotation 
in European history : it will here be sufficient to state the prin- 
cipal articles of the Treaty of Union. Twenty-eight temporal and 
4 spiritual peers, with 100 commoners, were sent by Ireland to 
the imperial parliament ; the churches of England and Ireland 
were united ; commercial privileges £airly communicated ; and 
the general expenditure ordered to be defrayed, for twenty years 
after the union, in the proportion of twenty for Great Britain 
and two for Ireland. It was not without most violent opposition, 
however, that this great measure was carried in the Irish parlia- 
ment ; in the British the majority in the Commons was 208 to 
26, and in the Lords 75 to 7. 

275. Meanw.hile France had exhausted both her own resources 
and those of the affiliated republics on her frontier, by forced loans 
and requisitions of all sorts ; public credit was utterly exhausted, 
and there was a deficit of £21,000,000 in the revenue of the 
preceding year. But the establishment of the firm and vigor- 
ous government of the First Consul arrested these disorders as 
if by enchantment The capitalists again came forward with 

166 STATE OF FBANCE, AND a. d. 1800. 

advances ; the unsold national domains began to find purchasers 
from the increasing confidence in government ; and even a tax 
of twenty-five per cent on real property, which was substituted 
for the forced loans, however intolerable it would have been 
under ordinary circumstances, now gave general satisfaction. 

276. The pacification of la Vendue was the next object ; and the 
rapidity with which it was efiected, proves how much the long 
duration of its troubles had been owing to republican cruelty. 
The insurgent leaders soon became convinced that they had now 
a difi^erent person to deal with, both in the field and the cabinet, 
from the weak and tyrannical Directors ; and negotiations were 
speedily opened. Chatillon and d^Autichamps first submitted ; 
Sttzannet and the Abb6 Bernier (afterwards made Bishop of Or- 
leans by Buonaparte) followed their example. Count Louis de 
Frotte alone was executed, under circumstances of great perfidy : 
but both in la Vendue and Brittany the chiefs gradually came 
in ; and, on 28th February 1801, the complete pacification of the 
country was announced by the publication of a general and un- 
qualified amnesty. 

277. The measures of Buonaparte were next directed to detach 
Russia from the alliance against France — an attempt fecilitated 
by her maritime jealousy of Britain, and by the exasperation of 
Paul and his generals at the result of the recent campaign. By- 
releasing the Russian prisoners in his hands, and other adroit 
acts of courtesy, he so completely succeeded, that the British 
ambassador was dismissed from St Petersburg, and Baron Spring- 
borton appeared at the Tuileries as envoy from Russia. The 
military measures of the First Consul (on the refusal of Great 
Britain to treat) were equally energetic By one of his spirit- 
stirring proclamations, he gave an almost magical impulse to 
the declining military ardour of the nation. 120,000 men were 
raised by the conscription ; the veterans hastened to join the 
standard of their old leader ; and the stores and equipments 
were repaired with almost incredible celerity. But it was not 
to such objects alone that his energies were directed. The liberty 
of the pt«6s was virtually extinguished by a decree (Dec 24, 1799) 


which placed all the Parisian journals under the surireillance of 
the minister of police ; and the organisation of a secret police, 
independent of the public one under FouchS, commenced that 
wretched system of espionage which has hitherto been continued 
in France. In all these changes, the object constantly in view 
was the obliteration of republican ideas. The Greek and Roman 
costumes in vogue were replaced by the military uniform ; and 
the official residence of the consuls was fixed at the Tuileries, 
upon which they entered (Feb. 19, 1800), after a grand proces- 
sion, in which the splendour of the troops afforded a painful 
contrast to the mean appearance of the civil authorities. The 
ceremonial of a court was resumed at the levees of the First Con- 
suly over which Josephine presided with the grace and dignity 
of one bom to be a queen. The death of Washington, at the 
same time, was announced to the army in an eulogistic order of 
the day, directing all the banners to be enveloped for ten days 
in black crape, '* in memory of a great man who had struggled 
with tyranny, and consolidated the liberty of his country." 

278. Though he did not yet openly break with the Republicans, 
he lost no opportunity of showing his estimation of them. Car- 
not, Barthelemy, and other eminent persons exiled by the Direc- 
tory, were recalled and invested with situations of trust ; and 
Target, who had refused the office of advocate of Louis XVI., was 
superseded in the office of President of the Court of Cassation by 
Tronchet,whohadacceptedand noblydischarged thisperilous duty 
The fdte of the murder of Louis was at the same time suppressed ; 
and the Revolutionary calendar, with its decades, gradually 
disused. These systems of a return to the old order of things 
raised high the hopes of the Bourbons ; and Louis XVIII. wrote 
several letters to Buonaparte, in the expectation of enlisting him 
in his cause. But Buonaparte, though he replied in courteous 
terms, saw clearly the impossibility of securing the new interests 
and vested rights which had arisen against the return of the 
deprived family and their adherents, and positively declined to 
have any connection with the exiled dynasty. 

168 CAMPAIGN IN GERMAN Y. a. d. 1800. 

II. Campaign in Germany and Italy — Armistices of Parsdorf 

and Alessandria, 

279. In forming their plans for the campaign of 1800, the Aus- 
trians erroneously supposed that Italy was the decisive quarter ; 
and in calculating the forces likely to be brought against them, 
tfaey were ignorant or incredulous of the rapid change produced 
by the seizure of supreme power by the First Consul. Their plan 
was to assume the offensive in Italy, capture Genoa, and invade 
Provence ; while Buonaparte, on his side, aimed at liberating 
Italy by striking a blow at the Hereditary States in the heart of 
Germany. The command of the German army, however, was 
intrusted to Moreau, while Buonaparte in person was to direct 
the army of reserve on Italy — an arrangement rendered necessary 
by the unbounded confidence of the soldiers of the Rhine in their 
old commander, and hj the positive refusal of Moreau to accept 
a divided command. 

280. The Archduke Charles, who had earnestly recommended 
the Aulic Council to take advantage of their triumphant position 
to make peace, had been superseded in the command in Germany 
by General Kray. Headquarters were at Donauschingen, and 
he had 110,000 men in all under his orders ; but the right and 
left wings, under Starray and the Prince of Reuss, were too 
widely separated from the main body — the former reaching to 
the Maine, the latter in the Tyrol. Moreau's whole force was 
nearly as numerous, but 28,000 were kept in reserve at BUle ; 
and the possession of the bridges of Kehl, New Brisach, and 
B&le, gave him the means of crossing the Rhine at pleasure. In 
pursuance of a plan concerted with Buonaparte, he commenced 
operations (April 25) by directing several divisions across the 
Rhine at various points, apparently against the Austrian right^ 
while the remainder of his columns were converging towards 
their magazines at Engen and Moeskirch. The manoeuvre com- 
pletely succeeded : the Imperial forces were concentrated for the 
defence of the right, while the corps of the Prince of Lorraine, 
forming the communication between their centre and left, was 


overwhelmed bjLecourbe, who seized Stockach with all its stores 
on the same day (May 2) on which the main body under Moreau 
gained a Tietory over Kray before Engen, after an obstinate 
battle lasting till late at night. A second engagement at Moes- 
kirch (May 4) terminated in a drawn battle, the corps of St Oyr 
not having reached the ground to turn the scale in favour of the 
French ; but the Imperial general continued his retreat over the 
Danube, so vigorously pursued by the French, that Biberach was 
carried (May 9) before the magazines could be withdrawn : and 
two days later, the \vhole Austrian army, 80,000 foot and 12,000 
horse^ was concentrated within the intrenched camp of Ulm. 

281. The strength and extent of these celebrated lines (which 
covered both banks of the Danube), with the ample munitions 
stored in them, rendered a blockade impossible ; the attempt to 
pass them, either to the north or south, would have exposed 
Moreau to a flank attack ; while his force was at the same time 
weakened b^^the necessity of detaching Moncey with 16,000 
men to join the First Consul in Italy. The situation of the 
French general was therefore extremely perplexing; and six 
weeks were spent in dislodging the enemy from this stronghold 
— a striking proof of the prophetic wisdom of the Archduke 
Charles in its formation. The first attempt (May 16) was de- 
feated with great loss at Erbach, where the Austrian cavalry, 
under the Archduke Ferdinand, overwhelmed the isolated corps 
of Ste. Suzanne as it advanced on the left bank of the Danube ; 
and a movement of the French on Augsburg, though t£ey tem- 
porarily occupied that city and levied a contribution of £60,000, 
failed to shake the firmness of Eray, who gained an advantage 
(June 4) over the French left under Richepanse. Moreau*s next 
plan was to pass the Danube below Ulm ; and having, by the 
middle of June, concentrated great part of his army between the 
Austrians and Bavaria, and entered Augsburg a second time, he 
succeeded in crossing the river at Blindheim (19th), thus cutting 
off Kray's communications, and infiicted a severe defeat on Star- 
ray at Hochstedt. Kray, now leaving 10,000 men to garrison 
Ulm, successfully executed a circuitous forced march, with all his 

170 ARMISTICE OF PARSDORF. a. d. 1800. 

artillery, round the Republican position, and reached Nordlingen 
in safety (2dd); while the French, suddenly changing their 
route, entered Munich on the 28th, and almost surprised the 
Elector in his capital. This movement, which Kray arriyed too 
late to impede, cut off the communications between the Austrian, 
main army and the Prince of Reuss in the Tyrol ; and Coire, 
Luciensteg, and Feldkirch were taken by the French corps of 
Lecourbe : but the truce concluded at Alessandria a month pre- 
vious was now (July 15) extended to the armies in Germany 
under the title of the Armistice of Parsdorf, and both parties, 
remained in occupation of their present positions. 

282. But even these important events were eclipsed by those 
passing at the same time in Italy. The army occupying the Mari- 
time Alps had been reduced to the extremity of privation ; but 
it was speedily reinforced and re-equipped, and confidence was 
restored to the soldiers by the appointment of Massena to the 
command. The whole force, however, was on]|r 28,000 men, 
against which 60,000 Austrians were put in motion early in April, 
directing all their efforts for the reduction of Genoa. This impor- 
tant city had been blockaded since the beginning of March by 
Lord Keith's fleet ; and its position, on the steep declivity where 
the Apennines descend into the sea, increased the labour of the 
defence, by making it necessary to include within the fortifica- 
tions the mountains to some distance in the rear, by which the 
city and inner works would otherwise be commanded. On the 
6th of April, General Melas made an attack in three columns on 
the French defensive positions, and was completely successful. 
On the right, Soult was driven from Montenotte, the scene of 
Buonaparte's first triumph ; while on the left, Suchet was entirely 
cut off from the main body, and thrown back towards France. 
The Austrian watchfires crowned the heights in all directions 
round the city ; and though they were driven from this vantage- 
ground (April 7) by a vigorous sortie of Massena, the French 
general could not succeed, by the most determined efforts, in 
reopening his communications with Suchet, and was at length 
(April 21) compelled to seek shelter within the walls of the city. 

A. D. 1800. CAMPAIGN IN ITALY. 171 

Suchet himself had meanwhile (April 20) been utterly defeated 
by EInitz at Monte -Giacomo, and driven back towards the 
Piedmontese frontier ; but he was followed up by Melas (who 
left Ott with 25,000 men to blockade Genoa), again routed (May 
2) at Borghetto, and driven over the frontier into France. Melas, 
who was soon after called off to oppose Buonaparte, left EInitz 
to act on the line of the Yar, where Suchet was posted ; but two 
desperate attempts to storm the tete9-du-j>ont on that river (May 
18 and 27) having been defeated, the Austrians quitted the soil 
of France and marched for Piedmont to rejoin Melas. 

283. A succession of desultory but sanguinary conflicts were 
meanwhile taking place round Genoa, as Ott^s force was insuffi- 
cient for an assault : on one occasion Massena recaptured some 
of the fortified heights, but in an attempt on the Monte-Creto 
(May 13), the French were routed with great slaughter, and 
Soult made prisoner. The garrison was now completely shut up 
within the walls, where they soon began to feel the horrors of 
famine. The news of Buonaparte's passage of the Alps revived 
their hopes, but a fresh sortie (May 28) was repulsed with loss, 
the inhabitants were reduced to feed on skins, and even on the 
earcasses of those who had perished ; and Massena, forced at 
length to yield to the accumulated horrors of his situation, sur- 
rendered (June 5) with 9000 men, the poor remains of his army. 
His gallantry secured him the most honourable terms of capitu- 
lation, which were observed with scrupulous faith by the Aus- 
trians and Lord Keith. 

284. Meanwhile Buonaparte, aware as well of the difficulties 
of a front attack on the Imperialists as of the importance of the 
central position he held in Switzerland, had resolved on crossing 
the Alps, so as to interpose between the Austrians and their 
own country, and thus force them to fight with their front 
towards Lombardy, and their rear shut in by the Mediterranean 
and the Apennines, where defeat must be ruinous to them, while 
the French, if unsuccessful, could again retire into Switzerland. 
The formation of the force destined for this purpose had been 
carried on with indefatigable activity by Berthier since the com- 


mencement of the year. Thirty thousand conscripts and 20,000 
yeterans from la Vendee formed the basis. But it was necessary to 
conceal the real force and destination of the army, lest the passes of 
the Great St Bernard should be preoccupied from the valley of 
Aosta; and, accordingly, Dijon was announced as its head- 
quarters. A few thousand raw troops here collected lulled the 
suspicions of the Austrian spies, while the real army of reserve 
was assembled about Lausanne, 4&c., where Buonaparte reviewed 
the vanguard (May 16). The St Bernard had been reported by 
Marescot, chief of the engineers, as " barely passable '* for artil- 
lery. " It is possible : let us start, then," was the energetic reply 
of Buonaparte. - The troops were forthwith set in motion, and 
commenced the passage of the mountain (May 16). 

285. The march occupied four days : but the part which most 
severely tried the energies of the soldiers was the ascent from St 
Pierre to the summit of the mountain. The artillery carriages 
had been taken to pieces and packed on mules, the ammunition 
was transported in the same manner, and the guns themselves, 
placed in the trunks of firs hollowed out, were dragged up by 
main strength, a hundred soldiers being harnessed to each cannon, 
and relieved by others every half mile. At the hospice on the 
summit each soldier received refreshment from the hospitality 
of the monks ; the perilous descent from St Remi was soon 
achieved, and Buonaparte himself, who had remained at the 
Priory of St Maurice, crossed on the 28th. But the inconsi- 
derable fort of Bard had wellnigh proved an insurmountable 
obstacle. Placed on a pyramidal rock, midway between the op- 
posing cliffs of the valley of Aosta, it commands not only the road, 
which runs close to its foot, but almost every practicable moun- 
tain path ; and Lannes, who was moving down from Chatillon, 
at the head of the advanced guard, found the passage completely 
barred by the fire of its artillery. An escalade directed by 
Buonaparte proved unsuccessful; but the French engineers, wrap- 
ping up the wheels of the guns, and spreading straw in the 
streets, transported the artillery in the night (May 25) under the 
very ramparts of the unconscious Austrians, while the infantry 


and cavalry passed by the mountain tracks. The army was 
reunited (28th) at Ivrea, which had previously been stormed by 
Lannes ; Moncey, with 16,000 men from the Rhine, had crossed 
the St Gothard — other corps descended by Susa and the Simplon ; 
80 that 60,000 men, converging from various quarters, were 
assembled in Piedmont in the rear of the Imperialists. 

286. Anxious to renew instantly in Italy the moral impression 
left by his former glories, Buonaparte advanced rapidly into 
L^mbardy, and overthrowing a weak Austrian corps which 
attempted to bar his passage of the Ticino, entered Milan in 
triumph (June 2). Placentia and Favia, with all their stores, 
fell into the hands of the French; the republican authorities 
were everywhere reinstated; and Buonaparte, in one of his 
animated proclamations, applauded the zeal and success of his 
troops. Although his main army was now much weakened by 
the necessary dispersion of his corps, he still continued his rapid 
advance ; and on 6th June the line of the Po was forced, and 
the Austrians thereby cut off from Mantua, and their reserves in 
Eastern Italy. A desperately contested action was fought at 
Mbntebello (June 9), in which the corps of Ott was driven back 
with the loss of 4000 men by the heroism of Lannes, and the 
French occupied a strong position in the pass of Stradella, 
between the Apennines and the Po. 

287. Meanwhile Melas had concentrated his forces at Alessan- 
dria to meet the invaders. Though Genoa had fallen, his position 
was highly critical. The retreat of Elnitz from the Yar was so 
vigorously pressed by Suchet (who had received considerable 
reinforcements), that he lost 9000 out of 17,000 men before 
reaching Ceva; and Melas, finding his rear thus threatened, 
-while Buonaparte lay in his front, gallantly resolved to cut his 
way through the main French army towards the eastern pro- 
Tinces of the empire. His detachments were accordingly every- 
-where called in ; Lord Keith was urged to bring over a corps of 
12,000 British, who were idle at Minorca; and Buonaparte having 
advanced from Stradella, the two armies came into collision 
(June 16) on the memorable plain of Marengo, intersected by 

174 BATTLE OF MARENGO. a. d. 1800, 

the stream of the Bormida. The Anstrians were about 31,000, 
including 7500 horse, with 200 pieces of cannon ; the French 
numbered not more than 29,000, of whom only 3600 were 

288. By daybreak on the 14th, the Austrians passed the Bor- 
mida, and Buonaparte, who had not expected to be attacked, was 
compelled to receive the shock with greatly inferior numbers, as 
Desaix*s division was still at some distance in the rear. After 
an obstinate conflict of four hours, the numbers and determiji* 
ation of the Austrians prevailed ; Marengo was carried, the first 
line of the Republicans broken, and their whole army com- 
pelled to retreat across the open plain to rejoin their reserve. 
But their columns, closely pressed by the Imperialists, and 
galled by a tremendous fire, were thrown into disorder; the 
fatal cry of Sauve quipeitt ! was already heard in their ranks, and 
Melas, considering the battle gained, and exhausted with fatigue, 
left the field, intrusting to Zach the completion of the victory. 
At four o'clock, however, the arrival of Desaix with 4000 men 
saved the French army from impending ruin, and restored the 
battle for a time ; but that gallant officer soon fell mortally 
wounded, and the victory was again inclining to the Austrians, 
when a flank charge by Eellermann with 800 horse decided the 
fate of the day. The apparition of this mass of cavalry, which 
had been hidden by some vineyards, struck panic into the 
Imperialists : their cavalry fled, trampling down the advancing 
infantry ; Zach himself was made prisoner with 2000 men, and 
the confusion soon became irretrievable. The whole army dis- 
banded and rushed towards the Bormida ; and after twelve hours* 
incessant fighting, was at length with difficulty rallied on the 
ground it had held in the morning, having lost 7000 killed and 
wounded, 3000 prisoners, and 20 pieces of cannon. 

289. The immediate efibct of this victory was an armistice con- 
cluded the next day at Alessandria, by which twelve fortresses, in- 
cluding Genoa, Alessandria, Turin, and Coni, were given up to the 
French, with all their stores and artillery; while, till an answer 
could be received from Vienna, the Imperialists were to occupy 


quarters between the Mincio and the Po, the French lying 
between the Fo, the Ghiesa, and the Oglio. The British arrived 
in the Bay of Genoa just in time to see the city given up to the 
Republicans; and Buonaparte, having thus in a few weeks com- 
pleted the reconquest of Piedmont and the Milanese, proceeded 
to reorganise the Cisalpine and Ligurian Republics, and soon 
after returned, by Mont Oenis and Lyons, to Paris, where he 
was received with songs of triumph and universal demonstra- 
tions of joy. 

in. Campaign of Hohenlinden — Peax:e ofLunevUle, 

290. Two days before the battle of Marengo was known at Vienna, 
a treaty had been signed between Britain and Austria, by which 
the former power advanced to the latter a loan of ^£2,000,000, 
each party agreeing to conclude no separate peace within twelve 
months. To this treaty, the Imperial ministers, notwithstanding 
their losses both in Italy and Germany, determined steadfastly 
to adhere ; and though the Count de St Julien, who arrived at 
Paris as plenipotentiary in the middle of July, had signed pre- 
liminaries on the basis of the treaty of Campo Formio, these 
articles we^e not ratified by the cabinet of Vienna, which noti- 
fied to that of Paris, that it could no longer treat without the 
concurrence of Great Britain. Buonaparte, bent on saving Malta 
and Egypt, insisted on a naval armistice, with leave to send six 
frigates to Egypt, as the only condition on which he would open 
negotiations with Britain ; and on the refusal of this unreason- 
able and unheard-of proposal, the attempt fell to the ground. 
The Austrians, thus reduced to extremity, were compelled (Sept. 
28) to purchase an extension of the armistice in Germany and 
Italy by the cession of Ulm, Ingolstadt, and Philipsburg — a 
sacrifice which the necessity for gaining time rendered inevitable; 
and both armies availed themselves of the interval to reinforce 
their armies for the renewal of thd struggle. Meanwhile Malta 
(Sept.), after a blockade of two years, was compelled by famine 
to surrender to the British. 

176 KENEWAL OP THE WAR. a. d. 1800. 

291. The preparations of Austria, during the suspension of arms, 
-were on a scale commensurate with her dignity, and worthy of 
the patriotism of her people ; and efforts were made, though in 
Tain, to rouse the Russian and Prussian cabinets to active co- 
operation. At the renewal of hostilities, 110,000 effective men 
were collected on the Inn to defend the frontier of the Heredi- 
tary States; but the Aulic Council committed their usual fault of 
weakening their force by spreading it over too great an extent, so 
that not more than 60,000 could be collected on the main points ; 
and the gallant Kray was superseded in the command by the 
Archduke John, whose youth and inexperience were ill adapted 
to cope with the science of Moreau. In Italy, Marshal Bellegarde 
had 100,000 men; but this army, too, was weakened by the 
immense line it had to defend ; and as the armistice, by a strange 
oversight, had not been extended to the Italian powers, the 
French generals had been allowed to crash, with great cruelty, a 
popular insurrection which broke out against them in Tuscany. 
A terrific massacre of the armed peasants took place (Oct. 16) at 
Arezzo ; Leghorn was seized, and a vast quantity of British mer- 
chandise in the port confiscated. Two edicts, at the same time, 
issued from the Tuileries — one formally incorporating the 
Netherlands with France; the other (Oct. 16) extinguishing 
Swiss independence, by declaring that no authority would be 
recognised but that of the executive commission, to which 
Buonaparte transmitted his orders. 

292. The French, meanwhile, had raised their army in Italy 
to 80,000 men, and that under Moreau to 110,000, all in the finest 
state of discipline and equipment which any forces of the Repub- 
lic had ever attained ; and hostilities recommenced at the end 
of November. The line afforded by the deep and rapid stream 
of the Inn, supported on the left by the fortress of Kufstein, and 
on the right by that of Braunau, and flanked by the two immense 
mountain-bastions of Bohemia and the Tyrol, presented extra- 
ordinary capabilities for defence ; but the Aulic Council resolved 
on an offensive movement, and the Imperialists broke up (Nov. 
27) with the view of concentration on the right towards Land- 


shut, so as to bring the weight of their army against the French 
left. The movements of Moreau, who was ignorant of this ma- 
noeuvre of the enemy, were precisely such as to afford it success : 
the divisions of Grenier, Grand jean, and Hardy, were successively 
assailed and overthrown (Dec. 1) ; and had not the Archduke, 
hy a halt on the 2d, given the French time to recover from their 
surprise, their whole army would probably have been defeated 
in detail. But Moreau, availing himself of this respite, retreated 
through the thick and gloomy forest of Hohenlinden to his 
fonner ground, where he awaited the assault of the Archduke. 

293. Early on the morning of the 3d, a day ever memorable in 
the French military annals, the Austrians advanced through the 
forest defiles in three great columns, with all their artillery and 
waggons. The snow, which fell in thick flakes, made the cross 
paths almost impassable ; and the centre, 40,000 strong, which 
marched by the great road from Muhldorf to Munich, outstripped 
the others, and prepared to issue into the plain about nine a.m. 
But it was furiously assailed by the French, and at length driven 
baek into the forest ; while the right, of 25,000 men under Gene- 
ral Latour, which had come up during the conflict, was taken in 
flank by Ney^and also forced back with loss. While the Austrians, 
thus jammed up among long files of cannon and waggons, were 
already beginning to fall into confusion, the French corps of 
Richepanse, the march of which had been delayed, found itself 
unexpectedly in the rear of the enemy's centre, which was taken 
completely by surprise. Grouchy and Ney, at the same moment, 
charged in front, and the combined effort was irresistible. The 
disorder and rout of the Austrians became dreadful : the right, 
which was gradually gaining ground, joined in the panic ; and 
the whole army took to flight in one tumultuous mai^s. In the 
universal wreck, about 100 guns, 300 waggons, and 7000 prison- 
ers, were taken by the Republicans ; and 7000 of the enemy 
were killed or wounded. Such was the great battle of Hohen- 
linden, which at once prostrated the strength of the Austrian 

294. The shattered forces of the Imperialists at first made a 


show of maintaining themselves behind the Inn ; but Morean, 
resolving to push his advantages to the utmost, succeeded, by a 
bold mancBuvre, in passing that river (Dec. 8) at Neupern and 
Rosenheim ; and still pressing impetuously forward, passed the 
Salza at Lauffen (Dec. 13), and occupied Salzburg on the follow- 
ing day, notwithstanding a severe check inflicted on the corps of 
Lecourbe by the Austrian cavalry,' \ front of the town. On the 
19th, the Austrians were driven ^ ^ severe loss over the Traun ; 
and though the appointment of i. .e Archduke Charles to the 
command for a moment revived tUe spirits of the soldiers, the 
struggle was found to be hopeless ; and an armistice was signed 
at Steyer (Dec. 25), when the French advanced posts were 
within twenty leagues of Vienna. 

295. The operations during the same period in the Orisons, where 
Macdonald commanded the second army of reserve, if inferior to 
those of the Oerman campaign in magnitude, yield to none in 
romantic interest. This corps, which was announced as 40,000, 
in reality consisted of only 15,000 men, who were destined to 
menace the rear of the Imperialists on the Mi ncio, while Brune 
attacked them in front. But for this purpose it was necessary 
to cross the Splugen, the most difficult of all the passages from 
Switzerland to Italy ; and so arduous was the undertaking at 
that season, that it was not till his remonstrances had been 
answered by reiterated orders from Buonaparte to proceed, that 
Macdonald prepared to attempt it. On the 27th of November, 
accordingly, the ascent was commenced from the Via-Mala and 
the village of Splugen : but the head of the column was swept 
over the precipices by an avalanche, and the attempt could not 
be resumed till Dec. 1, when, by sending oxen and peasants in 
advance to clear and trample the snow, the advanced guard suc- 
ceeded in effecting the passage. Two other columns followed on 
the 2d and 3d ; but the march of the main body, on the 4th, 
was impeded by heavy snow and continual avalanches, through 
which the soldiers could be persuaded to advance only by the 
example of their heroic general, who led the way in person, 
sounding the loose snow with a pole. Animated by his example, 


the troops at length surmounted the ioy wilderness, though 
with the loss of many of their numher, and reached Ghiavenna, 
at the upper end of the lake of Como (Dec. 6). No more extra- 
ordinary performance is recorded in modern war, except perhaps 
the march of Suwarroff over the Schachenthal (p. 150-1), where 
the attacks of an active enemy were added to the obstacles of 
nature. Buonaparte's pas& ) of the St Bernard, in fine weather 
and without opposition^ wil ear no comparison with either. 

29p. The next task was tb difficult passage of the Col Apriga, 
between the valley of the Adda and that of the Oglio ; and after 
this, to surmount the icy summit of Mount Tonal, between the 
Oglio and the Adige. But the defile of the latter, flanked on 
each side by inaccessible glaciers, had been fortified with immense 
blocks of ice cut like masonry ; and before these frozen defences 
all the valour of the French proved fruitless. They were repulsed 
with slaughter in two assaults (Dec. 22 and 31), and obliged to 
abandon the enterprise. But in order to understand the impor- 
tance of these operations, we must revert to the hostile move- 
ments in the Italian plains. 

297. On the expiry of the armistice, the Imperial main army 
on the Mincio was 65,000 strong, including 15,000 horse, on aline 
flanked by the Po and the lake of Gktrda, and strengthened by 
the fortresses of Mantau, Peschiera, and Borghetto ; while the 
French disposable force under Brune amounted to 61,000 foot 
and 9000 horse, with 178 guns — all now in the highest state of 
discipline and equipment. Twenty-five thousand more guarded 
the flanks and rear against the disaffection of the Italians, which 
the recent exactions had raised to the highest pitch ; and 25,000 
were in the hospitals. Hostilities recommenced on 16th Decem- 
ber, and on the 20th, the Austrian defences on the Mincio 
(which is not fordable in winter) were attacked at four different 
points. It was Bruno's intention to cross at Mozambano on his 
left ; but Dupont, who had been ordered to make a feigned 
attack on the right, converted it into a real one on seeing the 
Austrians give way ; and though nearly sacrificed by the hesi- 
tation of Brune to send troops to his aid, succeeded (26th) in 

180 AEMISTICE OF TREVISO. a. d. 1801. 

establishing a bridge at Molino. The whole French army passed 
the Mincio ; and the enemy, abandoning Borghetto, fell back to 
the Adige, with the loss of 7000 men. Their army, however, was 
so weakened by the garrisons left on the Mincio, that Bellegarde 
continued his retreat np the Adige to join Wukassovich and 
Landon, who were advancing from the Italian Tyrol ; the 
French passed the latter river (Jan. 1, 1801), and severe conflicts 
ensued on the already celebrated positions of Oaldiero and 
Bivoli, till the Austrians took post on the impregnable heights 
of Galliano. 

298. ButMacdonald, since his check at Mount Tonal, had entered 
the Italian Tyrol by another route in several columns. Wukas- 
sovich, pursued by Macdonald himself, was driven from Trent ; 
and Laudon, who had been left to maintain the important de- 
file of La Pietra against Moncey, found himself surrounded, and 
only escaped over the narrow mountain-tracks to Bassano by 
the unworthy subterfuge of a fraudulent armistice. Bellegarde, 
now effecting his junction with these corps, retired leisurely to 
Treviso, and prepared to give battle, with numbers now superior, 
on the plains before that town, where his cavalry could act with 
effect. Bruno's army, however, was severely weakened by the 
numerous blockading divisions left in the rear; and he consented 
(Jan. 16) to the armistice of Treviso, on condition of the surren- 
der of all the Italian fortresses except Mantua, — an exception 
which drew on him the vehement displeasure of Buonaparte. 

299. Before thegeneral pacification, however,which was soon after 
signed at Luneville, it ia necessary to notice some occurrences 
during this period in Italy. An insurrection in Piedmont against 
the French (Jan. 1801) was suppressed by Soult and Murat ; and 
a Neapolitan army of 16,000 men, which had advanced through 
the Roman states into Tuscany, was routed, almost without firing 
a shot, by 6000 men under MioUis. A formidable invasion of 
Naples was in preparation to avenge this attempt, when the 
intercession of the Czar (to secure which the Queen of Naples 
had repaired in person to St Petersburg) procured a respite ; 
and the treaty of Foligno was signed (Feb. 9), remarkable for 


containing, in its prohibition of British merchandise, the first 
germ of the famous Continental St/stem, The fortresses and har- 
boars of the Neapolitan territories were placed in the hands of 
Soult ; and a force was despatched to reduce Elba, which had 
been ceded to France ; but the little British garrison under 
Colonel Airly gallantly defended the place for five months, and 
only at last yielded it in virtue of an express condition in the 
treaty of Amiens. 

300. The treaty of Luneville was at length signed (Feb. 9), on 
conditions not materially differing from those of Campo Formio. 
Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine were ceded anew to 
France ; Modena was annexed to the Cisalpine Republic, and 
the Grand-duke of Tuscany gave up his dominions to the youth- 
ful Duke of Parma, — ^a branch of the Spanish family : the new 
republics were acknowledged ; and Venice, with the boundary of 
the Adige, left to Austria. But by insisting on the signature of 
the Emperor not only as sovereign of the Hereditary States, but 
as head of the Empire (a step opposed to the fundamental laws 
of the Germanic body, but rendered inevitable by the exigencies 
of the ease), Buonaparte sowed the seeds of future dissension in 
Germany, of which he well knew how to take advantage. The 
Diet, indeed, ratified the step, in consideration of the painful 
necessity of the moment ; but the discord which arose from the 
unsettled question of indemnity to the dispossessed princes con- 
tinued to distract Germany, and was the first predisposing cause 
to that league which, under the name of the Confederation of 
the Rhine, so well served the purposes of French ambition, and 
dissolved the venerable fabric of the German empire. 

IV. The Northern Maritime Confederacy, 

301. The system of international maritime law, which has for 
centuries been recognised and acted on by the naval powers of 
Europe, with reference to neutral vessels, may be summed up in 
the following propositions : — 1. That neutral nations shall not 
be allowed to carry on, in behalf of a belligerent power, those 

182 "armed neutrality." a. d. 1780-93. 

branches of its commerce from which they are excluded in time 
of peace. 2. That every belligerent power may capture the pro- 
perty of its enemies found at sea, and detain neutral ships, if 
laden therewith. 3. That neutrals shall not be suffered to supply 
the belligerent with naval and military stores, and other articles 
designated as contraband of war; and that neutral vessels so 
laden are lawful prize to the armed ships of the other belligerent. 
4. That neutral vessels may be detained and seized if they attempt 
to enter a port, or if they are destined for a port, blockaded by 
an efficient force of the other belligerent, after due notice given 
to the neutral. 5. That, therefore, neutral ships, whether under 
convoy or not, may be visited and searched as a matter of right, 
by the cruisers of the belligerents. 

302. These rights, though more frequently exercised by the 
British as the natural result of their maritime superiority, had 
never been claimed as an exclusive privilege by that nation, but 
had been equally held good by the courts of every naval power. 
Though sometimes waived by special agreement in favour of 
particular states, they had never been disputed in theory till 
1780, when the northern powers (Russia, Sweden, and Denmark), 
seeing the British hard pressed by the French and Spanish fleets 
at the close of the American war, entered into the famous league 
called the Armed Neutrality, for the establishpient of a new 
maritime code, on the principle that " free ships make free goods " 
— and that " the flag covers the merchandise." 

303. These principles, however, were found so much at variance 
with the practice of European warfare, that, in 1787, when Sweden 
went to war with Russia, and Russia with the Porte, the old 
code was returned to — and the Armed Neutrality was expressly 
abandoned in a maritime treaty between Russia and Britain 
in 1793. But this pacific state of things was altered by the naval 
triumphs of the British, which led to the almost total disap- 
pearance of the French flag from the ocean. Frequent collisions 
took place between British cruisers and neutral vessels endea- 
vouring to slide into the lucrative trade left open by the destrnc- 
tion of the French marine ; and negotiations were already on 

A. D. 1800. • " MARITIME CONFEDERACY." 183 

foot among the Baltic powers for the revival of the Armed Neu- 
trality, when the capture of the Danish frigate Freya (July 25, 
1800) for refusing to allow her convoy to he searched, hrought 
matters to a crisis. Lord Whitworth was sent in August as 
special envoy to Copenhagen, hacked hy a powerful squadron 
under Admiral Dickson, who passed the sound and anchored off 
the Danish capital ; — and the Danes, unprepared for resistance, 
entered into a convention, acknowledging the right of search till 
further consideration. 

304. But the passage of the Sound produced far different effects 
at St Petershurg, where the Czar, from various causes, was already 
well inclined to exchange the British alliance for that of France. 
An embargo was instantly laid on all British vessels in Russian 
ports, 300 in number ; their crews, with Asiatic barbarity, were 
marched into the interior ; and all British property on shore was 
sequestered, ''till Malta should be given up to the Emperor,'* 
who claimed it as protector of the Order of St John. The King 
of Sweden entered at once warmly into his views ; Prussia fol- 
lowed the example ; and Denmark, whose position exposed her 
to the first attack of Britain, more reluctantly gave in her 
adhesion. " The '' Maritime Confederacy," on the principles of 
the Armed Neutrality, was concluded on 16th December 1800 ; 
while Paul addressed an autograph letter to Buonaparte, and 
despatched an ambassador to Paris to cement the union of France 
and Russia. 

305. It was evident that this new code, if established, would nul- 
lify all the British naval victories, by enabling France to cover her 
commerce by neutral flags ; but Britain was not now, as at the 
close of the American war, obliged to dissemble her indignation. 
Letters of marque were issued, and followed up by numerous 
captures : — while the Danes, on the other hand, entering Ham- 
burg, extended the embargo to that great emporium ; and Hano- 
ver was occupied by the Prussians. Meanwhile the question was 
-vehemently debated, both by the ambassadors at the respective 
courts, and by the British parliament at its opening in February 
1801 : but the diplomatic notes led to no satisfactory results ; 

184 PITT RESIGNS OFFICE. * a. d. 1801. 

and the ministerial policy was affirmed by a majority in the 
Commons of 245 to 63. But the personal objections of the King 
to the removal of the Catholic disabilities, to which Mr Pitt con- 
sidered himself pledged as a consequence of the Irish Union, 
afforded at least the ostensible reason for the resignation of that 
minister and his personal adherents, which took place on lOth 
February ; the real cause, more probably, was the reluctance of 
Mr Pitt to be personally concerned in concluding the peace with 
France, which he saw could not be much longer delayed. 

306. His successors were, however, chosen from his own party — 
Mr Addington being first lord of the treasury, and Lord Hawkes- 
bury minister of foreign afiairs; and no decrease of vigour or 
energy was visible in their measures. The land troops, including 
militia and fencibles, amounted to 300,000 : 120 ships of the line 
were put in commission, and 139,000 seamen and marines voted. 
To meet the deficiency of revenue arising from these prodigious 
charges, a fresh loan of £25,500,000 was contracted — ^to provide 
for the interest and gradual reduction of which, new taxes were 
imposed to the amount of £1,794,000. The total expenditure for 
the year exceeded £42,000,000, besides above £20,000,000 interest 
on the debt. Yet the condition of the empire at this period 
was unprecedentedly wealthy and prosperous : the exports had 
tripled, and the imports more than tripled, since the commence- 
ment of the war ; capital abounded ; and agriculture Jiad ad- 
vanced in a still greater ratio than population ; so that, although 
the latter had increased one-sixth since 1791, the dependence on 
foreign supplies was rapidly diminishing. 

307. Great Britain had need, however, of all her energies, for the 
naval forces of the league were extremely formidable. Russia had 
47 line-of-battle shi ps, besides frigates, in the Baltic and Archangel ; 
but not more than 15 were ready for service, and the crews were 
very deficient. Sweden had 18 ships and 14 large frigates, with 
innumerable galleys and small craft, well manned and equipped ; 
and Denmark had 23 ships and 14 frigates. By the union of 
these forces, the blockade of the French harbours might be raised, 
and the confederate fleets ride triumphant in the Channel ; so 

A. D. 1801. BATTLE OF THE BALTIC. 185 

that immediate energy was indispensable on the part of Bri- 
tain. On the 12th of March, 18 ships of the line, with four fri- 
gates, and numerous bomb-vessels, sailed from Yarmouth under 
Sir Hyde Parker, with Nelson as second in command ; and after 
being detained some days at the entrance of the Sound by an 
abortive attempt at negotiation, proceeded to force the passage 
on the 30th. But as the batteries on the Swedish shore did not 
fire, little damage was experienced ; and about noon the fleet 
anchored off Copenhagen. 

308. The delay of the British had been turned to good account 
by the Danes : frojn the Prince-Boyal to the artisan, all classes 
had laboured with unremitting energy in their preparations for 
defence; and the sea approaches were covered with such an array 
of ships, forts, gun-boats, and floating batteries, as would have 
deterred any other assailant than the hero of the Nile. All the 
huoys had been taken up in the narrow and intricate channels 
by which the harbour is approached : but the soundings were 
taken by Nelson himself, who determined on following a track 
called the King's Channel, leading between the dangerous shoal 
of the middle ground, and the entrance of the harbour. At day- 
break on 2d April he accordingly advanced with 12 sail of the 
line, besides smaller vessels — ^the other division, under Sir Hyde 
Parker, remaining in reserve ; and though three ships, the Aga- 
memnon, Bellona^ and Russell, grounded on the shoal, the others . 
reached their appointed stations in safety, and soon after 10 a.m. 
the battle of Copenhagen began. The cannonade soon became 
tremendous ; above 2000 guns dealt death in a space not more 
than a mile and a half in breadth ; till, after three hours' con- 
tinuance, the signal of recall was made by Sir Hyde Parker, whom 
the wind and current prevented from rendering any assistance. 
The signal was seen in time to save the frigate squadron, which, 
with desperate bravery, but wholly inadequate force, was bearing 
up against the iron storm of the Crown batteries, and which had 
lost its gallant commander Captain Biou : but Nelson kept the 
signal for closer action flying, and continued his fire with unabated 
vigour. Notwithstanding the heroism of the Danes, who nobly 


Upheld in that trying hour their ancient reputation, their 
cannonade gradually slackened before the irresistible rapidity 
and precision of the British fire ; and before 2 p.m., their whole 
front line, consisting of 6 sail of the line, and 11 huge floating 
batteries, was all either taken, burnt, or destroyed. 

309. The loss on both sides had been yeij severe : the British 
had 1200 killed and wounded, a greater proportion to their num- 
bers than in any battle during the war ; the Danish loss was twice 
as great, and, including the prisoners, amounted to 6000. But the 
Grown batteries and the isle of Amak still kept up their fire 
both on the British ships and their prizes, till Lord Nelson 
addressed a note to the Crown-Prince, declaring that, unless the 
firing ceased, he must set fire to his prizes without the power of 
saving their crews. This message had the desired effect : the 
British fleet weighed, and joined Sir Hyde Parker*s squadron in 
the middle of the straits ; the prizes were brought off on the 
following day, though only one, the Holstein, was carried to 
England, the rest being so shattered that it was necessary to de- 
stroy them. Thus ended the battle of Copenhagen, characterised 
by Nelson as the ''most terrible of all the hundred engage- 
ments in which he had been present.'' The admiral landed 
on the following day, and had an interview with the Crown- 
Prince, in which an armistice for fourteen weeks was arranged, 

. in order, as Nelson candidly admitted, that he might have time 
to deal with the Swedes and Russians, before returning to Den- 

310. But an event had in the mean time occurred at St Peters- 
burg which at once changed the policy of Russia : this was the 
deathof the Emperor Paul. Since his alliance with Buonaparte, he 
had been busily engaged in maturing with him a joint project 
for the overthrow of the British power in India: but his domestic 
government was marked by a degree of extravagance scarcely to 
be explained except on the ground of insanity, and which had 
produced a general feeling of irritation. This discontent was 
augmented by the rupture with Britain, which deprived the 
nobles of the great market for their produce, which constituted 


their chief wealth: a conspiracy was formed against him, headed 
by Count Pahlen, the governor of St Petersbni^, and he was 
strangled on the night of the 23d March. One of the first acts of 
his son and successor Alexander was to release the British sailors 
who had been sent into the interior, and to address an autograph 
letter to the King of Great Britain, expressiye of his wish to re- 
establish amicable relations. His domestic measures were equally 
popular, restoring to the nobles the priyileges of which they had 
been deprived by his father, and reinstating things generally on 
their former footing. The British fleet had in the mean time 
remained in Kioge Bay till 5th May, when the recall of Sir Hyde 
Parker left Nelson sole in command ; and he lost no time in 
presenting himself before Cronstadt, and opening communica- 
tions with the Russian authorities. The fleet soon after returned 
to Britain, and Lord St Helens proceeded to St Petersburg, 
where (June 17) a convention was signed (in spite of the efibrts of 
Duroc, whom Buonaparte had despatched to counteract the influ- 
ence of Great Britain) by which the principles of the Maritime 
Confederacy were abandoned, and the English construction of 
the naval law of nations acknowledged in all its main points. 
Sweden and Denmark followed the example of Russia ; and a 
separate convention was concluded with Prussia for the evacua- 
tion of Hanover,, and the restoration of the free navigation of 
the Weser. 

311. Thus, in less than six months from its formation, was dis- 
solved the most formidable league ever arrayed against the Brit- 
ish maritime power ; and the rapidity with which it was broken 
up by Great Britain shows in the strongest light the vast moral 
ascendency she had acquired. Commercial intercourse with 
Great Britain was essential to the very existence of Russia : and 
its interruption led at once to the revolution which closed the 
reign and life of Paul. The bearing of Britain during this 
trying crisis was a model of firmness and moderation : while 
boldly confronting her combined adversaries, she held out the 
olive branch at the same time that she paralysed, by the thunder 
of her arms, the first of her opponents ; and her conduct was 

188 CONVENTION OF AL-ABISH. a. d. 1800. 

deservedly crowned by one of the most glorious triamphs re- 
corded in her history. 


V. British Expedition to Egypt — Peace of Amiens, 

312. Buonaparte, on quitting the shores of {Sgyp^ had be- 
queathed the command of the army to Kleber, whom at the same 
time he authorised by letter to conclude a treaty for the evacuation 
of the country, if not reinforced during the following year. The 
indignation of the soldiers on finding themselves deserted by 
their chief was at first very great, and Kleber addressed a letter 
to the Directory, in which he bitterly complained of the destitute 
and unprovided state in which they had been left to sustain the 
impending attack of the Vizier's army, of which the corps 
routed at Aboukir was only the advanced-guard. There can be 
no doubt that the wants and sufferings of the army were exag- 
gerated in this despatch; but the Grand Vizier, with 20,000 
janissaries and regular troops, and at least 25,000 irr^;ulars^ 
actually arrived at Graza by the end of October ; while another 
Turkish corps, under the convoy of Sir Sidney Smith, made an 
unsuccessful attempt to establish itself at the mouth of the Nile. 
Al-Arish, the key of Egypt, was taken by the Vizier (Dec 29) ; 
and the French commander, anxious to return to Europe, shortly 
after (Jan. 24^ 1800) signed a convention (of Al-Arisb) by which 
it was agreed that the French should evacuate Egypt within three 
months, and return to Europe with their arms and baggage, on 
the payment of £120,000 as an indemnity. 

313. But by the treaty of January 1799, the Porte was bound 
to make no peace with France, unless in concert with Russia and 
Great Britain ; and before ihe signature of the convention, orders 
had been sent to Lord Keith, the British admiral in the Mediter- 
ranean, to consent to no arrangement by which the French did 
not become prisoners of war. This was notified to Kleber, who 
forthwith broke off the treaty in indignation, and resumed 
hostilities with the Turks. A battle was fought on 20th March, 
near the ruins of Heliopolis ; but the fiery onset of the Oriental 


cavalry recoiled, as before, from the steady squares and rolling 
fire of the French ; the camp of the janissaries was stormed ; 
and the total discomfiture and dispersion of nearly 50,000 Otto- 
mans by 12,000 French, gave a fresh proof of the invincibility 
of European discipline. During the battle, a Turkish corps had 
entered Cairo, but evacuated it on the defeat of the main body ; 
the populace of the city, however, remained in arms, and were 
only reduced after frightful bloodshed. An armistice concluded 
with Mourad Bey completed the pacification of Egypt ; and 
Kleber was beginning to reap the fruits of his intrepidity and 
judicious conduct, when he was murdered by an obscure fanatic, 
and succeeded in the command by Menou, the senior general of 
division. But the new chief (who had publicly assumed the 
Mahommedan dress and religion) was far inferior to his prede- 
cessor in both civil and military talent, and was little adequate 
to bear the brunt of the fresh attack which the British were 
preparing, in concert with the Forte, in order to expel the 
French from their usurped settlement. 

314. In pursuance of this new plan, the corps of Sir Ralph Aber- 
cromby, long inactive in the Mediterranean, sailed from Malta 
(Dec. 10) ; while 8000 troops, under Sir David Baird, were to 
embark at Bombay for Suez ; and the Vizier, after reorganising 
his army in Syria, was to co-operate by a fresh invasion. But 
great practical difficulties impeded the execution of this well- 
conceived project. The Ottoman levies were few and dispirited, 
and disabled by the ravages of the plague ; the arrival of the 
Bombay auxiliaries was distant and uncertain ; and Abercromby 
gallantly resolved to make the attempt alone. With a fleet of 
200 transports and other vessels, bearing 17,500 troops, he 
accordingly sailed from Marmorice in the Levant, and anchored 
in Aboukir Bay (March 1, 1801). On the 8th the disembarkation 
was efiected in the face of the French, who had lined the sand- 
hills with troops and artillery : the heights were carried with 
the bayonet by the 23d, 40th, and 42d regiments ; and the 
enemy retreated to Alexandria. A second bloody though 
partial encounter, on the 13th, likewise terminated to the 

190 BATTLE OF ALEXANDRIA. a. d. 1801. 

advantage of the British ; and Menou, who, like most of his 
contemporaries at that period, had hitherto greatly underrated 
the British land-forces, was at length awakened to his danger, 
and moved from Cairo with all his disposable force. A general 
action took place on the 21st, under the walls of Alexandria ; 
and though the brave Abercromby was mortally wounded early 
in the battle, the steady intrepidity of the British infantry 
triumphed, after a desperate struggle, over the superiority of 
their opponents in cavalry and artillery ; and Menou, after 
losing 2000 men, directed a retreat on Alexandria. 

315. The battleof Alexandria was the first decisive victory gained 
by the British over the arms of revolutionary France. But its 
first results were not very decisive : and it was not till he had 
been reinforced by 6000 Turks, that General Hutchinson (who 
succeeded Abercromby in the command) drove the enemy from 
Daraietta and Kosetta. Dissensions broke out among the French 
leaders, no longer controlled by the master-genius of Buonaparte 
or Kleber : and the capture of Bamanieh on the Nile (May 7) cut 
off the communication between Alexandria and the corps left 
under Belliard at Cairo. The Vizier's army in the mean time 
had again entered Egypt, and, directed by British officers, gained 
a victory near Cairo; and Belliard, invested by the Allies 
in the capital, capitulated (May 22) with nearly 14,000 troops, 
and 320 heavy guns, on condition of being conveyed to France. 
The armament despatched under General Baird from Bombay 
had been delayed by contrary winds ; but they reached Cosseir, 
in Upper Egypt, early in July, and marching across the wilder- 
ness to Thebes^ thence descended the Nile to Cairo, where they 
arrived on 10th August. Thus, for the first time in the history 
of the world, the sable battalions of Hindostan, the swarthy 
Asiatics from the plains of the Euphrates, and the blue-eyed 
English from the shores of the Thames, met in arms at the foot 
of the Pyramids. 

316. Menou had refused to be included in the capitulation of 
Cairo, and prepared to defend Alexandria, against which General 
Hutchinson moved in August, after the embarkation of Belliard ; 


but the yigorons operations of the British soon convinced him 
that resistance was hopeless :^ and he jielded (Aug. 31 ), on the 
same terms as those granted at Cairo. Ten thousand men sub- 
mitted with him ; and nearly 400 pieces of cannon, with immense 
military stores, fell into the hands of the British. It had been 
also stipulated that the collections of antiquities, <&c. should be 
given up ; but the artists and mvans who had formed them 
threatened to destroy rather than surrender them, and General 
Hutchinson generously waived the point. The total amount of 
troops who capitulated in Egypt was upwards of 24,000, all 
veterans: an astonishing success to have been achieved by a 
British force which had hardly ever seen a shot fired, and which, 
even including the Indian auxiliaries, never amounte<l to the 
same numerical strength. After the reduction of Alexandria, 
12,000 men, comprehending the Bombay army, were left to 
secure the country; General Hutchinson returning with the 
rest to England. 

317. An atrocious act of treachery on the part of the Capitan- 
Pasha, by which three out of seven Mamluke Beys, who had 
been invited to confer with him, lost their lives, was frustrated 
in part by the spirited interference of General Hutchinson, who 
obliged the Turkish commander to liberate the survivors. But 
this brilliant cavalry had been ruined, and almost destroyed, in 
the contest with the French ; and their chiefs, when left to their 
own resources, were utterly unable to resume their former ascen- 
dency. The feudal sovereignty of the Mamlukes in Egypt was 
therefore ere long replaced by the effective rule of a Turkish 
pasha, who has in our days rendered it the seat of a powerful 
and virtually independent government. But these remote con- 
sequences were as yet unforeseen ; and the rejoicings at Con- 
stantinople for the surrender of Alexandria were not less 
enthusiastic than at London, where the humiliation of France, 
on the element where she had so long been victorious, was 
hailed as a harbinger of the greater triumphs awaiting the 
British arms, if the enemy should carry into execution their 
long-threatened scheme of invasion. 


318. During all these transactions, no efiports bad been spared 
by Buonaparte to preserve his hold upon Egypt, and a squadron 
despatched for the purpose, under Admiral Gantheaume, had 
made three several attempts to land reinforcements and supplies 
at Alexandria, but had on each occasion been foiled by the 
vigilance of the British fleet. In order to support this attempt, 
the Spanish fleet at Cadiz had been placed under the orders of 
the French admiral Dumanoir, and three French ships under 
Linois were to join them from Toulon. These last vessels, how- 
ever, encountering six British ships under Sir James Saumarez, 
took refuge in the Bay of Algesiraz ; and here the British, pur- 
suing them close to the Spanish batteries, were repulsed (July 
6) with the loss of a 74 gun-ship, which grounded under their 
fixe. While the British were refitting at Gibraltar, the French 
ships were brought off from Algesiraz by the Spanish squadron 
from Cadiz ; but as the combined force passed the Straits on the 
night of the 12th, they were again boldly assailed by the British, 
when a terrible catastrophe befell two Spanish three-deckers, which , 
attacking each other by mistake in the dark, both took fire and blew 
up with nearly their whole crews. The St Antoine, a 74, was cap- 
tured ; and the rest, though severely handled, escaped into Cadiz. 

319. About the same time an attack on Portugal, the tried 
ally of Britain, was made by Buonaparte in conjunction with 
Spain ; not, as the French themselves admit, that there was any 
real ground of complaint, beyond the wish to provide an equi- 
valent, which might be given up at the conclusion of peace, in 
exchange for the maritime conquests of Britain. The ostensible 
object was to compel the court of Lisbon to separate itself from 
the British alliance. Spain declared war on 3d March ; and 
after the occupation of several frontier towns in Portugal by the 

^Spaniards, a peace was signed (June 6), by which Portugal 
agreed to cede Olivenza to Spain, and to shut her ports to the 
British flag. The ratification of this treaty, however, was only 
purchased from France by an enormous pecuniary sacrifice, ex- 
torted by the appearance of a French army in Portugal. 

320. Meanwhile Buonaparte, freed by the treaty of Lunevill^ 


from all apprehensions on the Continent, bent his whole attention 
to the shores of Great Britain ; and Boulogne became the head- 
quarters of a numerous flotilla of gun-boats, flat-bottomed praams, 
and other small craft, destined for the invasion of Britain. 
These preparations excited great alarm among the British pub- 
lic ; and though the government did not participate to the full 
extent in the popular feeling, it was impossible to conceal the 
alarming fact, that the same wind which was favourable to the 
French might chain the British cruisers in port ; and a power- 
ful armament of light vessels, under the command of Lord 
Nelson, was directed to attempt the destruction of the Boulogne 
flotilla. The attack was made on the night of 15th August ; but 
the French vessels, chained to each other and to the ground, 
fortified with projecting pikes and boarding-nettings, crowded 
with soldiers, and lying close under the batteries on shore, were 
well-nigh impregnable : the strength of the tide threw the divi- 
sions of British boats out of their order ; and after a de^^ente 
conflict of four hours, the assailants were repulsed, with the loss 
of 172 men killed and wounded. 

321. But during all these warlike demonstrations, negotiations 
for peace were in active progress ; the victories of France by land, 
and of Britain hj sea, having in truth left no common element 
on which war could be waged. The adjustment of the prelimi- 
naries was delayed during several months by the exorbitant 
pretensions of France, which refused to abandon Egypt, till the 
defeat of her troops in that country, by depriving her of all 
hope of retaining it by arms, facilitated the arrangements ; and 
at the moment when a rumour had gone forth that all hopes of 
peace were at an end, the people of both nations were transported 
with joy by the announcement that the preliminaries had been 
signed (Oct 1) at London. These articles, which were nearly 
the same as those of the definitive treaty, provided that the 
colonial conquests of Great Britain, except Ceylon and Trinidad, . 
should be given up ; Egypt was to be restored to the Porte, Malta 
to the Knights of St John, and the Cape to Holland ; the Roman 
and Neapolitan harbours were to be evacuated by the French, 

194 PEACE OF AMIENS. a. d. 1802. 

and Porto Ferrajo by the British ; the integrity of Portugal 
guaranteed ; the Ionian Islands recognised as a repi^lic ; and a 
compensation for the loss of Holland provided for the house of 

322. But notwithstanding the universal delight with which the 
termination of hostilities was hailed by the inconsiderate popu- 
lace, there were many men of sagacity and foresight in Britain 
who stigmatised the conditions of the peace, and foretold that it 
could not be of long continuance. Ministers, however, were 
eventually supported by a majority of 276 to 20 in the Lower, 
and 122 to 16 in the Upper House ; and the definitive treaty 
was signed at Amiens, 27th March 1802. Treaties had been 
concluded at the close of the preceding year between France on 
one side, and Bavaria, Austria, and Russia* respectively on the 
other ; and the pacification of the world was thus, for the time, 

323. Such was the termination of the first period of the war ; 
and on calmly reviewing the question, it is evident that the policy 
of the pacific party in Britain was well founded. The govern- 
ment of the First Consul, as compared with those preceding it, 
was stable and regular ; the reduction of the French military 
power was apparently hopeless ; and the independence of Great 
Britain was secured by her own naval supremacy. It was 
therefore indisputably the duty of government at least to put to 
the test the sincerity of the First Consul's professions of moderar 
tion, and to conclude a war of which the burdens were heavy 
and certain, and the advantage remote. Nor could the terms be 
justly called discreditable to Great Britain, when she terminated 
a strife which had proved so disastrous to the greatest Continental 
states, with her constitution untouched, and without ceding a 
single acre which had belonged to her at its commencement ; 
while her insular situation, and the energy of her people, had 

* The treaty with Russia, signed on 8th October, contained some 
important ferret articles on maritime law, the equilibrium to be preserved 
between the German powers, the Ionian Islands, ftc, which were ulti- 
s;iately the cause of the differences between France and Russia.,^ 


enabled her, during its contintianoe, to extend her commerce 
and resources to so unparalleled an extent, as to justify Mr Pitt's 
observation, that the relative strength of the two powers was 
nearly the same at the end as at the beginning of the war. 

VI. Ii€co7ist7'V>ction of Society m France hy BvonaparU, 

324. When Buonaparte, on his elevation to the consular throne, 
addressed himself to the herculean task of closing the wounds of 
the Revolution, he found the bonds of society dissolved to an 
extent unexampled in the history of the world. Not only the 
throne and the aristocracy, but the whole institutions of religion, 
law, commerce, and education, had been overturned. Even 
the hospitals and charitable establishments had shared in the 
general wreck ; commerce and manufactures were almost extinct ; 
and the wealth which should have supported them had disap- 
peared. The erection of a military despotism, therefore, was 
inevitable, and cannot justly be made a ground of reproach 
against Buonaparte : the elements of constitutional freedom had 
been annihilated by the destruction of the upper classes : the 
only method left to right the balance was to throw the sword 
into the scale. The failure of all subsequent attempts to frame 
a constitutional monarchy in France proves that Buonaparte 
rightly appreciated its political condition. 

325. The secret but indelible hatred of Buonaparte to the Jaco- 
bins was speedily manifested. On 24th December 1800, while 
on his way to the opera, an attempt was made to assassinate 
him, by means of an infernal machine, intended to explode 
while his carriage passed it ; but the rapidity with which his 
coachman drove anticipated by a moment the explosion, by 
which numerous persons were killed and wounded. The con- 
spiracy originated, as was afterwards clearly proved, with the 
Royalists; and its contrivers, St Regent and Carbon, were 
condemned and executed ; but Buonaparte persisted in ascribing 
it to the Jacobins, and eagerly seized the pretext for inflicting 
a deathblow on the remnant of that faction* In spite of tho 



resistance of some of the members of his Council, who urged the 
total want of evidence, he dictated a decree, which was adopted 
by the Senate, and forthwith carried into e:itecution, for the 
transportation of not fewer than 130 persons. Among these 
were several who had been engaged in the massacres of Septem- 
ber ; also Bossignol, infamous for his cruelty in la Yend^ and 
other noted Jacobins of the Convention, on whom, by a just 
retribution, the arbitrary tyranny they had so long exercised at 
length recoiled. 

326. In order to familiarise the people with the aspect of 
royalty, the next step of Buonaparte was to exhibit to the Pari- 
sians (May 1801) the young King of Etruria, the title assumed 
by the Duke of Parma, on his acquisition of Tuscany at the peace 
of Luneville. The newly created monarch, with his young bride, 
an infanta of Spain, was entertained with extraordinary magni- 
ficence ; and the Parisians pleased themselves with the idea that, 
like the Roman Senate, they could make and unmake kings. 
At the same juncture a great sensation was occasioned by the 
appearance of a pamphlet entitled ''Parallel between CsBsar, 
Cromwell, and Buonaparte," in which the cause of monarchy 
and hereditary succession was strongly advocated. But this 
device was premature : " the pear," as Buonaparte himself said, 
''was not yet ripe;" and in order to qiitet popular suspicion, 
his brother Lucien, who was known to be the author, was sent 
into honourable exile as ambassador at Madrid. 

327. The lists of eligibility in the new constitution had been 
complained of as virtually instituting a new nobility, by 
concentrating aU offices of importance in the five thousand 
notables of France : but Buonaparte soon took a more decided 
step in this direction, by the institution of the famous Legion of 
Honour. No measure during the consulate experienced so 
violent an opposition as this, which was viewed as subversive of 
all the principles of the Revolution ; and it was only by very 
slender majorities that it passed the legislative body, the Tribu- 
nate, and the Council of State. It was carried, however (May) : 
the inauguration of the members, both civil and military, was 


conducted with great magnificence ; and the event proved the 
correctness of Buonaparte's views. The leading ohject of the 
Revolation was the abolition of hereditary not personal honours ; 
and the Legion of Honour, to which the humblest might hope 
to aspire, became in the highest degree useful and popular. At 
the same time (May 8) the consulship of Buonaparte was pro- 
longed for ten years — a measure which passed almost unnoticed 
by the people at large. 

328. But all these changes sink into insignificance when com- 
pared with the great step of re-establishing the Catholic religion. 
The irreligion of ten years had completed the prostration of 
Christianity ; many of the churches had been pulled down ; and 
while a small number in Paris listened to the fanciful reveries of 
the Theophilanthropists, the great majority of the nation, edu- 
cated without religion, lived altogether without God in the world. 
Buonaparte, though not a fanatic, nor even a believer, clearly saw 
that this state was incompatible with a regular government; 
and a negotiation was opened with the Pope, which, after many 
delays and difficulties, ended in the conclusion of a concordat, 
dth July 1801, which, after some opposition from the legislature, 
became law on 2d April 1802. Ten archbishops, fifty bishops, 
and a competent number of parish priests, paid by the state, 
were appointed ; and the subordination of the Gallican church 
to the government of its own country, as well as its practical 
independence of the papal authority, was carefully provided for. 
On 11th April 1802, mass was celebrated with great pomp in 
Ndtre Dame by the Archbishop of Paris, in the presence of the 
First Consul and his court ; but many of the military chiefs 
positively refused to attend, and the contemptuous dissatisfaction 
of the army was openly manifested. The peasants of the rural 
districts, however, hailed with delight there-establishment of the 
priests, and the restoration of Sunday as a day of rest : and a 
prodigious moral effect was produced throughout Europe by the 
voluntary return of France to the Christian faith. The horror 
with which the Revolution had been hitherto regarded wa$ 
senubly diminished ; and the Emperor of Oermany, and other 

198 Buonaparte's internal a. d. 1802. 

sovereigns^ publicly expressed their congratulations on this 
auspicious event. 

329. Connected with the revival of religion were the measures 
ia favour of the emigrants, who amounted to near 100,000 ; ^ a 
number," said Buonaparte, ^ enough to bewilder one." But by 
a decree of 26th November 1800, this melancholy list was divided 
into two classes, from the first and most numerous of which the 
prohibition was removed. They returned, therefore, in crowds; 
and on 29th April 1802, a general amnesty was published, from 
which only about a thousand were excepted. It had originally 
been the generous design of Buonaparte to restore to the pro- 
prietors the whole of the confiscated property which had not 
been alienated ; but this was vehemently opposed in the Council 
of State, and was found practicable only to a limited extent. 
From a report of the minister Eamel, it appeared that, before 
1801, national domains had been sold to the enormous amount 
of £100,000,000 ; and that there remained unsold to the value of 
£28,000,000. The restitution of the great mass of the confiscated 
estates, at the expense of the four millions of petty proprietors 
among whom they were now divided, was manifestly impossible ; 
and the consequent want of a landed aristocracy to maintain 
the balance between the people and the executive, has been ever 
since felt as the irreparable want in the French government. 
All attempts to establish a constitutional throne, or establish 
freedom on a durable basis, have failed from the absence of 
that element — a want which, in the prophetic words of Buona- 
parte himself, '^ will long perpetuate the misfortunes and agony 
of unhappy France." 

330. Among the other measures of reorganisation which marked 
this period, was the establishment of an endowed system of 
public instruction, to replace the schools which had disappeared 
during the revolutionary wreck. A naval conscription was also 
resolved upon (Oct. 4, 1802) ; and the Ecole Militaire, for the 
instruction of young officers, was remodelled and extended. Th9 
projects of Buonaparte for the administration and improvement 
of the colonies were marked by the same comprehensive sagacity 


which distinguisfied his domestic reforms: but the speedy re^ 
newal of the war prevented their being carried into effect. The 
ineqnalitj of the cadastre^ or scale of valuation for the land-tax, 
also attracted the attention of gbvemnient. The amount of this 


burden was nearly twenty per cent on the net product of agri- 
cultural labour, which had hitherto been levied almost at the 
arbitrary will of the surveyors. Buonaparte attempted to 
remedy the evil by laying the valuation, not on parcels of 
ground, but on masses of the same kind of cultivation ; but 
this principle, though apparently equitable, was found by ex- 
perience equally oppressive with the old plan ; and the cadcutre 
continues, to the present day, the subject of loud and well- 
founded complaints. 

331. In the midst of these great designs, however, Buonaparte 
experienced much annoyance from the harangues of the orators 
of the Tribunate, in their discussions with the Council of State. 
The displeasure of the republicans in the former body was vehe- 
mently roused by the application to the French of the term 
mbjecU instead of citizens, in the treaty with Russia ; and the 
transference of the municipal police and the power of arresting 
individuals from the jttges de paix elected by the people, to a 
small number of judges appointed by government, awakened a 
still more strenuous opposition, and was with difficulty passed 
into a law. Buonaparte thenceforward resolved on destroying 
the powers of the Tribunate, the only branch of the government 
where freedom and publicity of discussion still existed ; but 
this important change was deferred till he became First Consul 
for life — an event not long deferred. 

332. It was evident, in fact, to every impartial spectator, that 
France, with her vast revenues, powerful army, and corrupt man- 
ners, placed moreover as she was in the midst of the great military 
monarchies of Europe, could exist only under a monarchy — and 
that Buonaparte had no alternative between restoring the Bour- 
bons, and founding a new dynasty in his own person and family. 
The efforts made to spread monarchical ideas were incessant ; 
but the first attempts to make him Consul for life failed frou) 

200 HADE CONSUL FOR LIFE. a. d. 1802: 

the opposition of some who were not in the secret : on the second 
proposition, registers were opened in the oommnnes for the votes 
of the people, and the result was announced by the senate 
(Aug. 2, 1802). Of 3,557,886 citizens who had voted, 3,368,259 
were in the affirmative — ^a most remarkable proof of the invin- 
cible desire for the tranquillity of a despotism which had suc- 
ceeded revolutionary convulsion. With each addition to Buona- 
parte's authority, the funds had risen — as low as eight before 
the 18th Brumaire^ after the consulship for life they reached 
fifty-two : an instructive lesson, when compared with the rise 
of thirty per cent on the day of Necker's restoration to the min- 
istry, of the difference between the anticipation and experience 
of a revolution. 

333. Important changes in the constitution followed : the Tri- 
bunate was rendered a nullity by being reduced from 100 to 50 
members : the legislative body was reduced to 258 members, di- 
vided into five sections, one of which was renewed annually : the 
Senate received the power to dissolve the Tribunate and the 
legislative body; and the First Consul received the right to 
nominate his successor. The consulship for life gave great satis- 
faction in the European capitals, where it was viewed as an 
assurance of steady government, under the firm and able guidance 
of Buonaparte. Paris was filled with a vast influx of foreigners, 
chiefly British and Russians, who dazzled the people by the 
brilliancy of their equipages and liveries, and contemplated 
with wonder and admiration the matchless treasures of art 
collected in the French metropolis from the vanquished states 
of the south. The eyes of the mob were feasted by splendid 
reviews in the Place Carrousel ; while the higher classes of 
citizens were captivated by the magnificence of the consular 
court, which already rivalled the most sumptuous displays of 

334. Among the events of this period may be marked the sup- 
pression of the ministry of police— a measure believed to have 
been dictated by the apprehensions of the First Consul at the im- 
mense power thus vested in the dangerous hands of Fouch^ — and 

A. D. 1803. THE " CODE NAPOLEON." 201 

a proposal of Buonaparte to Louis XVIII. (then living at Konigs- 
berg under the title of Count de Lille), to renounce his preten- 
sions and receive an Italian principalitj : an offer refused by the 
exile with a dignity worthy the race whence he sprung. It 
was now also that Buonaparte, aided by the most distinguished 
lawyers of France, commenced his great undertaking of the GivU 
Code, on which he himself truly said " that his fame would rest 
more than on all his victories," and which has in truth survived 
all the other achievements of his genius, and now forms the 
basis of the jurisprudence of half Europe. During the discus- 
sions on these legislative reforms, the sagacity of Buonaparte, and 
the facility with which his intellect grasped and analysed the 
most abstract questions of civil right, astonished the counsellors 
who had been accustomed to contemplate only his military cha- 
racter : and never did the varied powers and prodigious capacity 
of his mind appear in such brilliant colours as on this occasion. 
On two important points, however — ^the laws of succession and 
marriage — he found the popular feeling so strong that the revolu- 
tionary enactments were left almost unaltered. The rights of 
primogeniture, and the distinctions between landed and movable 
property, were nullified, and the inheritance equally divided 
among all in the same degree of relationship, — ^an enactment 
which, by the immense subdivision resulting from it, and the 
consequent impossibility of the rise of an hereditary class 
between the throne and the peasant, must ever prove adverse to 
the establishment of constitutional freedom. The facility of 
divorce was another relic of revolutionary licentiousness, which 
it was found impracticable to abolish. 

335. Thus, in the first four years of the consulship, '^ the First 
Consul had succeeded in uniting all the parties who divided 
France ; 30,000 emigrant families were restored to their country ; 
the altars were raised from the dust ; and immense public works 
gave bread to all those thrown out of employ by the preceding 
convulsions." The internal and financial prosperity was mean- 
while daily increasing ; chambers of commerce were founded in 
all the chief cities, the Hotel des Invalides was reorganised on 


a ijiore extensive scale, to meet the immense demands on its 
benevolence ; a great military school was founded at Fontaine- 
bleau, and an academy for civil and commercial instruction at 
Compi^gne. The aspect and salubrity of Paris was improved by 
toe erection of nnmerons fountuns^ the water for which was 
supplied by the opening of the Canal d^Ourcq ; while the vast 
works undertaken at the varipus seaports, proved that Buona- 
parte had not yet abandoned the hope of wresting from Great 
Britain the sceptre of the ocean. 

YlL^BevoU of St Domingo — AffiliaJted RepMics reorganised — 
Rupture between France and Britain, 

336. In the midst of the universal exultation and unlimited 
hopes for the future, which were conceived both by governments 
and people in Europe at the peace of Amiens, the indeiatigable 
mind of the First Consul was not for a moment idle. Arrived 
at the pinnacle of military glory, he turned his attention to the 
recovery of the French colonies, as the only means for the per- 
manent restoration of naval power; and an immense expedition 
was fitted out for the reconquest of St Domingo — a magnifioent 
possession, which had been lost by the reckless innovations of 
the Constituent Assembly. 

337. St Domingo is the largest, except Cuba, of all the West 
India islands, being about 300 miles in length, by 90 in mean 
breadth. Before 1789, it had been divided between the Spaniards 
and French ; the French portion, though the smaller, being in- 
comparably more fertile than the other, and rainng more colonial 
produce than all the British West India islands together. Its 
exports amounted to the enormous value of nearly ^7,000,000, and 
its imports from the parent state to ;£10,000,000. One thousand 
six hundred ships and 27,000 sailors were employed in this vast 
commerce, which was the chief support of the French mercantile 
navy. The population, as usual in that part of the world, was 
mixed, consisted of 40,000 whites, 60,000 mulattoes, and not fewer 
than 500,000 negro slaves. Such was the flourishing state of this 


noble dolony, when the decree of the Constituent Assembly 
(March 8, 1790) for the formation of a colonial legislature, 
awakened the smouldering jealousies of the whites and mulattoes, 
the former of whom claimed the exclusive right of voting, while 
the latter strenuously asserted their equal title: and the 
negroes, not less imbued with the new doctrines, secretly formed 
the project of ridding themselves of both. On the night of 30th 
September 1791, the revolt broke out at once in every quarter : 
the plantations were everywhere consigned to the flames, and 
the planters compelled to take refuge in the towns from the fury 
of the insurgents, who sawed their prisoners asunder, and marched 
with infants transfixed on their lances instead of standards. The 
mulattoes, though not always siding with the negroes, were 
equally hostile to the whites : and when three delegates of the 
Convention, with 3000 troops, arrived in November 1791, they 
found Cape Town blockaded by the slaves, under their celebrated 
leader, Toussaint Louverture. 

338. In spite, however, of the orders from the mother country, 
the colonial legislature refused to make any concession even to 
the mulattoes ; while the Assembly at Paris, stimulated by the 
frantic harangues of the Society of Friends of the Blacks, sent 
out three new commissioners, Arthaux, Santhonax, and Polverel, 
armed with unlimited powers (May 1793). Their first measures 
were to proclaim freedom to the blacks, and to turn the engines 
of Jacobin proscription against the planters ; but in the midst 
of a bloody tumult between the mulattoes and the sailors of 
the fleet. Cape Town was surprised, sacked, and burnt (June 20) 
by the negroes, who massacred 30,000 of the inhabitants. The 
negro chief, Toussaint, though still professing himself a subject 
of France, became now the actual ruler of the island, and repulsed 
an attempt of the British (1794) to gain a footing there. A second 
farious civil war between the mulattoes and negroes ended in the 
almost total extermination of the former : and the conquest of 
the Spanish portion (1800) completed his ascendency. Under his 
severe but judicious sway, the prosperity of St Domingo rapidly 
revived: the negroes were compelled to cultivate the lands, 

204 ATTEMPT OF THB FRENCH a. o. 1802. 

which were allotted among the military chiefs, and subordination 
and order were preserved by an army of 20,000 men. 

339. But though Toussaint had been confirmed in his command 
by Buonaparte, the continuance of his rule was far from agreeable 
to the First Consul, who perceived that the feeling of indepen- 
dence had taken root ; and the nomination of Toussaint by the 
chiefs of St Domingo as President for life, which was announced 
to him at the moment of the peace of Amiens, showed him that 
no time was to be lost in reasserting the supremacy of France. 
An immense armament, the greatest ever yet Qent from Europe 
to the New World, was accordingly fitted out Thirty- five ships 
of the line, with 21 frigates and numerous transports, received on 
board an army of 21,000 men, commanded in chief by Le Glerc, 
the brother-in-law of Buonaparte, and under him by Bochambeau, 
Bichepanse, Lapoype, &c, — both officers and men being prin- 
cipally selected, doubtless not without design, from the army 
of the Bhine, formerly commanded by Moreau, rather than 
from the personal followers of Buonaparte. The fleet reached St 
Domingo early in 1802 ; and Toussaint, though deprived by the 
late peace of the succour which he had expected from the 
British in Jamaica, resolutely prepared for defence. Gape Town, 
where the invaders landed, was burned by the blacks before their 
retreat ; and a desperate warfare ensued in the impenetrable 
and woody mountain-ridges in the centre of the island. But 
though the savage bravery of the negroes more than once obtained 
important advantsiges, the contest was too unequal to continue ; 
the ablest of the black generals, Christophe, Dessalines, and 
Maurepas, successively submitted ; and Toussaint, left unsup^ 
ported, was forced to yield. But in two months after the pacifi- 
cation, the illustrious African was treacherously seized by order 
of Le Clerc, and sent to France, where he shortly after died in 
confinement at the sequestered castle of Joux, in the Jura, 
whether by natural or violent means is unknown. 

340. Mean while theformal re-establishment of slavery in Guada- 
loupe, where the blacks had also gained the ascendant, awakened 
universal alarm in St Domingo, being yiewed as an earnest of 


the fade reserved for those in that Jsland ; and a fresh general 
revolt broke out in October 1802. The French troops, reduced 
to 8000 by the ravages of the sword and the yellow fever, were 
concentrated about Gape Town and Port-au-Prince ; but Le Clerc 
soon fell a vicHm to the epidemic, which had already proved 
fatal to Richepanse and others of his best officers ; and the mili- 
tary talents of Rochambeau, who succeeded to the ooodmand, 
were neutralised by the violence and injustice of his civil govern- 
ment. The French canse was rapidly declining when the death- 
blow was given to it by the rupture of the peace of Amiens. 
Arms and ammunition were now supplied by the British to the 
insurgents ; the different French posts, blockaded by the negroes 
hj land, and the British by sea, were successively reduced ; and 
80 complete was the destruction of this ill-fated expedition, that 
of 35,000, including reinforcements, scarcely 7000 ever returned 
to France. Since this period St Domingo has been nominally 
independent ; but the changes of its government, and the present 
condition of the inhabitants, are foreign to our subject. 

341. But though the ambitious designs of the First Consul were 
nnsnccessfttl in the western hemisphere, the preliminaries of 
Amiens were scarcely signed, when he proceeded to rivet the 
yoke on the affiliated republics, the absolute independence of 
which had been guaranteed by the peace of Luneville. In Sep- 
tember 1801, a fresh constitution, composed of a legislative body 
of thirty*five, and a council of state of twelve members, with a 
president changing every three months, was imposed, at the 
point of the bayonet, upon Holland ; and at the end of the same 
year, the Cisalpine (now called the Italian) Republic was again 
remodelled by an Assembly of Deputies, which met (Dec. 31) at 
Lyons. Buonaparte, of course, became president of the republic, 
and nominated Count Melzi, a great proprietor in Lombardy, 
and a man of high talents and character, as his vice-president ; 
while the election of the seventy-five members who were to 
compose the legislative body was vested in three electoral colleges, 
of proprietors, members of the learned professions, and merchants. 
The incorporation of Piedmont with France, by a simple decree, 

206 QEBMAN INDEMNITIES. a. d. 1802. 

(Sept. 11, 1802), and the occnpatioa of Panna and Placentia, 
completed the French ascendency in Northern Italy ; and its 
subjection was further secured by the construction of the splen* 
did roads oyer Mont Cenisand the Simplon, which were finished 
in three years, iind which afforded facilities at all times for the 
passage of the Alps by an army. 

342. During these transactions, the subject of the indemnities, 
which by the treaty of Luneville were to be provided for the 
German princes dispossessed by the extension of France to the 
Rhine, was giving rise to vehement discussions. The method by 
which this was to be accomplished was principally the secularisa- 
tion of the ecclesiastical sovereignties — ^in other words, the spolia- 
tion of the church, in order to find equivalents for the conquests 
of France ; but the partition was not so easily arranged. The 
seven years' discreditable neutrality of Prussia was rewarded by 
the warm support of her claims by France, with which Bussia 
(in pursuance of the secret treaty of 1801) acted in concert ; 
and she eventually acquired the bishoprics of Paderbom and 
Hildesheim, with other cities and abbacies, to the amount of 
more than four times what she had lost on the left bank of the 
Rhine ; and large shares of the spoils were allotted to Bavaria 
and Wurteroberg. The interests of Austria, in the first place, 
had been almost wholly overlooked ; and though the Emperor, 
as head of the Germanic body, had appointed a conference at 
Ratisbon in August for the settlement of the indemnities, the 
different powers were proceeding (in disregard of the Imperial 
mandate) to occupy the districts assigned to them in the secret 
treaties, when Austria boldly interposed by taking military 
possession of Passan, which the Elector of Bavaria was on the 
point of appropriating. An angry correspondence ensued ; but 
the spirited conduct of Austria had its effect — the conferences 
were opened at Ratisbon ; and the Emperor received the 
bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, <kc., as a compensation for the 
territories which he resigned, and for the loss of Tuscany by 
his brother. The arrangements were finally confirmed (Feb. 
23, 1803) by the Piet ; and thus was formally acknowledged the 


principle of indemnifyiDg belligerents for their losses, at the 
expense not of the vanquished, hut of the neutral and weaker 
powers which had taken no part in the contest. All ideas of 
international right were thus overturned : it became evident that 
neutrality was now the most perilous of all courses for a weak 
state, as no one was thus interested in its preservation ; and all 
Europe prepared to follow the banner of one or the other rival 

343. During these disputes, Buonaparte had leisure to prosecute 
his ambitious designs regarding Switzerland, in which, from the 
different races of its inhabitants, French, Italian, and German, 
and the extraordinary variety of climate^ soil, and manners 
within its boundaries, the rule of a single central democratic 
government was especially vexatious. The oligarchies of Berne 
and Zurich, and the peasants of the Forest Cantons, alike regretted 
the ancient federal system, in which each canton had the power 
of internal legislation for its own peculiar exigencies ; and dur- 
ing the four disastrous years following the forcible imposition 
of the new constitution by French bayonets, the country had 
been distracted by endless intrigues and internal dissensions. The 
partisans of the old regime were headed by Aloys Beding, chief 
of the canton of Schwytz ; and his views were not discounte- 
nanced by Buonaparte, who wished to see a system established 
more in harmony with the monarchical institutions which he 
was restoring at Paris. A counter-revolution was at length 
(Oct. 28, 1801) effected at Berne, and Beding became the head of 
a new provisional government; but neither Buonaparte, nor 
either of the contending parties in Switzerland, were satisfied 
with the constitution now promulgated (Feb. 17, 1802) ; and it 
was superseded in May by one framed by Buonaparte himself, 
in which the executive was vested in a Landamman with two 
lieutenants, appointed for nine years, with a senate which pro- 
posed laws, and a diet which sanctioned them. This consti- 
tution, though rejected by the lesser cantons, was accepted by the 
aristocratic ones ; and after its proclamation, the Frepch army 
of occupation was at length withdrawn. 


344. Its departure was instantly followed hy the revolt of the 
Forest Cantons under Reding (Aug.), with the yiew of restor- 
ing the old order of things. The mountaineers were every- 
where victorious ; and the members of the new government 
were preparing to take refuge in France, when Buonaparte (Oct.4) 
addressed to the Swiss, through his aide-de-camp Rapp, a pro- 
clamation announcing his intention of interfering to adjust their 
differences. In vain was the aid of Austria and the other powers 
invoked against this violation of the treaty of Luneville, which 
had guaranteed to them the liberty of choosing their own 
government. Ney, entering the country with 20,000 men, 
speedily disarmed all opposition ; and fifty-six deputies were 
summoned to Paris, to receive the law from the First Consul. 
Buonaparte had been reduced to the use of open violence by the 
failure of his hopes that one of the contending parties would 
voluntarily invoke his mediation : but his subsequent conduct 
was marked by unusual moderation ; and the constitution, as 
finally settled (Act of Mediation, Feb. 19, 1803), was devised with 
admirable wisdom and equity. Switzerland was again divided 
into nineteen cantons, but the subjection of one to another was 
abrogated : all exclusive privileges were abolished ; and the 
Yalais became a separate republic The chief magistrate of 
six of the principal cantons, in turn, was Landamman for the 
year ; and the Diet sat year by year at their chief towns. The 
neutrality of Switzerland was allowed, and the existing contin- 
gent of 25,000 men exchanged for a levy of sixteen regiments to 
be taken into French pay. Still deep indignation was excited 
through Europe by these arbitrary proceedings ; and the con- 
tinued occupation of Holland by French troops showed that the 
treaty of Luneville was equally a dead letter in regard to the 
Batavian republic. 

345. During these important events on the Continent, Great 
Britain was tasting the blessings and tranquillity of peace. Her 
industry and finances prospered to an extraordinary degree : the 
cessation of theineome-tax conferred comparative affluence on the 
middle classes ; and the extincUon of the national debt was con^ 


fidently anticipated from the operation of the sinking fund, now 
relieved from the counteracting operation of annual loans. But 
these flattering prospects were of short duration. Independent 
of the jealousy felt in Britain at the Continental encroachments 
of Buonaparte, several causes of irritation soon grew up to impair 
the good understanding of the two governments. The first of 
these was the asperity with which the First Consul was attacked 
in the English newspapers, particularly the French journals 
published in London ; and so deeply was Buonaparte stung by 
these lampoons, that his minister in London was instructed to 
make a formal demand for their suppression ; and at the same 
time to require that the Bourbon princes resident in Britain, 
as well as Georges Cadouhal and his Chouan associates, should 
be sent out of the country. These extravagant demands, involv- 
ing the abandonment of the habeas corpus and the liberty of the 
press, were of course refused ; and the fact of their having been 
advanced, only shows Buonaparte's utter ignorance of the action of 
a free government. But, to remove all grounds for complaint, an 
action for a libel on the First Consul was brought against Peltier, 
the editor of the most obnoxious of the French journals. He 
was found guilty, notwithstanding a splendid display of eloquence 
in his defence by Sir James Mackintosh ; but the breaking out 
of the war prevented his being brought up for judgment. 

346. But more important grounds of quarrel were soon found 
to widen the breach. The French insisted on the evacuation 
of Malta, Egypt, and the Cape, to which Great Britain refused to 
accede till the stipulations of the peace of Luneville had been 
fulfilled by France ; while the mission of Colonel Sebastiani to 
t^e Levant, to inquire into the state of Egypt and Syria, proved 
that the First Consul was far from having abandoned his schemes 
of Oriental conquest. An angry diplomatic correspondence 
ensaed ; and in an interview with the British ambassador. Lord 
Whitworth (Feb. 21, 1803), the wrath of Buonaparte broke out 
with unrestrained violence. Without denying his designs on 
Egypt, which, he said, '^ mvst so<mer or later bd&ng to France,^ he 
insisted on the instant evacuation of Malta as the only means of 

210 WAB BECLABED. A. d. 1803. 

preserviDg peace, and held out vehement menaces of invading 
Britain in case of a renewal of the war. <' I know/' he ex- 
claimed, '^ that myself and great part of the expedition will pro- 
bably go to the bottom, but I am determined to make the 

attempt France, with an army of 480,000 men, and 

England, with a fleet which is mistress of the seas, might, if they 
understood each other, govern the world, but by their strife they 
will overturn it." Hostile preparations were now commenced 
on both sides ; and a message of the King to parliament, in 
which the probability of war was alluded to, produced a second 
ebullition of Buonaparte against Lord Whitworth, in which the 
vehemence of his'tem per lost sight of all restraints of courtesy or 
decency. The negotiations, however, were still kept open for 
nearly two months ; but Malta on the one hand, and Holland 
and Switzerland on the other, proved insuperable obstacles to an 
arrangement ; and on 12th May Lord Whitworth demanded his 
passports. The declaration of war was followed, on the part of 
Buonaparte, by the arrest of all the British travelling in France, 
to the number of above 10,000, mostly of the higher ranks — an 
act of unnecessary barbarity, which he attempted to justify by 
alleging the seizure of some French merchant vessels previous 
to the formal declaration of war, but which more than anything 
else excited the subsequent inveterate hostility against him in 
the public mind of Great Britain. 

347. In the parliamentary debates which followed, the most 
remarkable feature was the altered tone of the Opposition. France 
had now lost the support of the democratic party throughout 
Europe, and stood forth merely as a threatening and conquering 
military power. The preservation of our independence and 
national honour was felt to be at stake ; and though Mr Fox and 
Mr Wilberforce blamed the haste with which the negotiations 
had at last been broken off, the war was approved in the Com- 
mons by a majority of 398 to 67, and in the Lords by 142 to 
10. The soundness of the British policy at this period has since 
been establyshed by the admissions of Buonaparte himself* ' His 
design, as he has told us, was to have remained at peace with 


Britain for six or eight years ; to have annually built twenty 
or twenty-five ships of the line ; and not to have thrown down 
the gauntlet till he had eighty or a hundred sail in the Channel 
ports, to cover the passage of the invading army, " When thus/' 
said he, '' England, deprived of the advantages of her insular 
situation, came to wrestle hand to hand with France, she must 
have fallen. A nation with a population of seventeen millions 
must in the end sink before one which commands the resources 
of forty," 

YIII. Eenewal ofhoBtilUies^Rupture heCween Spain and Britain, 

348. Never did the ancient rivalry of France and Britain break 
forth with more vehemence than on the renewal of the war, 
after the peace of Amiens. The French, deeming themselves 
invincible on land, anticipated, in the conquest of Britain, the 
removal of the last obstacle to their universal dominion ; while 
the British, indignantly hurling back the defiance, referred to 
their recent triumphs in Egypt as an earnest of^ victories yet to 
he obtained. The animosity of the governments was warmly 
supported by the patriotism and passions of the peoploj and both 
entered with heart and soul into the contest. 

349. The first military operation of the French was the occu-> 
pation of Hanover, which was invaded by the corps of Mortier, 
(May 26). The Hanoverian army, after a fruitless attempt at re- 
sistance, was disbanded (most of the men afterwards forming 
the German Legion in the British service) ; while the French, in 
spite of all reclamations, occupied the free cities of Bremen and 
Hamburg, and forcibly closed the Elbe and Weser against Bri« 
tish commerce. The French troops, under St Cyr, at the same 
time extended themselves throughout Italy ; Tarentum and 
Leghorn were seized, and the British merchandise in their ports 
confiscated ; and by a decree on 23d June, any vessel coming 
from, or which had touched at, a British port, was declared liable 
to seizure. Thus commenced the virulent strife so long main* 
tained against the trade of Britain ; while gigantic preparations 


212 Buonaparte's naval plans. a. d. I803. 

for invasion were set on foot on tbe shores of the Channel. The 
public spirit of France was ardently enlisted in the attempt: 
the departments yied with each other in contributing vessels, 
money, and cannon ; and the harbour of Boulogne, where the 
central rendezvous was fixed, was deepened, extended, and forti- 
fied with immense works, by the labour of the soldiers. From 
Brest to the Texel, every port was filled with praams, flat- 
bottomed gunboats, and other small craft, which, whenever the 
British cruisers were blown off their stations by contrary winds, 
crept along shore to the general point of assemblage ; and in- 
numerable transports were collected for the reception of the 
stores and ammunition. The design of Buonaparte, for covering 
the passage of these forces, has been declared by himself the most 
profound and nicely calculated which he ever formed. The 
squadrons from the Spanish and Mediterranean ports were to 
have effected a general junction in the West Indies : they were 
then, returning with combined forces to Europe, to have raised 
successively the blockade of Bochfort, Brest, &e. ; and, by their 
union with the fleets in those harbours, to have formed an irre- 
sistible armament, under cover of which the flotilla might effect 
the passage of the Channel. It will appear in the sequel how 
nearly this vast design succeeded, and how little the British 
were aware of the quarter whence danger really threatened 

350. To supply the military force necessary, the conscription 
was enforced with such rigour, that the price of a substitute rose 
to .£500 ; and during the rest of Napoleon's reign never less 
than half, sometimes nearly the whole of the youth of France, as 
they annually attained manhood, were absorbed into the ranks. 
Auxiliary corps were exacted from Switzerland and Italy : and 
by treaties with Spain (Oct. 19) and Portugal (Dec. 25), the for- 
mer power was compelled to pay an annual subsidy of jg2,88O,0OO, 
and the latter one of ;£640,000, during the continuance of the 
war. Louisiana, recently acquired from Spain, had been sold to 
the United States for £3,200,000, as soon as the maritime war 
made its retention by France hopeless. The revenue of France 


for the year amounted to jg23,000y000 ; and thus a regular army 
of 420,000 was kept on foot, 150,000 of whom were destined for 
the invasion of Great Britain. 

351. Bat nothing daunted were the British government or 
people by this formidable array. Fifty thousand men were added 
to the regular army ; and in a few weeks 300,000 volunteers were 
enrolled, armed, and disciplined, thus superseding the necessity 
for a compulsory levee-^nrTruMse, In the general enthusiasm even 
the voice of faction was stilled — ^Whigs and Tories stood side by 
side in the ranks. From being a war of opinions, it had now be- 
come a war of nations. Immen se exertions were made for restor* 
ing the navy (which the ill-judged economy of the two preceding 
years had suffered to become dilapidated) to its former efficiency ; 
war taxes were imposed to the amount of ;£12,660,000, and 
a loan of j£l 2,000,000 was contracted. An abortive attempt 
at insurrection in Dublin (July 23), in which the Lord Chief 
Justice (Lord Kilwarden) was brutally murdered by the mob, 
was suppressed without difficulty, and the leaders, Emmet and 
Russell, executed ; and a revolutionary fanatic, named Colonel 
Despard, who had made a frantic attempt on the life of the King, 
underwent the same fate in London. 

352. The naval operations of the year 1803 were, however, 
chiefly confined to the capture of most of the French West India 
islands, and gallant but unimportant attacks on the squadrons of 
small craft proceeding to Boulogne. The attack on the China fleet 
in the Indian Sea, by a small French naval force under Admiral 
Linois, was repulsed with loss by these merchant vessels (Feb. 
15, 1804), under command of the gallant Commodore Dance— 4tn 
exploit which preserved property to the amount of £1,500,000, 
and excited the greatest satisfaction through the nation. Suri- 
nam was taken (May 3) by Sir Samuel Hood ; and the land 
forces for the year were raised to 300,000 men, besides 340,000 
volunteers, and 100,000 seamen and marines for the navy — ^the 
total expenditure amounting to no less than ;£53,000,000. But 
the inadequate amount of the service rendered by these immense 
forces, joined to the decay which (under the delusion of a 


wretched economy) had been suffered to take place in the navy 
during the peace, began to excite a general feeling of despondency 
in the nation ; and it became evident that the ministers, however 
individually talented or respectable, did not, as a body, possess 
either the domestic or foreign influence requisite for the crisis. 
An illness of the King (Feb.), partaking of the mental malady 
which had fifteen years before afBicted him, augmented the panic. 
A coalition was formed between the Whigs and Tories ; and the 
ministers resigned on the 1 2th of May. The new administration, 
however, was composed wholly of Tories, the King having 
personal objections to Mr Fox, and several of the late ministry 
remained in ofiKce. Mr Pitt became first lord of the treasury 
and chancellor of the exchequer; Lord Harro why, foreign sec- 
retary ; and Lord Melville, first lord of the admiralty, in which 
ofiice his ability and energy speedily shone conspicuous, in the 
restoration of the navy from the state of unexampled decrepitude 
into which the miserable parsimony of his predecessors had 
thrown it ; while the political combinations of Mr Pitt ere long 
succeeded in resuscitating on the Continent the torpid spirit of 
resistance to France. 

353. In the matter of the German indemnities, as has been 
noticed, the Emperor Alexander had strongly supported the policy 
of Buonaparte ; and he had attempted, though in vain, to mediate 
between France and Great Britain. But the occupation of Hano- 
ver and Northern Germany gave great umbrage to Russia ; and 
the mutual exasperation was so rapidly inflamed by minor differ- 
ences, that before the end of 1603, M. Markoff was recalled from 
Paris, leaving only M. d'Oubril as charg%-d^ affaires, Prussia, 
which had at first warmly seconded the remonstrances of Russia 
as to Hanover and Hamburg, was gained over by a hint of her 
ultimately^acquiringtheformerterritory; and matters were in this 
state at the execution of the Duke d*Enghien (p. 219). The court 
of St Petersburg, in its notes both to the Diet at Ratisbon and 
the cabinet of the Tuileries, expressed without reserve its horror 
and indignation at this atrocious deed ; and the correspondence 
of the two courts began to assume ai| aspect of direct hostility ; 


while the French ministers in vain endeayoured to obtaiti a set- 
off, by falsely representing some steps for a counter-revolution 
in France, taken by Mr Brake and Mr Spencer Smith — ^the 
British residents at the courts of Bavaria and Wurtemberg — as 
having for their real object the assassination of the First Consul. 
At length (July 21, 1804) a most important note was presented by 
M. d*Oubril, in which, after recapitulating the recent aggressions 
and encroachments of France, a formal requisition was made for 
the evacuation of Naples and Northern Germany, and the fulfil- 
ment of the promise of an indemnity for the King of Sardinia. 
As the answer of Talleyrand was unsatisfactory, M. d'Oubril 
quitted Paris ; and it was evident that the open declaration of 
war was only postponed for a favourable opportunity. 

354. Austria, meanwhile, silently occupied in repairing her 
losses and recruiting her army, persevered in a system of pacific 
neutrality. The violation of the territory of the empire in the 
seizure of the Duke d'Enghien was passed over without any open 
notice ; and the assumption of the Imperial title by Buonaparte, 
which Russia refused to recognise, was acceded to without ap- 
parent repugnance. At Berlin, though Haugwitz had now been 
supplanted in the chief direction of affairs by Count Hardenberg, 
a statesman decidedly hostile to revolutionary principles, the 
same temporising policy continued to be pursued ; though an 
event which occurred at this period at first appeared likely to 
lead to a rupture with France. Sir George Rumbold, the British 
minister at Hamburg, was arrested there (Oct. 25) by virtue of 
an order from the French minister of police, and sent as a state 
prisoner to Paris : but the energetic reclamations of the Prussian 
ambassador against this flagrant violation of the law of nations, 
supported by an autograph letter from the King to Buonaparte, 
procured his release after a few days* detention. It was from 
Sweden that the first decided symptom of hostility proceeded. 
Its sovereign, a young prince of ardent and chivalrous character, 
had from the first shown marked animosity against the revolu- 
tionary system, which was further inflamed by the death of the 
Buke d'Enghien. Buonaparte resented his representations on this 


last point, to the dermanic Diet, by publishing in the Moniiewr 
articles so personally offensive, that all intercourse ceased 
between the courts of Stockhdm and Paris; and Mr Pitt, 
availing himself of this state of feeling, concluded a treaty with 
Sweden (Dec. 3, 1804) which, though ostensibly directed chiefly 
to commercial objects, contained provisions for a subsidy 
from Britain for the fortification of Stralsund, as a depot for 
the Hanoverian Legion, with other stipulations of a warlike 

355. While everything thus Indicated an approaching rupture 
in Europe, Napoleon (now emperor) was exertinghimself by every 
method to excite the military enthusiasm of his own subjects. 
On the 14th July (the anniversary of the taking of the BastiUe) 
the inauguration of the Legion of Honour took place, with all 
imaginable pomp, in the splendid church of the Invalides ; and 
shortly after this ceremony, the Emperor repaired to the head- 
quarters of the army at Boulogne. There, on the 16th of August, 
the day of his tutelar saint, 80,000 soldiers passed in battle array 
before a lofty throne raised on a platform of turf, where Napo- 
leon, encircled by his ministers and marshals, distributed crosses 
of the Legion from the helmet of Bayard. The enthusiasm, of 
the soldiers was excited to the highest pitch by the martial 
magnificence of the scene ; but the naval display, which was to 
have formed part of the pageant, failed from the violence of 
the wind, and Napoleon could not conceal his chagrin at being 
thus rudely reminded of his weakness on the other element. 
From Boulogne he continued his progress to Ostend, everywhere 
stimulating the preparations and reviewing the troops. Thence 
proceeding by Aix-la-Chapelle to Mayence, he remained there 
during the autumn, occupied apparently in receiving the adula- 
tory addresses of the provinces and the congratulations of the 
German princes, but secretly employed in maturing the vast 
designs which afterwards gave rise to the Confederation of the 
Rhine. At the approach of winter he returned to Paris, where 
he celebrated, as will immediately be detailed, the important 
ceremony of his coronation. 


356, Thecloseof the year 1804 was marked by a melancholy event 
which led to a war between Great Britain and Spain. By the 
Convention of 19th October 1803, the auxiliary force stipulated 
by the treaty of St Udefonso had been commuted (as has already 
been noticed) into an annual subsidy of £2,880,000, to be paid 
to France. The amount of this tribute, which was at first studi* 
ously concealed, no sooner became known to the British govern- 
ment, than the ambaandor was instructed to protest against it 
(Dec. 13, 1803), as equivalent to a war subsidy ; and though no 
immediate rupture followed, the apprehensions of Britain were 
soon excited afresh by the rumours of naval preparations at 
Cadiz, Ferrol, and Carthagena ; and orders were given for inter* 
cepting the treasure-frigates on their way from America, to be 
held as security for the neutrality of Spain. But the squadron 
under Captain Moore, which encountered the four frigates, was 
only of equal force; and the Spaniards of course refusing to 
submit under such circumstances^ an engagement took place 
(Get 5, 1804), in which one of the treasure-ships blew up with 
most of the crew. The other three, with a freight valued at 
more than £2,000,000, were captured ; and Spain, justly indig- 
nant at this act of violence^ declared war (Dec. 12). 

357. This unhappyoatastrophe produced great division of opinion 
in Britain, and gave rise to violent debates in parliament ; but 
the government was eventually supported by a large majority 
in both houses. On reviewing the question at this distance of 
time, it cannot be denied that, though the conduct of Spain in 
Florence to France might have reasonably occasioned a declara- 
tion of war on the part of Great Britain, the commencement of 
hostilities without such a declaration was not warranted, either 
by the usages of war or by the law of nations ; and on this point 
no defence can be maintained. But the British historian may 
congratulate himself on the ample atonement afterwards made 
for this act of injustice ; for if Spain Was the scene of a dark 
blot at this time on the national character of Britain, it was 
also, soon after, the theatre of the most generous devotion and 
the brightest glories which her history has to record. 

218 HCHEGBU'S CONSPIRACT. ^. d. 1804. 

IX. Buonaparte^ 8 Assumption of the Imperial Crovm. 

358. It would be well for the memory of Napoleon Buonaparte if, 
after recounting his matchless military glories, and the admirable 
wisdom of his civil administration, the historian could stop short, 
and be spared the narration of the dark and bloody deeds which 
ushered in the Empire. Up to the beginning of 1804, both the 
army and the people were either reconciled io the consulate for life, 
or submitted in silence to an authority which they could not 
resist \ but there were still several among the generals and higher 
officers who were far from being content with the existing order 
of things. Bemadotte, though brother-in-law of Joseph Buona- 
parte, was of this party ; but the head of the republican mal- 
contents was Moreau, whose natural jealousy of Buonaparte was 
stimulated by the rancour with which his wife regarded the. 
elevation of Josephine. At the same time, a royalist conspiracy 
had been set on foot in London on the renewal of the war, 
headed by the Chouan chief Georges Cadouhal, and Pichegru, 
who had escaped from his South American exile. Fouch^ 
whose unceasing object was to regain the ministry of the police, 
formed the project of uniting these opposite elements in a plot 
which might at once ruin both and effect his own restoration ; 
^nd his skilfully devised snares were successful. Georges, the 
Folignacs, Pichegru, and others, secretly landed in France, and 
repaired to Paris, in order to concert measures with Moreau ; 
and though they were speedily undeceived in their hopes of the 
co-operation of that illustrious soldier, the purpose of Fouch6. 
was answered. The police still believed Pichegru in London, 
when Fouch6 arrived with his revelations, which were rewarded 
by his reinstatement in office ; and the whole of the suspected 
persons, to the number of forty-five, were seized (Feb. 15). Moreau 
was arrested a few days afterwards ; and Geoi*ges and Pichegru, 
who at first eluded the police, were secured a fortnight later — 
the latter being betrayed by a wretch named Leblanc, who had 
offered him an asylum. 
359. The arrest of Moreau struck both the people and the army. 


with oonsteroation ; and it was perhaps well for Buonaparte 
that BO many of the soldiers of Hohenlinden had perished in 
St Domingo (p. 204). But a still further stroke was in 
preparation, from which the memory of Buonaparte will never 
recover. The Duke d'Enghien, son of the Duke de Bourbon, and 
a lineal descendant of the great Cond^, had accompanied his 
father*8 emigration in 1789, and had ever since remained in 
exile. At this time he was resident at Ettenheim, in the terri- 
tory of Baden, on the right bank of the Rhine, where he waa 
arrested in his bed on the night of the 15th March by a French 
force from New Brisach, and carried prisoner to Strasburg. The 
ground of this outrageous act was the supposed identity of the 
prince with a mysterious stranger (afterwards known to be 
Pich^^m), who had been present at several meetings of the 
royalist conspirators — ^his frequent absence from home, for the 
pursuit of field-sports, appearing to strengthen this surmise. 
His fiite was not long delayed. On the 18th he was transferred 
from Strasburg, and arriving at Paris on the 20th, was instantly: 
sent to Yincennes, where, in pursuance of an order signed by the 
hand of Buonaparte, he was tried by a military commission on. 
the charge of bearing arms against the Republic. No evidence 
was adduced, no witnesses were examined : he was at once found 
guilty, and shot in the ditch of the fortress in the grey of the 
following morning ; and his remains,' dressed as they were, 
were thrown into a grave, which had been dug before his trial, 
on the spot where he fell. 

360. Thus perished the Duke d*Enghien, a prince endowed with 
extraordinary advantages both of person and mind, and his fiite 
must ever remain a dark and indelible blot on the renown of 
Buonaparte. It was in truth a most foul and iniquitous murder, 
and was so stigmatised by a great majority even of the French : 
the courts of Europe openly expressed their horror, and the 
detestation which had been hitherto felt throughout the Con- 
tinent for the atrocities of the Revolution in general was trans- 
ferred to the person of the First Consul, who was thenceforward 
popularly regarded as the symbol of dark and malignant cruelty. 

229 DEATH OF PICHEOBU. a. d. 1804. 

But this tragedy was soon followed by another. On the 
morning of the 6th April, Pichegru was found dead in prison, 
strangled by a silk handkerchief twisted round his neck by a 
small stick. It was given out that he had committed suicide ; 
but if we follow the axiom of Machiavel, ^ when you would 
discover the anthor of a crime, consider who had an interest to 
commit it" — moral presumption weighs heavily against the First 
ConsuL Pichegm's undaunted character, and his avowed deter- 
mination to speak out boldly on his trial, had awakened the 
fears of the government, which dreaded the effect of his reve- 
lations, and it was known that his examinations had totally 
failed in eliciting anything to implicate Moreau. The belief 
in his assassination was general ; and the populace, from the 
remarkable method of his death, attributed it to the Mamlukes 
whom Buonaparte had brought from Egypt. 

361. At length (May 28) Moreau, George?, the two Polignacs, La 
Bivi^re, and the rest of the accused, were brought to trial, amidst 
a vast concourse of spectators, who viewed with indignation the 
victor of Hohenlinden seated among men whom they regarded 
as the hired bravos of Britain. The trial lasted twelve days ; 
but notwithstanding the anxiety of the First Ck)n8ul to procure 
the conviction of Moreau, his innocence was so manifest that he 
was sentenced only to two years* imprisonment, the judges not 
daring to acquit him dltogether. Georges and fifteen others 
were sentenced to death, but seven of these were pardoned by 
Buonaparte; the remainder were executed on the Place de Greve 
(June 25), meeting their fate with heroic fortitude. Georges, in 
particular, whom the First Consul, struck with admiration of 
his unbending firmness, had been anxious to attach to his service, 
insisted on dying first, that his comrades might see that he had 
not proved false to them at the last hour. 

362. Any capital condemnation of Morean would probably 
have caused a violent commotion, from his high popularity both 
among the people and the army; and Buonaparte alwa3r8 
asserted, that it was never his intention to let him perish on the 
scafibld, but only to extinguish his influence by the brand which 

A. D. 1804. BANISHMENT OF HORfiAU. 221 

would thus be affixed to bis Dama After tbe senienoe, be acted 
with indulgence to bis fallen rival, wbom be at once permitted 
to retire to America — ^purchasing his estate, and defraying the 
expenses of bis journey to Barcelona for embarkation. One other 
deed of darkness belongs to this period. Captain Wright, from 
whose vessel Picbegru bad disembarked, was wrecked on the 
French coast, and brought with bis crew to Paris, where they 
were examined as witnesses against Georges. He refused, bow- 
ever, to give evidence, and was soon after found in bis cell in the 
Temple with bis throat cut The French authorities, of course, 
ascribed his death to bis own band, but his character and other 
circumstances rendered this extremely improbable ; and there 
can be little doubt that be was cut off to prevent his subsequently 
revealing tbe secrets of bis prison-bouse, or possibly, as was 
asserted in Britain at the time, to destroy tbe traces of torture 
on his person. 

363. It was in the midst of these bloody events that Buona- 
parte assumed tbe imperial crown. Tbe project bad been first 
broached by himself to tbe Senate, shortly after tbe death of tbe 
Duke d'Engbien ; and as that obsequious body immediately en- 
tered into bis views, it was resolved that it should be brought for- 
ward in the Tribunate, which, since its curtailment in numbers, 
had been an equally facile instrument of his wilL Accordingly, 
on the 25tb of April, tbe subject was moved in tbe Hall of tbe 
Tribunate by Our6e and Simeon, who urged that ** it was only 
by placing tbe crown on tbe head of tbe First Consul that tbe 
dignity, tbe independence, and tbe territory of tbe French people 
could be preserved ; " and concluded their harangues by proposing, 
that ''we lay before tbe Senate tbe wish of the nation that 
Napoleon Buonaparte, now First Consul, be declared Emperor, 
and in that quality remain charged with tbe government of the 
French Republic, and that the imperial dignity be declared here- 
ditary in bis family." Camot, with honourable consistency, 
still stood forward in opposition, but bis voice was solitary in 
the Tribunate : in the Council of State the question was carried 
by twenty to seven ; and addresses flowed in from all quarters— 

222 NAPOLEON MADE Elf PEBOB. A. d. 1804. 

from the municipalities, the anny, the cities, the public bodies-— 
all yieing with each other in the strains of servile adttlation. 
The decree of the Senate at length appeared (May 18), declaring 
Napoleon Emperor of the French, and was accepted by the new 
monarch with suitable solemnity. The hereditary succession 
was referred to the people, and the result of the registers was 
3,572,329 affirmative votes, and only 2569 in the negative. His- 
tory affords no instance of a nation so unanimously taking refuge 
in the stillness of despotism. 

364. The first step of Napoleon was to confer on eighteen * of 
his most distinguished generals the rank of marshals of the 
empire ; his brothers and sisters were at the same time created 
« imperial highnesses ; " and the titles of '' serene highness** and 
*' monseigneur** were revived for the great dignitaries of the state. 
The etiquette of the court was fixed withasmuch precision as in the 
ancient Byzantine empire. " Whoever,** says Madame ie Stael, 
^' could suggest an additional point of form, was received as if he 
had been a benefactor to the human race.** The ceremony of the 
coronation was, however, deferred till the return of Napoleon, in 
the autumn, from his triumphal tour to Boulogne and the Bhine^ 
when it was celebrated with extraordinary pomp (Dec. 2) in the 
venerable cathedral of N6tre Dame. To recall, as Napoleon was 
anxious to do on every occasion, the memory of Charlemagne, the 
first French epiperor of the West, the Pope had been invited, 
with an urgency which it would not have been prudent to resist, 
to be present at the consecration, and had accordingly crossed the 
Alps for the purpose. His participation, however, extended 
only to the benediction ; and it was by the hand of Napoleon 
himself that the crowns were placed on his own head and that 
of Josephine, in the midst of all that the empire could display 
of luxury and magnificence. 

365. The multitude, though dazzled by the spectacle, showed 
little of the enthusiasm evinced on former occasions ; but this 

* Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Massena, Augereau, Bemadotte, 
Soult, Brunne, Lannes, Mortier, Ney, Davoust, Bessidres, Kellerman, 
Lefebvre, Perignon, and Serrorier. 

A. D. 1804« HIS CORONATION, 223 

was amply atoned for by the fervent acclamations of the troops 
on the following day, when Napoleon, in the Champ de Mars, dis- 
tributed to the regiments the eagles which were thenceforward 
to form the standards of the army. A series of fdtes followed, 
which lasted upwards of two months, and in which the splen- 
dour of the new conrt was displayed with a lustre to which 
Paris had long been a stranger. In the midst of this turmoil of 
exultation, a protest was issued by Louis XYIII. from the shores 
of the Baltic, in terms worthy the illustrious line he represented, 
against this fresh usurpation of his rights ; but so little was it 
regarded by the French government, that they directed its 
publication in the Moniteurt Who could then foresee that the 
bones of Louis XYIII. would rest in the royal vaults of St 
Denis, and those of Napoleon under a willow at St Helena | 



L Threatened Invasum of England— JBattle of Trafalgar, 

366. Napoleon was well aware that he held the throne only on 
the condition of constantly feeding the vanity of the French by 
a succession of glories and victories, and that war was therefore 
necessary to his existence. But as it was necessary to disguise 
this perilous fact, it was his usual policy to make proposals to 
the most inveterate of his enemies at the moment when he per- 
ceived a general war to be inevitable : and in pursuance of this 
system, he now (Jan. 2, 1805) a second time personally addressed 
a letter to the King of Great Britain, containing overtures for 
an accommodation. The answer addressed by Lord Mulgrave to 
Talleyrand, by declining to give a specific answer without 
communicating with the Continental powers, and particularly 
with Russia, revealed the existence of a fresh coalition ; and the 


Russian alliaDoe was openly announced in the King's speech 
at the meeting of parliament (Jan. 15). The confidential nego- 
tiations -which at this time took place with the Russian ambas- 
sador in London are remarkable as embodying the basis on whieh 
the arrangements at the Congress of Yienna, ten years later, 
were mainly formed — and from which Great Britain never 
subsequently for one moment swerved, however hopeless their 
attainment might appear. A treaty was at the same time 
(Jan. 14) concluded between Russia and Sweden, and a Russian 
corps disembarked in Pomerania, to act in conjunction with the 
Swedish forces; but this step was viewed with jealousy by 
Prussia, and strengthened the fatal French leaning in the Berlin 
cabinet. Meanwhile the finances of France tapidly improved 
under the judicious system of indirect taxation recently intro- 
duced : and the flourishing condition of the empire, as it appeared 
in the report laid before the Chambers (Dec. 31, 1804) by the 
Minister of the Interior, drew forth the celebrated eulogium on 
Napoleon—" The first place was vacant — the most worthy was 
called to fill it : he has only dethroned anarchy." 

367. The spring of 1805 was spent by Napoleon in consolidating 
his power in all the afiiliated republics surrounding the French 
frontier. The democracy of Holland was first overthrown 
(March 22), and M. Schimmelpenninck, an able and respectable 
man, invested with the whole direction of afiairs, by the old title 
of Grand Pensionary — a change sufi&ciently distasteful to the 
revolutionary party^ but which gratified the Orangeists and 
partisans of the old regime. More important changes soon en- 
sued in the Italian States. Count Melzi, and the other deputies 
of the Italian Republic who attended the imperial coronation at 
Paris, secretly instructed for the purpose, produced before the 
French Senate (March 18) an Act of Settlement, declaring Napo- 
leon King of Italy, with succession to his male heirs ; and the 
new order of things was solemnly proclaimed at Milan on 31st 
March, Eugene Beauhamais acting as Viceroy. Napoleon forth- 
with set out, in a sort of triumphal progress, for Italy, by the route 
of Lyons and Turin ; and after witnessing a splendid military 

A. D. 1805. IBON C&OWK OF LOMBASDT. 225 

pageant on the field of Marengo, made his pnblic entry into 
Milan (May 8). The iron crown of the ancient Lombard kings 
was drawn forth from its repose of a thousand years in the 
treasury at Monza, and Napoleon placed it on his own head 
(May 26) in the superb cathedral of Milan, pronouncing at the 
same time the traditionary formula, ** God gave it me— woe to 
him who touches it 1 " The blaze of splendour at the ceremony 
surpassed even the coronation of NOtre Dame ; and the Italians, 
whose ardent imaginations were captivated by the brilliancy of 
the fdtes, and by the noble additions to the public buildings 
planned by the new monarch, fondly believed that the reign of 
the Tramontanes had ceased for ever. The wisdom and moder- 
ation of Eugene's internal government, the animation consequent 
on the residence of his court, and the immense public improve- 
ments everywhere set on foot, contributed to maintain and 
extend this feeling ; and, despite the heavy burdens then im- 
posed on them, they still look back with regret to the " Kingdom 
of Italy" as the brightest period of their modern existence. 

368. During his residence at Milan, a deputation arrived from 
the Ligurian Republic of Genoa, which had been commanded to 
solicit incorporation with France ; and the decree carrying this 
measure into effect appeared on 9th June. The territory formed 
three new departments ; and on the 30th of the same month its 
union with France was solemnised by the triumphal entry of 
Napoleon, amid fdtes to which the romantic situation of the 
city gave unriyalled lustre. The fate of this venerable republic 
was soon shared by that of Lucca, which, with Piombino, was 
erected into a principality for Eliza, sister of the Emperor ; Parma 
and Placentia were soon after incorporated with France ; — and 
SQch was the issue of the saying of Napoleon, nine years before, 
that the days were past in which republics could be swallowed 
up by monarchies ! 

369. Those strides towards universal dominion, particularly in 
Italy, raised so high the indignation of the Austrian nobles that 
Cobentzell, the head of the pacific party, found himself compelled 
to retire from of&ce, and a speedy declaration of war became 

226 HIS PBEPABATI0N8 FOB THE a. d. 1805. 

inevitable. From the dilapidated' state, however, of the Impe- 
rial finances, it was not till August that the accession of Austria 
was formally given in to the offensive and defensive alliance 
which had already (April 11) been concluded between Russia 
and Britain — when the Emperor Francis, on the promise of a 
subsidy of £3,000,000, agreed to raise his army to 320,000 effec- 
tive troops ; and a convention with Sweden was signed at 
Helsingborg (August 31), by which Great Britain agreed to pay 
j£1800 monthly for every thousand men employed in the com- 
mon cause. The accession of Prussia was earnestly solicited ; 
but though she endeavoured to interpose as a mediator, all 
the representations of the Russian envoy, Novosiltzoff, on the 
necessity of opposing a barrier to France, failed to overcome the 
temptation of the bait held out to her from the Tuileries, of the 
acquisition of Hanover, and she remained firm to the French 
alliance. Still the genius and influence of Mr Pitt had once 
more succeeded in combining the discordant elements of European 
power in a firm coalition against French encroachment, and in 
assembling forces which, if properly directed, would have proved 
amply sufiicient for the deliverance of Europe. 

370. These threatening appearances on the Continent did not, 
however, for a moment divert Buonaparte from his projected 
descent on Britain ; and, shortly after his return from Italy, he 
repaired to the camp at Boulogne. Never, since the days of the 
Roman legions, had an army at once so numerous and so 
perfectly organised been assembled. The whole force in the 
various camps amounted to 155,000 men, with 14,654 horses and 
432 pieces of cannon. Provisions for three months, and muni* 
tions of war to an unexampled extent, were ready to accompany 
the army in its embarkation ; and 2293 vessels, 1339 of which 
were armed, were prepared as transports. A new system of 
organisation, analogous in many points to that of the Romans, 
and which has never since been departed from in the French 
army, was now first introduced : a corps of from 20,000 to 30,000 
men, under a marshal, consisted of four or five divisions of from 
^000 to 7000, commanded by generals of division— the Imperial 


Guard b«ing coDsidered as the reserve of the whole army, under 
the immediate orders of the Emperor. Each corps had its pro- 
portion of artillery and light cavalry (the heavy cavalry forming 
a separate corps), and was thus complete in itself — the regiments, 
except in cases of absolute necessity, were never transferred from 
their original divisions, nor the divisions from their corps. 
Thus the generals knew all their officers personally, and the 
officers their soldiers, and a pervading spirit of emulation was 
kept up between the different regiments of a division, the 
different divisions, and the different corps — while so vigilant and 
incessant was the personal superintendence of the Emperor on 
every point, that it was a common saying, that every officer who 
had anything of importance to perform imagined that care ex- 
clusively directed to himself. The organisation of the flotilla was 
equally perfect ; and so complete were all the arrangements, that 
it was found by experience that 25,000 men, drawn up opposite 
the vessels, could be entirely embarked in ten minutes. 

371. The immense accumulation of gun-boats and armed ves- 
sels, however, was only a veil for the real design of Napoleon, 
which has been previously detailed (p. 212). The Spanish navy 
was now at his disposal as well as that of France ; and the British 
blockading squadrons, barely equal respectively to the force 
which each watched, were utterly unable to prevent its junction 
with any superior fleet which might approach. In January, 
therefore^ the Toulon and Kochfort squadrons were ordered to 
sail for the West Indies, there to effect their junction : the latter, 
under Admiral Missiessy, effected its passage, and, after some 
unimportant operations, returned to Europe in the beginning of 
April ; but the Toulon force, under Yilleneuve, had been shat- 
tered by a gale and forced to return, and did not finally get to 
sea till the 30th March. It succeeded in forcing the blockade 
of Cadiz, which was guarded by only five British ships under 
Sir John Orde ; and the combined French and Spanish fleets, 
amounting to 18 ships of the line and 10 frigates, with 10,000 
troops on board, steered for the West Indies ; whither Nelson, 
having with great difficulty learned their route, boldly followed, 


228 SIB B. GALDEB'S ACTIOK. a. d. 1805. 

-with only ten sail of the line and three frigates, and arrived at 
Barbadoes (June 4). But the enemy, reinforced by two more 
shipSy had sailed from Martinique for Europe (May 28), having 
received the secret orders of Napoleon, -which were — first, to 
release the ten Spanish and five French ships blockaded in Eerrol ; 
next, to join the Brochfort squadron of five sail more — and with 
the united fleet, which would now amount to forty sail of the 
line, steer to Brest, where Gkintheaume awaited them with 
twenty-one. At the head of this overwhelming force Yilleneuve 
was to proceed to Boulogne, and cover the passage of the invad- 
ing flotilla. 

372. Hitherto the British government had never suspected the 
hidden scheme of Napoleon, which appeared fast approaching 
completion. Yilleneuve was returning to Europe, leaving Nelson 
behind in the West Indies ; and the success of the remaining 
movements appeared almost inevitable. But Nelson no sooner 
ascertained the direction taken by the enemy, than, at once 
perceiving that some ulterior combination was implied by their 
retreat before a fleet not half their force, he sailed in pursuit the 
same day (June 13) ; at the same time despatching several &st- 
sailing craft to put the British government on its guard. One 
of these reached London (July 9) in twenty-five days from 
Antigua ; and the Admiralty instantly sent orders to Admiral 
Stirling to leave his station before Rochfort, and, joining Sir 
Robert Calder ofi^ Ferrol, to cruise off Gape Finisterre for Yille- 
neuve. So little time was there to spare that the united British 
force, of fifteen sail, had hardly reached its cruising ground when 
the Allied fleets hove in sight (July 22), consisting of twenty 
sail of the line, a fifty-gun ship, and seven frigates. Sir Robert 
Calder immediately made the signal for action, but the foggy 
state of the weather threw both fleets into disorder ; and though 
two Spanish line-of-battle ships were captured, the action was 
not renewed on the following day ; and Yilleneuve, after leaving 
three disabled ships at Yigo, reached Ferrol on the 2d of August. 

373. Napoleon was transported with rage on first learning 
that Yilleneuve had taken shelter in Ferrol, and sent peremptory 


orders that he should instantly pat to sea again, and effect his 
junction, at all risks, with the Brest fleet. He accordingly sailed 
with twenty-nine ships of the line ; but Sir Robert Galder, with 
a force now raised to twenty sail, had by this time returned to 
the station ; and Yilleneuve, fearing his encounter, tacked and 
made sail for Cadiz, which he reached August 21, the very day 
he was expected at Brest. Nelson, meanwhile, had recrossed the 
Atlantic, and after cruising along the Spanish and French coasts 
without meeting the enemy, arrived (July 17) at Portsmouth, 
where he was welcomed with unbounded enthusiasm. Sir 
Robert Calder's action of 22d July, by thwarting Napoleon's 
combinations when on the point of success, and affording time 
for the return of Nelson to Europe, had saved the country ; but 
so little was this service appreciated by the public that Sir 
Robert found himself compelled, by the popular clamour, to 
retire and demand a court-martial, by which he was " severely 
reprimanded for not having done his utmost to renew the 

374. The blockading squadron before Cadiz had meanwhile 
been augmented to twenty-nine sail of the line, and placed under 
command of Nelson ; and so great was the terror of his name 
that Yilleneuve, in spite of the positive orders of Napoleon, and 
the scarcity of provisions which began to be felt, hesitated to 
sail, though he had thirty-three ships out of forty ready for sea. 
By appearing to detach part of his fleet, Nelson at last succeeded 
in overcoming hisirresolution . Leaving the harbour (Oct. 1 9) to the 
number of thirty-three sail of the line and seven frigates, the Allied 
fleet came in sight of the British at daybreak on the 21st, a few 
leagues N.W. of Cape Trafalgar. As the British were to wind- 
ward, Yilleneuve determined to lie in close order, and await their 
attack ; while Nelson, having hoisted his last ever-memorable sig- 
nal, "England expects every man to do his duty," bore down in 
two lines perpendicularly on the enemy — ^himself in the Yictory 
leading one column of thirteen sail, while Collingwood headed 
the other, of fourteen ships, in the Royal Sovereign. The latter 
Bhip, far outsailing the rest^ steered right into the hostile line : 

230 DEATH OF NELSON. a. d. 1805. 

and engaging the Santa Anna, the flag-ship of Admiral Alava, 
so close that their yards locked, for twenty minutes singly sus- 
tained the fire of this huge vessel, as well as of four others which 
came to her aid. During this time Nelson, baffled by the light- 
ness of the wind, had been slowly advancing under a tremen- 
dous concentric fire from seven or eight ships, till at one o'clock 
he succeeded in breaking the French line, on one side engaging 
the Bucentaur and the Santissima Trinidada, and on the other 
grappling the Redoubtable ; while Captain Harvey, in the Teme- 
raire, fell on board the same vessel on the other quarter. The 
fire from the Redoubtable's ports was soon silenced, but the 
marksmen in her tops still kept up a deadly discharge ; and a 
shot from one of them ere long pierced Nelson with a mortal 
wound, on the quarterdeck of the Victory. He was immediately 
carried below, but insisted that the surgeon should continue to 
attend to the other wounded : " For me," said he, " you can do 

375. The battle continued with unabated fury ; and as the 
whole British force got into action, the superiority of British skill 
soon became apparent. At a quarter past two, the Santa Anna 
struck to the Royal Sovereign ; at three o'clock ten ships had 
surrendered ; the Redoubtable was at length carried by boarding 
by the Temeraire ; and the Santissima Trinidada, dismasted and 
wholly disabled, yielded to the Prince. At the close of the day 
the victory was complete. Admiral Gravina escaped with nine 
ships into Cadiz ; and Admiral Dumanoir, with four French 
ships, stood to the north, and got clear ofi* for the time : but the 
remaining twenty ships had struck (one of which, the Achille, 
blew up soon after she surrendered), and Villeneuve, the com- 
mander-in-chief, the Spanish admirals Alava and Cisneros,.and 
20,000 prisoners, were in the hands of the victors — the loss of the 
British being only 1690 killed and wounded. Nelson survived 
his wound long enough to know that a glorious victory had been 
gained, and that fourteen or fifteen of the enemy were taken ; 
" That's well," *aid he, " but I bargained for twenty," — and at 
half-past four he expired without a groan, repeatedly murmur- 


iDg in his last moments, ''Thank God, I have done my 
duty !" 

376. It had been Nelson's dying order to bring the fleet to 
anchor. This, however, was impossible : and in consequence many 
of the prizes either foundered or were wrecked in a heavy gale, on 
the morning of the 22d : others were sunk by the British ; and 
only four were brought to Gibraltar in safety. But this loss was 
in part compensated by the capture of Dumanoir*s four ships, 
which, in attempting to reach Bochfort, were encountered off 
Cape Ortega] (Nov. 4) by a British squadron of equal force under 
Sir Richard Strachan, and all taken. An exchange of courtesies 
was in the meanwhile taking place between the British and the 
Spanish at Cadiz. Collingwood released all the wounded Span- 
iards on their parole — ^an act of generosity responded to on the 
part of the Spanish governor by the ofl«r of their hospitals for 
the use of the British wounded ; and the British sailors who 
were wrecked in the prizes were received and treated as friends. 
Thus, amid the tempests of Trafalgar, were produced those feel- 
ings between these generous enemies which brought them to 
stand side by side at Yittoria and Toulouse. 

377. The victory of Trafalgar had annihilated the French and 
Spanish navies — and the British Isles, freed from the danger of 
invasion, passed at once from a state of anxious solicitude to 
tranquil security. Yet the feeling of grief for the loss of the 
hero by whom these blessings had been gained, almost over- 
weighed that of exultation ; and all the honours which a grate- 
ful country could bestow were heaped on his memory. A public 
funeral was decreed to him ; his brother was created an earl, 
with a pension of £6000 a-year, and a grant of £100,000 for an 
estate: and Collingwood also received a peerage and a pension. 
Lord Nelson was, in truth, the greatest naval officer of this or 
any other age or nation ; and if a veil could be drawn over his 
deeds at Naples, his public character might be deemed perfect. 
His devotion to his country was constantly blended with a sense 
of religious duty ; and conceiving himself, in his latter years, an 
instrument in the hand of Providence to combat the infidel spirit 

232 BENEWAL OF THE WAR a. d. 1805. 

of the Beyolntion, he directed to this object the whole of his 
unrivalled powers and consummate genius. 

II. Gampaign o/AusterlUz, 

378. The importance of Sir B. Calder's action of 22d July had 
been instantly perceived bj Napoleon, who, from the moment 
when he heard that the combined fleet was in Cadiz, saw that 
his deep-laid schemes of invasion were for ever frustrated. The 
coalition, instead of being crushed on the banks of the Thames, 
was now to be anticipated on those of the Danube : but the pre- 
parations for embarkation at Boulogne were still kept up with 
redoubled activity as a disguise ; till, on 1st September, when 
the soldiers were hourly expecting the order to go on board, the 
Emperor suddenly set out for Paris, and the whole force was put 
in motion for the Rhine. 

379. Since the assumption of the iron crown by Napoleon, 
and the incorporation of Genoa, Parma, and Placentia with his 
dominions, the question of a war with Austria had been only 
one of time, and the mask was at last dropped on both sides. 
In the belief that the British expedition was occupying the 
Emperor and the flower of his troops, 80,000 Imperialists under 
Mack crossed the Inn (Sept. 9) and entered Bavaria — ^the Elector 
of which, after much hesitation, had given his adhesion to 
France— and continued their advance unchecked to the defiles 
of the Black Forest. The forces of the coalition were formi- 
dable, amounting in all to 360,000 men — whereof 30,000 were 
under the Archduke John in the Tyrol, and 90,000 under the 
Archduke Charles in Italy ; but the Russians, 116,000 of whom 
were advancing through Poland, could not come up for two 
months, and the object of Napoleon was to crush the advanced 
army in Bavaria before their arrival. For this purpose the 
army of England from Boulogne, and the corps from Holland 
and Hanover, in all 190,000 men, were set in motion ; the 
Bavarians and other German allies were 24,000, and the army 
of Italy 35,000, besides 15,000 in Naples— forming a total of 


270,000 men. In addition to all these forces, a conscription of 
80,000 was ordered from those who would attain the military age 
in 1806 (a proof that France was already overtaxing her military 
strength) — the national guards were reorganised — and Napoleon, 
haying taken leave of the Senate in an energetic address, set out 
for Strasburg. 

380. Negotiations meanwhile continued between France and 
Prussia: but though Frederick-William positively refused to 
allow the passage of the Russian armies through his territory, he 
was equally unwilling, on the other hand, to provoke hostilities 
with the Czar by throwing himself into the arms of France ; and, 
during this unworthy vacillation, 180,000 French, divided into 
eight corps, under as many marshals, were rapidly converging, by 
various routes through France, Flanders, and Northern Germany, 
to Ulm, where it was already foreseen by Napoleon that the 
decisive blow would be struck. The daily march of every regi- 
ment had been previously laid down, and was fulfilled with 
undeviating accuracy ; and before it was known either at Lon- 
don or Vienna that they had broken up from Boulogne, they 
were far advanced towards the Rhine. The corps of Bemadotte, 
from Hanover, marching straight for the Danube near Ingolstadt, 
cut off the communication between the Austrians at Ulm and 
their own country ; but, in the execution of this manceuvre, it 
was necessary to disregard the neutrality of Prussia by crossing 
the territory of Anspach — an outrage which produced a violent 
outbreak of popular indignation at Berlin, where the Queen, 
Prince Louis, and Baron Hardenberg openly advocated an imme- 
diate war with France. But the time was not yet come when 
Prussia was to atone for her past vacillation and duplicity. 

381. Napoleon arrived at Strasburg on 27th September, and 
after addressing an energetic proclamation to his troops, and to 
his new allies, the Bavarians, put himself at the head of the main 
army, which pressed forward on both banks of the Danube 
towards Ulm. Bernadotte had meanwhile crossed the river at 
Donauwerth and Ingolstadt, and Augsburg had been occupied 
(Oct. 12) by Marmont and Soult, before Mack was in the least 

234 COMBATS AROUND ULM. a. d. 1805. 

aware of his imminent peril. The corps of Auffenberg, on its 
march from the Tyrol, was enveloped and almost destroyed Dear 
Donauwerth (Oct. 7), by the cavalry of Murat ; and though an 
Austrian corps gained an advantage at Hasslach (Oct. 11) over 
the division of Dupont, the French combinations, aided by their 
superiority of force, proved irresistible. Four thousand Imperi- 
alists laid down their arms (Oct. 13) at Memmingen ; the bridge 
of Gunzburg, by which a line of retreat was still open towards 
Bohemia, had been captured by Ney (Oct. 9), after a gallant 
defence by the Austrians ; and the circle of investment was 
speedily completed round Ulm, where 60,000 Austrians were 
completely surrounded by twice their number of French. 

382. The first attack on the outposts took place on the 14th, 
when the corps of Ney (afterwards made Duke of Elchingen in 
memory of this exploit) succeeded, after a desperate conflict which 
lasted the whole day, in occupying the bridge and abbey of 
Elchingen, which formed an important link in the chain of 
defences. But, during this engagement, the Archduke Ferdinand, 
putting himself at the head of the cavalry and light troops, had 
issued from the lines, and attempted to cut his way through to 
Bohemia. Stimulated by the hope of capturing a prince of tlie 
house of Hapsburg, Murat pressed the pursuit with unexampled 
vigour and celerity. Werneck, overtaken and surrounded at 
Trochtelfingen, was compelled to surrender with 8000 men ; but 
the Archduke himself, with a few hundred followers, made good 
his retreat by Ratisbon to the Imperial frontier (Oct. 18). Mean- 
while the heights round Ulm (the defences on which, destroyed 
by the French when yielded to them by the armistice of Sep- 
tember 1800, had been only imperfectly restored) had been 
carried by storm, and Napoleon, on the 18th, summoned Mack 
to surrender. 

383. The conduct of Mack in this trying crisis at once betrayed 
his irresolution ;* while, in a proclamation to. his troops, he de- 

* Mack was sentenced to twenty years' imprisonment as a traitor: but 
there appears no just reason to suspect this luckless general of anything 
worse than weakness and incapacity. 

A. D. 1805. MACK SURRENDERS. ' 235 

nounced the idea of submission under pain of death, and predicted 
the speedy advance of the Russians to raise the blockade, he at 
the same time agreed to surrender unless relieved within eight 
days ; but on the 19th, after signing this convention, he repaired 
to Napoleon*s headquarters at Elchingen, where the Emperor 
so completely terrified and bewildered him, by representations of 
his hopeless condition,^hat he at last agreed to surrender on the 
next day. On the 20th October, accordingly, Napoleon, sur- 
rounded by a brilliant staff, took his post on an eminence north 
of the city ; and saw the garrison, 30,000 strong, with 60 pieces 
of cannon, file off and lay down their arms before him — ^a spec- 
tacle unparalleled in modern warfare. He addressed himself to 
the captive Austrian generals in terms of studied moderation : — 
" I know not for what reason your Emperor wages war against 

me I want nothing on the Continent ; it is ships, 

colonies, and commerce, which I need^^ — words, memorable in 
themselves, and doubly so from having been uttered the day 
before the empire of the seas was for ever wrested from his grasp 
at Trafalgar ! But little disturbed by any anticipation of cala- 
mity, the Emperor fostered the enthusiasm of the French people 
by sending to Paris forty standards taken from the Austrians ; 
the Elector of Bavaria and the Duke of Wiirtemberg received 
shares of the captured artillery and ammunition ; and a fresh 
proclamation to the troops commemorated the triumphs of the 
fifteen days' campaign, which it was indeed scarcely possible to 
exaggerate. With the loss of scarcely 8000 men, 80,000 of the 
enemy had been taken or destroyed ! 

384. While Mack, with 80,000 men, had been pushed forward in 
Germany to the encounter of twice his number, the Archduke 
Charles, who was at the head of 90,000 on the Adige, was kept, by 
the orders of the Aulic Council, on the defensive before Massena, 
who had only 50,000. The French general at length boldly took 
the initiative by storming the bridge of Verona (Oct. 18), but the 
Austrian main force lay in the impregnable position of Caldiero ; 
and though severe actions ensued (Oct. 28-30), the advantage 
decidedly remained with the Imperialists, till the confirmation 



of the disasters in Gennany determined the Archduke to retreat, 
in order to cover Vienna. This retrograde moYement was exe- 
cuted with consummate skill and complete success : the retiring 
columns reached Layhach in safety (Nov. 12), and were joined, 
a few days after, by the Archduke John, with the remains of 
his army from the Tyrol. After a struggle of three weeks, the 
Imperialists had been driven from that province by the Bava- 
rians and the corps of Marshal Ney ; the divisions of Jellachich 
and Rohan, together numbering 11,000 men, had been forced to 
capitulate ; the fortress of Kuffstein had surrendered, and Inns- 
pruck, with all its arsenals, had been taken. Napoleon, mean- 
while, had continued his march through Bavaria ; on the 3l8t 
October, his troops crossed the Inn at all points ; and after 
occupying the fortresses of Braunau and Muhldorf, which had 
been deserted by their garrisons, had established his headquarters 
at Lintz, the capital of Upper Austria. Here he received Oount 
Giulay, who came to propose an armistice ; but as Napoleon in- 
sisted on the dismissal of the Russian auxiliaries, and the cession of 
the Tyrol and Venice, the attempt at negotiation proved fruitless. 
385. The cabinet of Berlin, however, had taken umbrage, to an 
extent hardly to be anticipated, at the violation of the territory 
of Anspach, which at once revealed the low estimation to which 
Prussia had been sunk by her vacillating policy. An allied force 
of 30,000 British, Russians, and Swedes, landed in Hanover, and 
besieged Hameln, the only fortress whence the French troops 
had not been withdrawn, without any opposition from the 
Prussians ; and the arrival of the Emperor Alexander at this 
crisis (Oct 25) at Berlin, added fuel to the flame. Duroc, finding 
his influence at an end, quitted the capital ; and a convention 
was concluded (Nov. 2), to which the two monarchs solemnly 
pledged themselves at the tomb of the Great Frederick, for the 
re-arrangement of Europe on the basis of the treaty of Luneville. 
Haugwitz was despatched to notify this treaty to Napoleon, 
with an intimation that, in case of its refusal, hostilities would 
commence (Dec. 15) ; but before the arrival of that day the 
aspect of afiairs had undergone a fresh change. 


386. The advanced corps of the Russians, under KutnsoiF, had 
discontinued their forward progress on hearing of the fall of Ulm ; 
and Napoleon's aim was now to crush them before their main 
army could come up to their support. But the Russian general, 
withdrawing his whole force to the left bank of the Danube, 
burned the bridge of Mautern, the only one between Lintz and 
Vienna ; and Mortier, who was intrusted with the pursuit, was 
routed and almost overwhelmed (Nov. 11) between Stein and 
Diernstein (the scene of the captivity of Coeur-de-Lion), by the 
Russian rearguard under Milaradovitch and Doctoroff, and was 
driven over to the right bank with the loss of 3000 men. The 
result of this his first encounter with the Russians gave Napo- 
leon serious vexation ; but his route now lay open to Vienna, 
whence the Emperor Francis had already withdrawn. The ad- 
vanced corps, under Lannes and Murat, entered the Austrian 
capital at daybreak (Nov. 13), and succeeded, by the adacious 
stratagem of a feigned armistice, in seizing the bridge over the 
Danube — ^thus cutting ofip the communication between the Rus- 
sians in Moravia and the army advancing from Italy under the 
Archduke Charles. The pursuit of Kutusoff was now resumed with 
redoubled vigour, and Murat a second time attempted the device 
of a fraudulent armistice ; but the finesse which had succeeded 
with the unsuspecting Austrians failed to deceive the wily Mus- 
covite, who held the French in parley while he gained twenty 
hours' march. Bagrathion's corps of 8000 men, which had been 
left as a blind in the presence of the French, made good its retreat 
after losing half its number in a desperate struggle with the 
vhole French force ; and the junction of the Russian armies 
was effected (Nov. 19) at Wischau in Moravia. 

387. Napoleon had fixed his residence at the imperial palace 
of Sch5nbrunn, near Vienna, whence he directed enormous con- 
tributions to be levied on the inhabitants, besides the confisca- 
tion of the immense stores in the arsenals ; but the most rigid 
discipline was enforced among the troops, and all private plunder 
strictly prohibited. His situation, however, was now one of 
extreme difficulty: besides the Russians concentrated in Moravia^ 


vrhere the Czar had arrived in person, the Archduke Charles was 
rapidly advancing from Italy, the Hungarians were arming en 
masse, and a declaration of war might be daily expected from 
Prussia — while only 70,000 men remained disposable, after 
guarding the vast line of communication from Vienna to the 
Rhine. He forthwith put himself, therefore, at the head of his 
army, fixing his headquarters at Brunn, whence several messages 
passed between him and Alexander. But these delusive over- 
tures were only intended to mislead the Russians into a belief of 
the trepidation of the French, and induce them to commence 
operations without waiting for the Archduke or the Hungarians ; 
and in this he was completely successful/ Pressed by the scarcity 
of provisions in a country where they had no magazines, the 
Allies moved on the 27th November, in order to cut off the 
French from Vienna, and open up their own communications 
with the advancing Archduke ; and after some unimportant 
movements the French fell back, and concentrated themselves 
(Nov. 30) at Austerlitz — a position which the Emperor had some 
days previously pointed out to his generals as the probable 
scene of a decisive engagement. 

388. The manoeuvres of Napoleon had been directed to lead 
the enemy into attempting to turn his right, in doing which he 
foresaw that they must expose themselves to be assailed in flank ; 
and perceiving them (Dec. 1) commencing this false movement, 
he exclaimed in Inexpressible exultation, "Before to-morrow 
night that army is mine ! " The whole of that day he employed 
in visiting the various posts, and encouraging the men ; and long 
after nightfall he continued his inspection, by the light of the 
fires which the soldiers kindled in their bivouacs — while his 
presence, wherever he passed, was hailed with shouts of enthu- 
siasm by the assembled battalions. On the morning of the 2d, 
the sun rose with uncommon brilliancy (" the sun of Austerlitz ** 
was afterwards a proverb in the French army), showing the 
heights of Pratzen, the centre and key of the hostile position, 
deserted by tho enemy, who were beginning to move in five 
columns round the French right at Tilnitz. So violent was 


their onset that the French recoiled before it ; but the corps of 
Davoust, which Napoleon had purposely posted in reserve 
behind the abbey of Raygern, valiantly withstood the assailants ; 
while the hill of Pratzen was seized by Soult, who thus cut in 
two the Russian line, and maintained his position against all 
their efforts to retake it. A furious charge of the Russian cui- 
rassiers of the Guard, under the Grand-duke Constantine, broke 
the French advance on the left ; but this gallant body of horse, 
after a desperate struggle, gave way before the cavalry of the 
French Imperial Guard, led by Bessi^res and Rapp ; and the rout ' 
of the whole army, pierced through the centre and shattered into 
fragments, became irretrievable. Their right wing, surrounded 
OD all sides by Davoust and Lannes, attempted to retreat over 
a frozen lake ; but the ice was broken by the cannonade, and 
above 2000 men were drowned : the left, though pressed by 
Murat with his cavalry, and cut off from the road to 01m utz, 
was formed in close column, and brought off the field by Bagra- 

389. So ended the battle of Austerlitz, one of the most glorious 
of Napoleon's victories, and that in which his military genius 
was most brilliantly displayed. The Allies had lost, in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, not less than 30,000 men, besides 45 
standards, and 180 pieces of cannon ; and the two Emperors, 
seeing further resistance hopeless, sent proposals for an armistice, 
which were instantly accepted. Notwithstanding the magnitude 
of his success, Napoleon was still in a most perilous position : 
he could neither retreat without danger, nor follow up the pursuit 
of the Russians without the certainty of being enveloped by the 
armies coming up in his rear. The conditions were verbally 
agreed on in a personal interview with the Emperor Francis, 
aud Presburg fixed as the seat of the negotiations. The Czar 
was no party to the conference, but Francis stipulated for the 
unmolested retreat of the Russians; and Alexander set out 
(Dec. 5) on his return to his own country. 

390. Haugwitz had been sent from Berlin, as has been mentioned 
above, to declare war against France ; but, on arriving at the 

240 P£AC£ OF PRESBUJSa. a. d. 1805. 

French camp, he had been referred to Vienna till after the 
battle. The event of Austerlitz, however, wholl7 changed his 
views ; he presented his sovereign's congratulations on the vic- 
tory — a message of which (as Napoleon remarked with caustic 
severity) '^ fortune had changed the address" — and, with match- 
less effrontery, proceeded to set the seal to the infamy of Prussia, 
by formally accepting Hanover in exchange for some of its 
southern possessions, which were ceded to France and Bavaria 
— the treaty being signed on 15th December, the very day on 
which hostilities were to have commenced. The negotiations at 
Fresburg, meanwhile, dictated by the irresistible power of Napo- 
leon, were soon settled, and peace was signed on 27th December. 
The Venetian territories were ceded to the kingdom of Italy, and 
the Tyrol and Vorarlberg to Bavaria. All the Italian changes 
were recognised : and the electors of Bavaria and Wurtemberg 
raised to the rank of kings, being further declared independent 
of the Emperor as head of the Germanic body, a clause which 
virtually dissolved the empire. Besides these cessions, a sum of 
£1,600,000 was exacted for the expenses of the war, in addition 
to the immense contributions already levied ; and heavy ransoms 
were paid for a large portion of the military stores and artillery 
which had become the booty of the victors. The object of Napo- 
leon seems to have been to throw the strength of Austria to the 
east, and detach it as much as possible from Italy and Germany ; 
thus leaving him, as soon as he could conclude a treaty with 
Russia, at leisure to turn his undivided force against Great 

391. The news of Ansterlitz at once dissolved the combined 
army which, under the King of Sweden, as noticed above, was 
besieging Hameln — the British re-embarking, and the Swedes 
and Russians retreating to their own territories. But the court of 
Naples, which had been compelled to break its neutrality by the 
appearance of an Anglo-Russian fleet in the bay, did not escape 
so easily. On 26th December, Napoleon issued a proclamation 
from Fresburg, declaring that '^ the dynasty of Naples had ceased 
to reign" — a denunciation promptly followed up by the maich 


of an army, under St Cyr, and which gave the first instance of 
that rapacious policy of which Holland, Spain, and Westphalia 
afforded subsequent examples. The career of Napoleon, at the 
end of this year, was in fact one triumphal procession. On the 
dlst December he arrived at Munich, where he was met by 
Josephine ; and a succession of brilliant f§tes celebrated at once 
the elcYation of the Elector to the royal dignity, and the nuptials 
of his daughter, the Princess Augusta, with Eugene Beauharnais, 
who was at the same time declared heir to the throne of Italy, 
im de&ult of lawful issue of Napoleon ; and, finally, recrossing 
the Rhine at Strasburg, he reached Paris by rapid journeys 
(Jan. 25). 

892. The campaign of Austerlitz, in a military point of view, 
is the most remarkable in the history of the war. On the 1st 
of September, the army was put in motion from the heights of 
Boulogne; and by the 2d of December, Vienna had been 
taken, and the strength of Austria and Russia prostrated in the 
heart of Moravia — a hundred days unparalleled in the past his- 
tory of Europe, though destined within ten years to be eclipsed 
by another hundred days of still more momentous celebrity ! 
These astonishing results, so different from the long struggle 
maintained by Austria in the two former wars, were doubtless 
in a great measure owing to the extraordinary military ability 
displayed by the French Emperor, and to the unequalled state 
of discipline and organisation to which his armies had been 
brought during the five years of Continental peace, as well as to 
his having chosen as the theatre of war the valley of the Danube, 
the natural avenue to the Hereditary States, unimpeded by 
either fortresses or mountains, instead of combating, as before, 
among the fortresses of Italy or the ridges of the Alps. But 
these triumphs were only purchased by proportionate risks ; and 
there can be no doubt that the imprudence of the Allies in giving 
battle at Austerlitz extricated him from the greatest .peril in 
which he had stood since the commencement of his career. The 
infatuation of the Aulic Council, in sending their strongest 
army and ablest commander into Italy, was a ruinous error, 

242 DEATH OF MB PITT. a. d. 1806. 

from which the quickDess and audacity of Napoleon's opera- 
tions gave them no time to recover ; and the fatal indecision of 
Prussia^ at the moment when by prompt action she' might at 
once have avenged her own wrongs, and atoned for the vacilla- 
tions of the last ten years, set the seal to the ruin of the con- 

893. Its fall proved fatal to the master-spirit which had formed 
it. The constitution of Mr Pitt was prematurely worn out by 
the labours and excitement of his political life, and the disaster 
of Austerlitz was his deathblow. After a melancholy survey of 
the map of Europe, he turned away, saying, "We may close 
that map for half a century;" and on January 23, 1806, he died 
at his house in London, aged forty-seven, exclaiming with his 
last breath, " Alas, my country 1 " In the, general principles of 
his conduct, and the constancy with which he maintained them, 
European history has not so great a statesman to exhibit. If 
the coalitions which he formed on the Continent were unsuc- 
cessful, the revenues, trade, and manufactures of Great Britain 
were doubled, and its colonies and political strength quadrupled, 
during his administration ; and if he could not prevent the 
revolutionary spirit of Jacobinism from bathing France with 
blood, and ravaging Europe with war, l^e at least eflfectually 
opposed its entrance into the British dominions; For military 
combinations, as Napoleon observed, he had no turn; and it 
must be admitted that, by directing the national strength chiefly 
to colonial acquisitions, and relying for European services almost 
entirely on Continental armies supported by British subsidies, 
he greatly extended the duration of the war. But the truth 
and soundness of his general principles of policy, both at home 
and abroad, are now illustrated by the experience of every hour ; 
and Chateaubriand has truly said, " that while all other contem- 
porary reputations, even that of Napoleon, are on the decline, 
the fame of Mr Pitt is continually increasing." 

394. In private life his conduct was irreproachable ; but he had 
few pergonal friends, and his manners were reserved and austere. 
Superior to the desire for wealth, he was careless of his private 


fortune ; aDd X40,000 was voted by the gratitude of the nation 
to paj the debts due at his death. His grave in Westminster 
Abbey was surmounted by a monument decreed by the House 
of Commons ; but the historian who surveys the situation of the 
British empire at the close of the contest which he so nobly 
maintained for the liberties of mankind, will rather inscribe on 
bis sepulchre the well-known words — 

" Si monumentum qoaris, circamdpice." 

III. Joseph Buonaparte made King of Naples — Battle o/Maida 
— FormcUion of the Rhenish Confederacy, 

395. The peace of Presburg appeared to have finally subjected 
tbe Continent to France. Austria was crushed, Prussia bribed 
and overawed, and even the might of Russia had succumbed. 
Britain, it is true, was still unconquered and unconquerable ; 
but the Pitt ministry had fallen at the death of its chief, and his 
successors were expected to entertain more pacific views than 
that uncompromising foe of the Revolution. Lord Hawkesbury, 
indeed, had made a fruitless attempt to form a new administra- 
tion on the old basis ; but public opinion was strongly expressed 
on the necessity of a coalition of " all the talents " of the nation, 
without regard to party, in the present perilous times ; and Lord 
Grenville and Mr Fox were at last (Jan. 26) intrusted with the 
task. Three distinct and well-defined parties were joined in 
the new ministry. The democratic Whigs, who had all along 
supported the French Revolution, were represented by Mr Fox 
and Mr (created Lord) Erskine; while Lords Grenville and 
Spencer, and Mr Wyndham, were taken from the other section 
of Whigs, who, though inclining to the popular side in domestic 
questions, had seceded with Mr Burke when he declared against 
tbe Revolution, and had since remained fiercely hostile to their 
former allies. Lord Sidmouth and his adherents, who had been 
in opposition since they were displaced by Pitt, formed the third 
political group. The chiefs of all these parties came into office ; 
but though Lord Grenville, as first lord of the treasury, was 


the ostensible premier, the preponderance of the friends of Mr 
Fox (who became secretary at war) was such as to render it to 
all intents and purposes a Whig administration. The measures 
of government, however, underwent no immediate change : a 
loan of £18,000,000 was raised, and provided for by new taxes ; 
the war-taxes were also raised, and the income-tax increased 
from 6j^ to 10 per cent — a measure which, though almost unavoid- 
able, was loudly complained of by the public. 

896. The hasty return of Napoleon to Paris had been caused by 
a financial crisis, which, if the issue of the campaign had been 
different, might have led to ruinous results. During 1805, the 
Bank of France, yielding to the prosperity which on all sides 
flowed into the Empire, had extended its discounts to an unpre- 
cedented extent, principally in favour of the public functionaries 
and government contractors. Among these was the firm of 
Ouvrard and Co., at that time tbe greatest capitalists in the world, 
and on whom the bank chiefly depended for its supply of the 
precious metals — ^their extensive transactions with Spain giving 
them almost the entire command of the specie brought from 
Mexico. There was thus an extensive glut of paper in the money 
market at the moment when the breaking out of the German 
war caused an immense and immediate demand for gold, 
£2,000,000 worth of which was taken from the Bank for the 
public service. To meet this deficiency, the finance minister, 
Marbois, contracted a loan of £4,000,000 with Ouvrard and others ; 
but though their engagements with Spain entitled them to expect 
more than £11,000,000 in hard dollars from America, before the 
end of the year, this prospect would not furnish a supply for present 
necessities, and a complete panic ensued. Several of the great 
capitalists failed, and had the war continued a few months longer 
a national bankruptcy must have taken place ; but the battle of 
Austerlitz restored public confidence, and Napoleon lost no time 
in instituting a rigorous investigation, which terminated in the 
dismissal of Marbois, and the bankruptcy of the gigantic company 
of Ouvrard as defaulters to their contracts. Great changes in the 
system of finance, and improved methods of collecting the revenue, 


were now introduced, and not without effect : the root of the 
evil, however, lay in the extravi^nt expenditure of government, 
which far exceeded the revenue. There were, in fact, no longer 
any resources in France whence extraordinary funds could he 
obtained ; and the expedient of loans (as in Great Britain) heing 
impossible in a country the commerce of which was ruined, the 
system of continual foreign conquest and spoliation became 
indispensable, and continued so throughout the Empire, as the 
only means of maintaining the costly fabric of government, and 
the enormous military establishment, the burden of which was 
almost wholly borne by the tributary or conquered states. 

397. As a counterpoise to these financial difiiculties, a splendid 
exposition of the internal state of the Empire was presented to 
the Chambers by the minister of the interior : the nohle roads of 
the Simplon, &c., over the Alps, were now completed ; harbours 
and wet-docks were in progress in thirty-five maritime cities, 
particularly Antwerp and Cherbourg ; the internal communica- 
tions had heen improved by the building of numberless bridges, 
and opening the navigation of rivers : and among other splendid 
works now projected for the adornment of the capital, was the 
well-known pillar in the Place Venddme, covered with bas-reliefs 
cast from 500 captured Austrian cannon, and commemorative 
of the principal actions of the campaign. 

298. The sentence of dethronement passed against the dynasty 
)}f Naples had meanwhile been carried into effect. Fifty thousand 
French troops occupied the country, the court fled into Sicily, 
and Joseph Buonaparte, by an imperial decree of 14th April, was 
raised to the vacant throne ; the beautiful Pauline, sister of the 
Emperor, at the same time receiving the duchy of Guastalla, 
and Murat being created Grand-duke of Cleves and Berg in 
Germany. But Joseph*s tenure of his new dominions was yet 
incomplete. The fortress of Gaeta still held out, the Calabrian 
peasants rose in furious reivolt, and the British in Sicily (who 
had already taken the Isle of Capri, close to the capital) sent 
6000 men to their aid under Sir John Stuart, who encountered 
at Maida (July 6) a French corps of 7600, under Beynier. The 

246 BATTLE OF MAIDA. a. d. 1806. 

battle presented one of the rare instances in which French and 
British troops have actually crossed bayonets; but French 
enthusiasni sank before British intrepidity, and the enemy 
were driven from the field with the loss of half their number. 
The victory of Maida had a prodigious moral effect in raising 
the spirits and self-confidence of the British soldiery ; but its 
immediate results were less considerable. The French were 
indeed driven from Calabria, but the fall of Gaeta (July 18), 
after the loss of its brave governor, the Prince of Hesse-Philips- 
thal, released the main army under Massena : the British, 
exposed to be attacked by overwhelming numbers, re-embarked 
(Sept. 5) for Palermo, and the Calabrian insurrection was sup- 
pressed with great bloodshed. But an amnesty was at length 
(in November) published by Joseph, who devoted himself with 
great zeal and admirable judgment to heal the wounds of his 
distracted kingdom. 

39.9. In pursuance of the system now commenced, of fencing 
in his throne by a girdle of dependent crowns. Napoleon had 
declared his brother Louis (June 5) King of Holland — a change 
which passed without resistance or comment ; and out of the Ve- 
netian states, now incorporated with the kingdom of Italy, twelve 
military fiefs were erected for the most distinguished of the mar- 
shals and ministers. Napoleon well knew that the jealousy 
of the old dynasties against him, however disguised, was inex- 
tinguishable ; and that he could derive firm support only by 
placing his own relations and followers in positions which made 
their own safety contingent on the preservation of his great 
parent diadem — a system founded, therefore, not on arrogance 
or vanity, but in a correct appreciation of his own political 

400. The Brest fleet had not been involved in the catastrophe of 
Trafalgar ; and Napoleon hoped that this last remnant of his 
naval force, consisting of eleven ships, of the line, might yet be 
employed with effect against the remote British colonies. One 
division, consisting of five ships and two frigates, was accord- 
ingly sent put to St Domingo ; but it was there attacked (Feb. 6) 


by a British force, under Admiral Duckworth, and completely 
destroyed — ^three ships being captured and two stranded and 
burnt, the frigates alone escaping. The other squadron, under 
Admiral Yillaumez, was not more fortunate: three sail were 
destroyed by Sir Richard Strachan, at the mouth of the Chesa- 
peake ; another was wrecked on the French coast ; and only one 
ship returned in safety. Linois, who since his repulse by the 
China fleet had been cruising against our trade in the Indian 
seas, was captured with his two remaining ships on their home- 
ward route (March 13, 1806) by Sir John Borlase Warren ; and 
a frigate squadron bound for the West Indies was taken the 
next day by Sir Samuel Hood. The Bochfort fleet alone, under 
Lallemand, eluded the pursuit of all the British squadrons, and 
returned safe to port after a cruise of six months — an escape 
which was celebrated as a real triumph by the French. But the 
naval war was now in fact at an end : the British navy had 
attained universal dominion, and navigated the ocean as securely 
as if it had been an inland sea within their own country ; and 
Britain, relieved from all dread of invasion or colonial embar- 
rassment, was enabled to direct her undivided attention to land 
operations. A dispute arose during this year with the United 
States of America on the subject of neutral rights, and the 
search for naval deserters by British men-of-war, which was 
taken up with extreme violence by the public of both nations, 
but was at length satisfactorily adjusted by the good sense of 
their respective governments. 

401. The reduction of the Cape (Jan. 8) was an enterprise which 
had been prepared before the death of Mr Pitt ; but the facility 
of the conquest, by inspiring the commanders with overweening 
confidence, ultimately led to serious disasters. The admiral^ 
Sir Home Popham, having obtained 1500 troops from the mili- 
tary commandant. Sir David Baird, sailed on an unauthorised 
expedition against Buenos Ayres, which almost immediately 
capitulated (June 28). The news was received in Britain with 
extravagant popular rejoicings; but the Spaniards, speedily 
recovering from their panic, overpowered the inadequate garri- 

248 FORMATION OF THE a. d. 1806. 

son (Aug. 12), who were made prisoners of war in defiance of 
the capitulation. Sir Home Pophani continued, however, to 
blockade the mouth of the river, till the arrival of reinforce- 
ments enabled the British to resume the offensive, with still 
worse fortune, the next year. 

402. The relations between France and Prussia were daily be- 
coming less amicable. The cabinet of Berlin, though embarrassed 
by the news of the treaty which Haugwitz had concluded at 
Vienna, had not sufficient virtue to refuse the tempting offer of 
Hanover ; but an attempt was made to colour the transaction, in 
the eyes of the British ambassador, by representing it as a mere 
temporary occupation. This equivocation, however, was not 
admitted by Napoleon, who threatened to annul the treaty ; 
and Prussia, fearful of losing her spoil, at length openly com- 
mitted herself by declaring the electorate annexed to her 
dominions, *' as ceded by Napoleon, whose it was by right of 
conquest " — at the same time excluding the British flag from its 
ports. This perfidious rapacity drew down instant retaliation 
from Britain : the harbours of Prussia were blockaded, and its 
flag swept from the seas by the British cruisers ; nor did her 
self-degradation purchase even the forbearance of France. Mnrat, 
as Grand-duke of Cleves and Berg, seized various portions of 
Prussian territory as appendages to his new dominions ; heavy 
contributions were levied on Hamburg, Bremen, and Frankfort, 
as the price of French protection ; and a general feeling of shame 
and indignation pervaded the Prussian people, whose spirit and 
patriotism clearly perceived the gulf, to the brink of which the 
nation had been led by the temporising servility of its rulers. 

403. But these feelings were not yet universal in Germany, and 
Napoleon now availed himself of the enthusiasm excited among 
the lesser states by the victories over Austria, in which they had 
shared, to bring to maturity his grand project of the Confedera- 
tion of the Rhine, which had been first conceived the year before, 
at Mayence. The Act of Confederation was signed on 12th July; 
the contracting parties being the Emperor of the French, the 
Kings of Bavaria and Wurtemberg, the Archbishop of Ratisbon, 


the Elector of Baden, the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt, the 
Grand-duke of Berg (Murat), the various branches of the 
houses of Nassau, Hohenzollem, Salm, and other petty princes. 
All these states were declared to be severed for ever from the 
Germanic empire, and erected into a new league under the pro- 
tectiou of Napoleon, to whom thej were to supply, in case of 
attack, a contingent of 58,000 men, which France was to support 
with 200,000. No blow had yet been levelled at European inde- 
pendenpe so important as this, by which sixteen millions of men 
were at once severed from the sceptre of the Caesars to be con- 
verted into an outwork for a foreign power ; but Austria was in 
no condition to express its resentment, and wisely gave way 
to the storm. But the Emperor Francis, justly considering the 
constitution of the Holy Roman empire as subverted, renounced 
by a solemn deed (Aug. 6) the ancient throne of the Cffisars, 
and declared himself the first Emperor of Austria. 

404. The peace of Fresburg had apparently removed all grounds 
of discord between France and Russia, and a negotiation for peace 
had actually commenced. A fresh dispute arose, however, from 
the occupation by the Russians of Cattaro — ^au Adriatic port in 
the Dalmatian territory of Venice, just ceded to France ; while 
the French indemnified themselves by seizing Ragusa, a neutral 
and independent city : these differences, however, were adjusted, 
and peace was actually signed at Paris (July 20). But the Russian 
plenipotentiary, d'Oubril, had so utterly departed from his 
instructions that this treaty was at once disavowed (Aug. 25) at 
St Petersburg ; and a negotiation between France and Britain, 
which had been pending since February, was also broken off 
early in September. At first France had been willing to restore 
Hanover, and to leave Great Britain in possession of Malta 
and the Cape besides her Indian conquests ; insisting at the 
same time on Sicily being given up to King Joseph, and offering 
to provide an equivalent for Ferdinand, either in the Balearic 
Isles or Dalmatia. Great Britain, however, steadily refused to 
be a party to the spoliation of neutral and independent states 
for purposes of indemnification ; and though the demands of 

250 WAR BETWEEN FRANCE a. d. 1806. 

France were somewhat lowered after the refusal of Russia to 
ratify d'OubriPs treaty, all hopes of accommodation at length 
failed, and Lord Lauderdale quitted Paris (Oct. 6) nine days after 
Napoleon had set out to take the command against Prussia. 

405. The popular ferment in Berlin had risen to an incontrol- 
lable pitch when it became known that Napoleon, in spite of 
his recent engagements, had offered to restore Hanoyer to Bri- 
tain ; and the excitement was farther increased by a cruel and 
illegal murder perpetrated at this juncture by his order. . Palm, 
a bookseller of Nuremberg, who had been active in the publica- 
tion of works hostile to France, was seized, carried before a 
French court-martial at Braunau, and there shot (Aug. 25), with- 
out being allowed to enter on his defence — ^a foul and atrocious 
crime, unjustifiable either by the law of nations or the nature 
of the alleged offence. The war-party in Berlin now over- 
whelmed all opposition : the officers whetted their sabres on the 
window-sills of the French ambassador ; and the Queen and 
Prince Louis openly fostered the general enthusiasm. War was 
only delayed till the distant succours of Russia could arrive; but 
Napoleon, penetrating this design, instantly put his troops in 
motion, from the Inn and Neckar, for the Elbe ; and himself set 
out for the army (Sept. 26) before the ultimatum had been pre- 
sented at Paris (Oct. 1) by M. Knobelsdorf. Its terms — ^the in- 
stant evacuation of Germany by the French troops, and the 
acquiescence of Napoleon in the formation of a counter league 
in North Germany — were fitter for the morrow of a victory than 
the eve of Jena, and show how strong was the infatuation which 
had seized the cabinet of Berlin. 

406. Before the commencement of hostilities, however, Mr 
Fox had breathed his last (Sept. 13), having survived his illus- 
trious rival only a few months. Few men have run a more bril- 
liant career, and none ever were the object of more affectionate 
regard from a numerous body of friends. Though aman of pleasure 
in every sense of the word, dissipated and irregular in private 
life, his many failings were all forgotten in the kindness of bis 
heart, and generous warmth of his feelings. He was unquestion- 


ablj the ablest debater that the British parliament erer produced^ 
but his fame bas not, like that of his great opponent, stood the 
test of time ; and the present generation, removed from the 
fascination of his fervid eloquence, can scarcely applaud the 
political penetration of the eulogist of the French Revolution, 
and the palliator of its atrocious excesses. A longer life, however, 
might probably have weaned him from all, as he honourably 
admitted it had done from many, of his earlier delusions. 

IV. Campaign of Jena — Fall of Pruma, 

407. Prussia, though thus rushing headlong into war, had not 
wholly neglected to court the aid of other powers in the conflict. 
Great Britain and Sweden were easily conciliated, and the power- 
ful alliance of Russia had also, with some difficulty, been secured ; 
but Austria, still bleeding from her recent wounds, and distrust- 
ing the Prussian cabinet, persisted in standing aloof. Hopes of 
assistance were also held out from a most unexpected quarter : 
Spain, ruined by the French alliance, and indignant at the 
recently proposed transfer of the Balearic Islands in exchange 
for Sicily, without her consent, opened communications with 
Berlin, and began to augment her army. But these premature 
movements were stopped by the news of Jena, though not till 
they had decided Napoleon on dethroning the Spanish Bour- 
bons at the first opportunity. Of the lesser powers. Saxony 
alone sent 20,000 men to the Prussian standard ; Hesso-Cassel 
wavered ; and the Confederation of the Rhine, of course, sided 
with France. Still, though the Russians had not yet left the 
Niemen, Frederick- William gallantly took the field with all his 
disposable force, amounting to 120,000 men ; and so little were 
the impending calamities anticipated that the guards marched 
out of Berlin singing songs of triumph, and leaving the inhabi- 
tants almost in a state of sedition from tumultuous joy. 

408. No position in Europe is more defensible than the line of 
the Elbe, supported as it is by the strong ramparts of Magdeburg, 


Wittenberg, and Torgan— bat none of these fortresses were either 
adequately armed or provisioned ; and the Prussian generalissimo, 
the Duke of Brunswick, though an able man of the last century, 
was now superannuated— bold in design, but vacillating in exe- 
cution, and altogether ignorant of the terrible vehemence and 
rapidity which Napoleon had introduced into modem warfare. 
With almost unaccountable rashness, he now determined to 
assume the offensive, advancing by Eisenach towards the valley 
of the Maine, in order to cut off the enemy's communications 
with France — a manoeuvre which Napoleon no sooner penetrated 
than he determined to retort it on the Prussians. On the 9th 
October, accordingly, the whole French army moved in three 
great columns on the main roads towards Saxony : Soult and 
Ney on the right, marching from Bayreuth towards Hof ; the 
cavalry, undqr Murat, in the centre, with Bemadotte and Davoust, 
from Bamberg north-west towards Saalberg ; while Lannes and 
Augereau on the left, breaking up from Schweinfurt, advanced 
by Coburg and Graf en thai upon Saalfeld. The centre and right 
were thus bearing straight on the Prussian magazines : and the 
Duke of Brunswick, thunderstruck by the news, instantly coun- 
termanded the advance, and gave orders for a concentration of 
the troops about Brfurth and Weimar. But this retrograde 
cross movement had to be made on bye-roads, and in face of a 
superior enemy marching in dense columns on the great cause- 
ways perpendicular to their route ; and the results were such as 
might be anticipated. Several of their detachments were over- 
whelmed on the 9th and 10th ; and on the latter day a more 
important advantage was gained by Lannes and Augereau over 
the corps of Prince Louis in front of Saalfeld. The Prussians, 
assailed by vastly superior numbers, were completely routed ; 
and the gallant prince himself was slain by a sabre-stroke, while 
fighting hand to hand among the French — a calamity which 
diffused a universal gloom over the army. 

409. The dejected and disordered columns of the Prussians at 
length effected their concentration in two great masses — one 
of 65,000 under the King near Weimar, the other, under Prince 

A. D. 1806. BATTLE OF JENA. 263 

Hohenlohe, nnmbering abont 40,000, near Jena. The French had 
now marched completely round them, cutting off their retreat from 
Saxony to their own country ; the great magazines at Naum- 
burg were seized on the 13th ; and Napoleon, who had expected 
a formidable resistance from the soldiery of the Great Frederick, 
now conceived hopes of rapid and decisive success, in which he 
unexpectedly derived still farther aid from their own injudicious 
movements. In the vain hope of saving Naumburg, the main 
body, under the King and the Duke of Brunswick, advanced on 
the 13th towards Suiza, leaving Hohenlohe and the rear in the 
presence of double their number under Napoleon. On the same ' 
day the important heights of the Landgrafenberg, commanding 
a view of the whole Prussian lines before Jena, were occupied 
by the French ; the artillery was dragged up to the ridge by 
incredible exertions, in which Napoleon personally assisted ; and 
in the grey of the morning of the 14th, Hohenlohe, who appears 
to have had no expectation of an immediate attack, was astounded 
by finding that the French, to the number of 90,000, had already 
passed the gorges in front of his position under cover of the mist, 
and were pressing forwards in battle-array. He instantly 
despatched orders to Qeneral Ruchel to bring up the reserve of 
20,000 men ; but the battle had already begun. The Prussians, 
though so fearfully outnumbered, resisted gallantly, and the 
corps of Ney was at one time broken by the furious onset of 
their numerous and magnificent cavalry, which also obtained 
some advantages on the left. But the odds were too great 
against them : the village of Yierzehn-Heiligen, the key of their 
position, was carried by storm ; and when Buchel at length 
came up, he was only in time to share in the general ruin. 
Twelve thousand fresh cavalry, under the fiery guidance of Murat, 
bore down with loud shouts of triumph on the retiring masses. 
The Prussian horse, wearied with eight hours' incessant fighting, 
gave way before these vigorous squadrons, and horse, foot, and 
cannon became blended together in one confused mass. . Buchel 
was wounded and carried off the field ; and the rout became one 
frightful scene of disorder and massacre. So vehement was the 

254 BATTLE OF AUERSTADT. a. d. 1806. 

pursuit that the victors and vanquished entered pell-mell into 
Weimar, six leagues from the field of battle ; and Hohenlohe 
with difficulty rallied a few regiments of cavalry behind the 
town, as a rallying-point for the panic-stricken fugitives. 

410. The fate of thie main army under the King, on the same 
day, had been almost equally disastrous. Napoleon, supposing 
at first that he had to encounter the whole Prussian army at Jena, 
had sent orders to Davoust to fall on their rear during the action ; 
and the marshal, moving from Naumburg for this purpose, found 
himself, on the evening of the 13th, in contact with the Ring's 
array before Auerstadt. Davoust had only 26,000 foot and 
4000 horse to oppose more than double the number ; but 
pushing forward his van, he succeeded in seizing the defiles of 
Eoessen, where he barred the march of the Prussians on the 
following morning. The Ring and Marshal M611endorf at first 
conceived the impediment to arise only from a detached column, 
but all their efforts failed to dislodge the gallant division of Gudin 
from its vantage-ground ; and the troops were disheartened by 
the fall of General Schmettau and the Duke of Brunswick, who 
were both mortally wounded early in the day. The nature of 
the ground rendered the Prussian superiority of numbers in a 
great measure unavailable ; and as the remaining French divi- 
sions reached the scene of action, the advantage gradually in- 
clined to their side. In spite of the repeated and furious charges 
of the Prussian cavalry, the heights of Sonnenberg on their 
right were surmounted by Morand ; and the French artillery, 
from that commanding eminence, carried death through all the 
ranks of the enemy. Marshal Mollendorf was wounded ; and, 
after an ineffectual attempt on the part of Ralkreuth aud the 
reserve to restore the battle, the whole army was driven through 
the defiles of Auerstadt. At first their retreat, covered by the 
guards and Blucher's cavalry, was conducted in tolerable order ; 
but the apparition of Bemadotte'^ on their flank compelled them 

♦ A too literal interpretation of the Emperor^s order had prevented Ber- 
nadotte from joining Davoust at Auerstadt —an error of judgment which 
drew on him the unqualified wrath of Napoleon. 


to change tbeir route, and their dismay was completed by 

eocoTintering the tide of fugitives from Jena. The whole army 
was broken up, flying in all directions, and- abandoning its 
artillery and baggage. Twenty tbousand had fallen in the two 
fields of Auerstadt and Jena ; as many were made prisoners, the 
King himself escaping with difficulty ; and 200 guns, with 25 
standards, fell into the hands of the victors. Tbe loss of the French 
was, however, 14,000, of wbom Davoust's army lost 7500 ; and 
of the gallant band under Gudin, which bore the brunt of the 
fight at Auerstadty not fewer than 134 officers, and 3500 men 
(more than balf their total number), were left on the field. 
411. The extraordinary circumstance of the four generals-in-chief 
—the Duke of Brunswick, Ruchel, Mollendorf, and Schmettau 
—being killed or disabled, had left the fragments of the army 
without a head ; and Napoleon left them no time to recover 
from their confusion. Erfurth, where 14,000 soldiers had taken 
refuge, surrendered with all its stores the day after tbe battle. 
Kalkreuth's corps, which still preserved good order, was utterly 
defeated by Soult on the 16th at Nordhausen ; and the general 
reserves under Duke Eugene of Wurtemberg, 14,000 strong, were 
overwhelmed (Oct. 17) at Halle, by Bernadotte, after a resistance 
which in some degree vindicated the bonour of the Prussian 
arms. Hobenlobe, who had been named commander-in-chief 
by the King, attempted to rally the wrecks of the army at Mag- 
deburg ; but tbe provisions in the place were insufficient for so 
great a multitude, and he again marched (Oct. 23) with a large 
but disorganised body of troops, hoping to reach the remote 
fortress of Stettin on tbe Oder. But his route was intercepted 
by the indefatigable cavalry of Murat, who attacked him in 
front, while Lannes was closing in on bis rear ; and after losing 
most of bis men in a succession of severe skirmishes, he was 
forced to surrender at Prentzlow (Oct. 28) witb 14,000, including 
the remains of the guards. Meanwhile, the fortresses of Span- 
dau, and of Stettin and Custrin on the Oder, were disgracefully 
yielded without resistance ; and the light troops of Davoust 
pushed on (Nov. 3) to Posen, in Prussian Poland. 

256 THE FBENCH OCCUPY BERLIN. a. d. 1806. 

' 412. The only Prussian troops who now kept the field were 
about 24,000 men under Blucher, composed by the union of 6000 
cavalry, which that gallant officer had brought off from Auer- 
stadt, with the infantry of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, which had 
not been present with the grand army. Against this heroic 
band 60,000 men were now directed, under Soult, Murat, and 
Bemadotte ; and the Prussians were at length driven through 
Mecklenburg into Lubeck, where a desperate conflict took place 
(Nov. 6) in the streets of the town, which suffered severely from 
the licentious cruelty of the French soldiery. Blucher himself, 
with 8000 men, succeeded in cutting his way through the assail- 
ants ; but his farther retreat was barred by the territory of Den- 
mark ; and the hardy veteran, having done all that valour and 
determination could accomplish, was at length compelled to 
capitulate. Magdeburg, which had hitherto been blockaded by 
Key, surrendered (Nov. 8) on the first threat of a bombardment ; 
the Hanoverian fortresses of Hamelu and Nieuburg submitted, 
before the end of the month, to an army which had appeared in 
that quarter under the King of Holland ; and thus expired all 
the elements of resistance from the Weser to the Oder. 

413. Napoleon's first care, after the victories of Jena and Auer- 
stadt, had been to detach the Saxons from the alliance — a task 
which the occupation of their country by the French, and their 
own inborn jealousy of the Prussians, rendered extremely easy. 
The Elector at first accepted neutrality; but ere long (Dec. 12) an 
alliance was concluded at Posen, by which he received the title 
of King, and joined the Confederation of the Rhine, furnishing 
a contingent of 20,000 soldiers ; and he adhered to the last, with 
honourable fidelity, to the fortunes of Napoleon. Following, 
meanwhile, the march of his victorious armies, the Emperor 
passed by Weimar and Wittenberg to Berlin, which he entered 
(Oct. 25) in all the pomp of victory, taking up his residence in 
the royal palace. The inhabitants, in speechless grief, saw their 
capital in possession of the enemy in a fortnight after hostilities 
had commenced ; but their humiliation was changed into dis- 
gust at the unworthy spoliation of the tomb of the Great Frede- 


rick, from which his sword and orders were seized by Napoleon 
himself to be sent to Paris as trophies. A solitary instance of 
generosity marks the conduct of the Emperor at this period, 
in the pardon of Prince Hatzfeld, whose life, when condemned 
for supplying secret information to Hohenlohe, was granted to 
the prayers of his wife: but his general demeanour to the 
Prussians was that of studied and bitter contumely. The cap- 
tive officers were ostentatiously paraded through Berlin ; the 
Duke of Brunswick was assailed in the bulletins with such per- 
sonal virulence, that he fled for refuge to Altona, where he soon 
after died, from the inflammation of his wounds by the hurried 
journey ; and the Queen herself was insulted with brutal and 
unmanly sarcasms through the same channel. The Elector of 
Hesse-Cassel was summarily stripped of all his dominions ; and 
Napoleon publicly threatened that he would impoverish the 
Prussian nobles 'Hill they should beg their bread." The execu- 
tion of this last menace was speedily commenced by the levy of 
a war contribution of •£6,200,000 (equivalent to double the sum 
in Great Britain), which was enforced with ruthless severity. 
General Clarke was appointed governor-general of the conquered 
provinces, aided by Count Daru in the civil details ; the whole 
country, from the Rhine to the Vistula, received a fresh organisa- 
tion, and all the authorities were compelled to take an oath of 
allegiauce to the French Emperor. 

414. Negotiations had all this time been going on for peace ; but 
as Talleyrand at length clearly intimated that the fortresses on 
the Vistula must be surrendered, and the whole Prussian terri- 
tory remain in the hands of the French till a general peace, as a 
means of compelling Britain to give up her maritime conquests, 
the King nobly refused (Nov. 28) to ratify the armistice which 
had been signed by his ministers ; and Napoleon, after fulminat- 
ing (Nov. 21) the famous Berlin Decree (hereafter to be enlarged 
upon) against British commerce, set out for Poland to meet the 
Russian armies before they reached Germany. At Posen he 
gave audience to the Polish deputies, who came to implore his 
support for their national restoration ; but the language of his 

258 FORCES OF THE BUSSIANS, a. d. 1806. 

reply to the Palatine Badmerzinski, though well calculated to 
awaken the hopes and arouse the enthusiasm of the fiery Poles, 
cautiously kept clear of any specific promise of interference, and 
counselled concord and unanimity among the different ranks of 
the population as the surest means of achieving their freedom. 
Meanwhile Mortier had occupied Hamburg ; the Bavarians and 
Wiirtembergers, under Jerome Buonaparte, were employed in 
reducing the Silesian fortresses which still held out ; and, to 
supply the chasms in^ the army, a conscription of 80^000 was 
again ordered hy anticipation, from those who were to attain the 
military age in 1807. 

V. Campaign of Eylau, 

416. Though the short canipaigii of Jena had destroyed the 
power of Prussia, the war could scarcely be said to be seriously 
commenced while the formidable legions of Russia still remained 
unsubdued. Since the defeat of Austerlitz, Alexander had been 
indefatigable in recruiting and reorganising his army ; the devout 
loyalty of the people had been excited to the highest degree by 
a proclamation denouncing Napoleon as the grand enemy of 
Christianity ; and religious enthusiasm was thus combined with 
the energy of the desert in inspiring the resistance which the 
French had now to encounter. The serfs drawn for the army, 
contrary to their usual custom, went joyfully forth, regarding 
themselves as the chosen champions of Christendom ; and the 
formidable lances of the wild Cossacks of the Don were seen, 
almost for the first time, in the shock of regular warfare. If 
their whole disposable force had been united on the Vistula, it 
would have amounted to 150,000 men, against which all the 
efforts of Napoleon would probably have been shivered ; but a 
Turkish war, into which they had imprudently entered before 
the disasters in Prussia were known, divided their forces, with 
most calamitous effect, at this all-important juncture. 

41 6. The Polish question, meanwhile, was a source of great per- 
plexity to Napoleon. The ferment occasioned by the advance of 

X. D. 1806. AND OF THE FBENCH. 259 

the French armies had spread through Great Poland and Lithu" 
ania^ and even into the Austrian provinces of Gallicia ; and a 
general insurrection for the recovery of the national independence, 
to be headed hy the nohles and palatines, was openly talked of. 
The point was vehemently dehated in the French councils^ and 
Napoleon at one time inclined to the Polish cause ; hut the posi* 
tive refusal of Austria to exchange her share of Poland for her 
old province of Silesia (now possessed hy Prussia), determined 
him on a guarded line of conduct. With regard to Prussian 
Poland, however, he had no scruples : the enthusiasm of the 
people was excited to the highest pitch hy Wyhicki, and Dom- 
browski (the former commander of the Polish legion in Italy), 
who distributed proclamations bearing (as it afterwards appeared 
fdUdy) the signature of Kosciusko ; and the French, on their 
entry into Warsaw (Nov. 30), were hailed as deliverers. Several 
Polish regiments were raised for the service of France, which, 
before the end of the campaign, were augmented, by the spon- 
taneous ardour of the people, to 30,000 men ; and the spirits of 
the French soldiers, who were disheartened by the prospect of a 
winter campaign in these dreary regions, were reanimated by 
one of Napoleon's characteristic proclamations addressed to them 
on the anniversary of Austerlitz. The march and organisation 
of the fresh troops and conscripts was hastened ; requisitions for 
money and stores, to an astounding amount, were levied on the 
Hanse Towns, as a punishment for their commerce with Bri- 
tain ; and thus, at the beginning of December, Napoleon, whose 
advanced posts had been meanwhile pushed on to the Bug, found 
himself at the head of 100,000 disposable men, independent of 
the numerous detachments keeping up the long line of commu- 
nications in the rear. 

417. The aggregate force of the Russians on the Niemen was 
not more than 75,000 ; while a corps of 15,000 under Lestocq, was 
all that remained effective (exclusive of the garrisons which still 
held out) of the once brilliant army of Prussia. The commander- 
in-chief. Marshal ELamenskoi, was a veteran of eighty, ill calcu- 
lated to cope with Napoleon ; but he was supported by the 



tried abilities of Benningsen and Bnxhowden ; and among the 
snbordinate commanders were the afterwards, famons names of 
Sacken, Osterman Tolstoy, and Barclay de Tolly. Notwithstand- 
ing this inferiority of force, Kamenskoi assumed the offeDsi?e 
(Dec. 11)2 by a forward movement from Pultusk ; and a desultory 
warfare ensued with the French advance under Davoust, till the 
arrival of Napoleon at Warsaw (Dec. 18) gave the signal for more 
active operations. The passage of the Wkra was forced (Dee. 23), 
and the division of Osterman Tolstoy defeated (24th) at Nasielsk ; 
the Russian position was pierced through the centre, and their 
army fell back in two great bodies, — one under Gallitzin on 
Gh)lymin, the other under Benningsen on Pultusk ; and Kamen- 
skoi, wholly losing his presence of mind, ordered the artillery to 
be abandoned. The impassable state of the roads was the reason 
given ; but Benningsen boldly resolved to disobey, and to stand 
fast at Pultusk with the troops under his command (amounting 
to about 40,000 men, with 120 guns), against the pursuing corps 
of Lannes, which did not number more than 35,000. The field 
where the battle was fought (Dec. 26) was a small open plain in 
the midst of the thickets which elsewhere cover the country ; and 
the French divisions, as they emerged from these woodlands, 
were exposed, while extending into line, to the heavy fire of the 
Russian artillery, while their own gunners were bewildered by 
the snow drifting in their faces ; and the mud, which was in 
many places knee-deep, impeded their advance to the attack. 
They charged, however, with their usual intrepidity, and drove 
back the Russian right under Barclay de Tolly ; but they were 
in turn repulsed by the cavalry and reserve under Osterman 
Tolstoy ; and the murderous struggle continued till long after 
dark, when the French retreated with the loss of 6000 men. The 
Russian loss was nearly 5000 ; but they remained masters of the 
field of battle, and continued their retreat without molestation 
on the following day. Prince Oallitzin had, on the same day, 
resisted with similar firmness and success, at Golymin, the assault 
of Davoust and Augereau, supported by a large detachment of 
Murat's cavalry ; and Napoleon, perceiving that his design of 


cutting off the retreat of the Bussians had been frustrated^ called 
in his detachments, and put his whole army into cantonments 
on the Vistula ; while the enemy took up 'their winter quarters 
behind the Narew, about Ostrolenka. Napoleon, with his staff, 
and most of his generals, fixed his residence at Warsaw, which 
became the centre of a brilliant society : the great families from 
all parts of Prussian Poland flocked to his court ; and the Polish 
women, who yield to none in Europe in beauty, accomplishment, 
and fascination of manner, welcomed the French with the en- . 
thusiastic gratitude due to those whom they regarded as the 
liberators of their country, — ^the inyineible allies who were- to 
restore the glories of the Piasts and Jagellons. 

418. But this interval was no periodof rest tothe Emperor. The 
dubious issue of the late engagements had excited through Europe 
an intense hope that the torrent of French conquest was at last 
stemmed : and to obliterate, this impression a series of triumph- 
ant bulletins were published, while the sieges of the Silesian for- 
tresses were pressed with redoubled activity, both to release the 
corps so employed, and to annihilate the elements of resistance in 
the rear. Glogau, Brieg, and Kosel submitted to Vandamme on 
the first summons ; Breslau, the capital of the province, surren- 
dered (Dec 31) after a creditabledefence; and Schweidnitz, Neiss, 
and Glatz, were taken at different periods between January and 
June, though their reduction was hardly noticed amidst the 
whirl of more important events. The ambassador at Constanti- 
nople, General Sebastiani, was at the same time instructed to use 
his utmost efforts in stimulating the Turks to a vigorous prosecu- 
tion of the war. Marmont,who commanded in 111 yria, was directed 
to offer succours of all kinds to the Ottomans, and Napoleon 
loudly proclaimed his determination to make common cause 
with the Porte — ^a memorable declaration, when contrasted with 
his perfidious abandonment of that power, a few months later, 
at Tilsit. 

419. The oommand-in-chief of the Bussians had now devolved 
on Benningsen, in con sequence of the insanity of Kamenskoi ; and 
that active general, observing the great distance which separated 


the main body of the French round Warsaw from the left tinder 
Bemadotte and Ney, which was extended nearly up to Konigs- 
berg, conceived the design of crushing the latter by a rapid move' 
ment of his whole army. He broke up accordingly from the 
Narew (Jan. 14), with 75,000 men and 500 pieces of cannon ; and 
advancing by forced marches towards the Baltic, fell like a thun- 
derbolt on the scattered detachments of Key, which were every- 
where cut off or driven in. Bemadotte, while concentrating his 
troopsatMohrungen,was assailed, and escaped destruction (though 
With the loss of all his baggage) only from the Russian vanguard 
making the attack before the arrival of the other divisions. 
The French were repelled on all points towards the Vistula ; and 
Napoleon, fearing that the Russians might raise the blockade 
of Dantzic, gave instant orders for the march of all his columns, 
and hastened in person to the scene of action. 

420. The Russians now lay between the rivers Passarge and Alle^ 
and Napoleon's first movements were directed to cut them off 
from their own country ; but this design became known to Ben- 
niugsen, through an intercepted despatch, and he instantly con- 
centrated his troops for a retreat. During several days (Feb. 2-7) 
the march was a series of bloody but indecisive skirmishes, till at 
length the murmurs of his soldiers, who were exhausted with han- 
ger and fatigue, determined Benningsen to give battle ; and on the 
night of 7th February, he halted on the previously selected field 
of Preussisch-Eylau. A severe contest took place for the posses- 
sion of the town between the*rear-guard, under Bagrathion, and 
the French, who at length retained it ; and the two armies bivou- 
acked within half cannon-shot of each other, on the snow-clad 
ground. The French force was fully 85,000, including 16,000 
horse, with 350 guns ; the Russians had 460 pieces of cannon, 
but their strength was not more than 65,000 men, exclusive of 
8000 under Lestocq, who came up during the action. 

421. The battle was commenced, soon after daylight, by afurious 
attack from the corps of Augereau on the village of Schloditten, 
which formed the point d^appui of the Russian right: whik 
Soult, at the same time, advanced with equal determination 

A. D. 1807, BATTLE OF EYLAU. 263 

against their centre. But so murderous was the fire of the 
Kussian artillery, that hoth these assaults were repulsed with 
tremendous slaughter : Augereau himself, with most of his offi- 
cers, was wounded ; and his retreat was pressed with such vehe-* 
mence hj the Cossacks, that his whole corps was almost anni- 
hilated, and Napoleon narrowly escaped being made prisoner 
in the town of Eylau. Soult had not fared much better ; and a 
general charge on the centre by 14,000 horse under Murat, sup- 
ported by the whole Imperial Guard, and 200 guns, though it at 
first broke the Russian lines by its weight, was eventually driven 
back with the loss of several eagles and 14 pieces of cannon. At 
this moment, when victory appeared within the grasp of the 
Russians, the villages of Saussgarten and Serpallen, on their left, 
had been carried by Davoust, after a desperate defence ; their 
flank was turned ; and, blinded by the snow-drift and the 
smoke from the burning houses, they began to give way in dis- 
order. The whole left wing, however, was skilfully wheeled 
back by Benningsen, at right angles to the centre, and the pro- 
gress of Davoust thus arrested ; and the Prussians under Lestocq, 
at length coming up on the right, retook the captured villages 
at the point of the bayonet, in spite of all the efforts of Davoust 
to hold his ground. The battle now seemed concluded, when 
Ney's corps, following Lestocq, once more assaulted and carried 
Schloditten, but it was retaken by the Russians at ten at night, 
and so ended the changes of this eventful day. 

422. Such was the terrible battle of Eylau, fought amid ice and 
enow, under circumstances of unexampled hardship, and with a 
degree of bloodshed unsurpassed in modern times. On the Rus- 
sian side 25,000 fell ; the French lost 30,000, besides 12 eagles ; 
and Napoleon, for the first time in his life, was preparing to 
retreat from before an enemy in the open field, when he was 
spared this mortification by the Russians falling back. Not- 
withstanding the representations of his generals, who urged that 
a renewal of the conflict must complete the discomfiture of the 
French, Benningsen, ignorant of the immense loss of the enemy, 
and fearing lest the arrival of reinforcements might enable them 

iU Its BESULTS. A, D. 1807. 

to cut him off from Eonigsberg, resolved on retiring towards that 
city : and Napoleon on the morrow, according to his custom, 
rode over the dreadful field of battle, where 50,000 men lay 
weltering in their blood within two leagues. But the French 
did not venture to advance on Konigsberg, whence the King of 
Prussia had now withdrawn to Memel ; on the contrary. Napo- 
leon now offered that monarch a separate peace on advantageous 
terms, which Frederick-William (who had just received £80,000 
as a subsidy from Britain) had the magnanimity to refuse. The 
wasted state of the country now left the French Emperor no 
alternative but to retreat, which was accordingly done on the 
17th, the army being again placed in cantonments on the banks 
of the Passarge ; while the Russians, who drew ample supplies 
from Konigsberg, occupied the vacant ground about Eylau and 

423. The battleof Eylau excited a prodigious sensation in Europe ; 
and had a different ministry been in power in England, there 
can be little doubt that the triumphs of 1813 might have been 
anticipated by seven years. But the spirit of Pitt no longer 
directed the British councils: at the commencement of the 
campaign, a request from Russia for an advance of j£l ,000,000, 
and a subsequent loan of ^5,000,000 more, had been refused. 
Though the public voice loudly called for the immediate despatch 
of an army to the Elbe, (a demonstration which would, beyond a 
doubt, have been followed by a universal outbreak in Northern 
Germany, and probably by a declaration of war from Austria 
against France), Lord Howick refused the urgent entreaties of 
Russia and Prussia for men and money, except in the paltry 
grant above noticed to Prussia. Thus the decisive period passed 
away, and Great Britain had to go through the Peninsular war 
to regain the vantage-ground then within her grasp. 

424. In proportion to the sanguine hopes excited elsewhere, by 
the carnage of Eylau, was the gloom which it diffused through 
all ranks in France. So exaggerated were the first statements, 
that it was at one time believed that Napoleon himself had 
fallen, and cabals were actually set on foot by the imperial family 


for the throne ; and even when the consternation began to sub- 
side, it was renewed by a message to4;he Senate (March 26) for a 
fresHt conscription of 80,000 — ^the third since the Prussian war 
b^gan — of those who would reach the military age in September 
1808. Napoleon was, in fact, as well aware as his enemies of 
the perilous nature of the crisis — ^he knew that a second dubious 
battle on the Vistula would inevitably lead to a disastrous 
retreat beyond the Rhine ; and, during the cessation of hostili- 
ties, his unwearied activity was not less occupied in preparations 
for a defensive warfare in ease of a reverse, than in recruiting his 
forces for offensive operations on the present theatre of war. 

VI. Domestic and Foreign Measures of the British Government, 

425. The accession of the Whigs to power, after their long ex- 
clusion from office, afforded them at length an opportunity for the 
practical application of those popular ideas of social improve- 
ment, which had been developed during the excitement of the 
preceding fifteen years, and of which they had constantly pro- 
fessed themselves the advocates. Of the various measures intro- 
duced in consequence of these views, the first had reference to 
the important subject of recruiting the army, in which great 
difficulty had been experienced under the existing system of 
enlistment for life, or for a limited period. To obviate the dis- 
like with which military service was popularly regarded, Mr 
"Windham proposed a plan of enlistment for seven, fourteen, and 
twenty-one years, with additional privileges of retiring allow- 
ances; and this proposition, though it encountered considerable 
opposition, was finally adopted by parliament, and came into 
operation Jan. 1, 1807. Its success was unequivocal : within the 
£rst year, the annual supply of recruits was more than doubled ; 
and the armies, throughout the Peninsular war, were constantly 
maintained in efficiency by this method, which has never since 
been wholly abandoned, though unlimited enlistment has been 
reintroduced since the peace. A still more important measure 
proposed by the new ministers was the abolition of the slave 


trade, which was at length carried (Feb. 23, 1807) by 283 to 16 
in the Commons, and 100 1% 36 in the Peers. 

426. Earlf in 1807 (Jan. 29) an important measure was also 
brought forward by Lord Henry Petty, for the future manage- 
ment of the finances, so as to provide for a permanent state of 
warfare ; as either the overthrow of Napoleon's power, or the 
conclusion of any durable peace with him, appeared alike hope- 
less. He proposed, therefore, to raise in this and the two fol- 
lowing years a loan of £12,000,000 ; in 1810, £14,000,000 ; and 
for the ten succeeding years, (should the war last so long,) 
£16,000,000 a-year-^appropriating each year from the war-taxes 
as much as would amount to ten per cent on the sum raised, to 
form a sinking-fund for its redemption. The minor details of 
this plan were arranged with great financial skill ; but the pro- 
ject was opposed by Mr Canning, Mr Perceval, and Lord Castle- 
reagh, who urged that it broke through the distinction between 
permanent and war taxes ; and recommended the appropriation 
of part of the sinking-fund to the payment of the interest on 
the fresh loans. Both schemes were departures from the grand 
principle of Mr Pitt, which was to provide by new indirect 
taxes for the interest and gradual extinction of each fresh loan ; 
but the system of Lord Henry Petty was, perhaps, the more 
manly and statesmanlike of the two in a domestic point of 
view, as leaving untouched the sacred deposit of the sinking- 
fund ; though, as the event of the war in Poland proved, it was 

'not calculated to meet the emergencies and ever- varying chances 
of warfare. The budget for 1807 was based on the new plan ; 
but it was soon abandoned among the changes and necessities of 
future years. 

427. Such were the principal domestic measures of the Whig 
administration, which were marked, in general, by a spirit of 
humanity and wisdom ; but a far different meed must be meted 
out to their foreign policy. Though Sir Home Popham had been 
recalled, and reprimanded by the sentence of a court-martial 
(March 1807) for his unauthorised and disastrous attack on 
Buenos Ayres (p. 247), the government had not firmness to 


resist the popniar wish that a fresh force should be sent to the 
same quarter ; and 3000 men were accordingly embarked under 
Sir Samuel Auchmuty, who stormed and took Monte Video 
(Feb. 2). Another reinforcement of 4200 men was sent (June) 
to the same destination, and the command-in-chief given to 
General Whitelocke, who was directed to attempt the recovery 
of Baenos Ayres. The attack was accordingly made (July 5) ; 
but 200 pieces of cannon, and 15,000 men stationed on the flat 
roofs of the houses, opposed formidable obstacles to the advance 
of the British through the barricaded streets ; and though 
several of the principal points were gallantly carried, three regi- 
ments, numbering 2500 men, were obliged to surrender in other 
quarters'. Such was now the consternation among the English 
commanders, that a capitulation was signed (July 7) with the 
Spanish general Lini^res, by which the British prisoners were 
restored, on condition of the withdrawal of the whole hostile 
force from the Rio de la Plata. The public indignation in Bri- 
tain was vehement ; and General Whitelocke, on his return, 
was cashiered by a court-martial ; but military men had not 
then been taught, by the examples of Gerona and Saragossa, 
the formidable aspect of street warfare ; and much allowance 
must be made for an inexperienced officer, opposed by such un- 
expected difficulties in his first separate command. 

428. Cura9oa had been taken without resistance (Jan. 1), the 
advantages of British commerce and British protection disposing 
the planters everywhere to range themselves under its flag ; but 
in other quarters, on the shores of the Bosphorus and the Nile, 
the arms of Britain were as unfortunate as in the Rio de la Plata, 
We have already noticed the imprudent attack made by Russia 
on Turkey, at the moment of the commencement of the Prussian 
war. The contest arose from the removal, at the instigation 
of the French ambassador Sebastiani (Aug. 30, 1806), of the 
Hospodars of Wallachia and Moldavia (who by the existing 
treaties were not to be displaced without the consent of Russia), 
and their replacement by successors in the interest of France ; 
and though the menaces of the Russian and British envoys 


procured the reinstatement of the deposed princes, the news 
reached St Petersburg too late to prevent the march of the army 
under General Mitchelson, which speedily occupied the two 
principalities. But the pressure of the war in Poland compelled 
the Russians almost instantly to weaken their forces on the 
Danube to such an extent, that an application was made to the 
British cabinet to make a naval diversion against Constantinople; 
and Sir John Duckworth was accordingly instructed, with a 
squadron of seven line-of-battle ships and four frigates, to force 
the passage of the Dardanelles, and threaten the Ottoman capital. 

429. The length of this famous strait, through its whole winding 
course, is nearly 30 miles, the width varying from one to three, 
while the narrowest part is defended on either shore by the 
celebrated castles of Europe and Asia. But these ancient forti- 
fications, though armed with cannon of enormous calibre, were 
ruinous and decayed ; and the Turks, in spite of all the warnings 
of Sebastian i, neglected their repair, and looked for danger only 
from the Danube, though Mr Arbuthnot had already quitted 
the Turkish capital, and war had been declared by the Divan 
(Jan. 29) against Great Britain. On the 19th of February, 
however, the British admiral entered the straits, the passage 
of which was effected with little loss, from the unprepared state 
of the batteries ; several Turkish frigates were burnt in the 
Sea of Marmora ; and the fleet anchored at Princes' Islands, 
within three leagues of Seraglio Point. 

430. The consternation of the Turks was extreme, as there were 
scarcely ten guns mounted on the seaward batteries ; and it was 
increased by a message from Admiral Duckworth, threatening 
to attack the city if the demands of Britain were not acceded to 
within twenty-four hours. The populace rose in a fury, demanding 
the head of Sebastiani ; but the energy of the French envoy was 
equal to this perilous crisis, and his exhortations rekindled the 
spirit of the Divan, which at first had no thought but of submis- 
sion. While the British commander was amused by a show of 
negotiation, the whole population of Constantinople laboured 
incessantly at the fortifications, under the skilful superintendence 

A. D. 1807. DESCENT ON EGYPT. 269 

of Sebastian! ; in a week 1000 guns were mounted, 100 gun-boats 
and 12 line-of-battle ships equipped for the defence of the har- 
bour, and red-hot shot prepared to assail the British ships. A 
retreat was inevitable ; but the batteries of the Dardanelles 
were now repaired and strengthened ; and on the re-entrance of 
the fleet into the perilous defile (March 1) a tremendous fire was 
opened : several ships were struck by stone-shot weighing 700 
or 800 lbs. ; and the squadron reached Tenedos with the loss of 
250 mea. Here they were joined by a Russian naval force, 
under Admiral Siniavin, which defeated the Gapitan-Fasha's 
fleet (July 1), and distressed the Turkish capital by cutting off. 
its supply of provisions by sea. A descent on Egypt by a small 
British force from Messina (March) was equally unsuccessful 
with the attempt on Constantinople. Alexandria and Damietta, 
indeed, fell into their hands ; but Bosetta held out ; and a strong 
detachment, under Oolonel Macleod, was overwhelmed at El- 
Hammed by the Turkish cavalry. A convention was at last 
concluded in September, by which the British prisoners were 
given up, and Alexandria restored to the Turks ; and the in- 
vaders evacuated Egypt at the end of that month. 

431. These repeated defeats excited great discontent throughout 
Great Britain, and produced an impression, even among the 
supporters of the ministers, that their genius was less calculated 
for the warlike combinations requisite at the present crisis than 
forpacificameliorations, now comparatively of little consequence. 
But time was not given for the manifestation of these feelings 
in the ordinary way, from an occurrence which brought the 
administration in collision with the religious feeling of the King. 
This was the motion of Lord Howick (March 7) for the admis* 
sion of Catholics into the army and navy, by the abolition of 
the test-oath in these cases ; but in the midst of the debate it 
was suddenly announced (March 29) that the ministers had been 
dismissed, and that Lord Hawkesbury, the Duke of Portland, 
and Mr Perceval had been intrusted with the formation of a 
new Tory cabinet, including Lord Castlereagh, Lord Eldon, Mr 
Canning, &c. In explanation of this sudden change, it appeared 

270 TOBY MINISTRY FORMED. /u d. 1807. 

that the King, who had at first misunderstood the nature and ex- 
tent of the proposed bill, no sooner became aware of these points, 
than he not only withdrew his sanction from the measure ia 
progress, but required a pledge from the ministers that no far* 
ther concession to the Catholics should be proposed. This pledge 
was refused as inconsistent with the doctrine that the King can 
do no wrong, and that the responsibility rests with his advisers ; 
and this point, after the dismissal of the ministry, was vehemently 
debated in parliament. But the popular feeling was decidedly 
against the Whigs, who were considered to have made ** a scan- 
dalous attempt to force the King's conscience ; " a dissolution 
took place in April ; and on the first division in the new parlia- 
ment (June 26), a majority appeared for the Tories of 97 in the 
Lords, and 195 in the Commons, 

VII. — Campaign of Friedland — Peace of Tilsit, 

432. The change of ministry in Britain produced an imme- 
diate alteration in her Continental policy. Bred in the school of 
Pitt, Mr Canning and Lord Castlereagh had imbibed his ardent 
hostility to the French Revolution ; and no sooner were they in 
office than they hastened to remedy the disastrous effects of the 
ill-judged parsimony of their predecessors. A treaty between 
Russia and Prussia, to which Sweden had given her adhesion, 
had been signed at Bartenstein (April 25) for the vigorous 
prosecution of the war ; and Great Britain hastened to unite 
herself to the confederacy. By a convention signed (June 17) 
at London, she agreed to provide 20,000 troops to co-operate in 
Pomerania against the flank and rear of the French, and to fur- 
nish a subsidy of a million to Prussia ; but these succours now 
came too late. The Czar, whose exertions had been hampered 
at the outset by the impolitic denial of the aid which he had 
confidently expected, was deeply irritated against the British 
government, and loudly complained of having been deserted 
while he was risking his empire, for the common interests of 
Europe, in a mortal struggle with France ; while such was the 

^. D. 1807« MEASURES OF NAPOLEON. 271 

destitution in which the arsenals had heen left by the late 
administration, that it was not till a fortnight after the peace of 
Tilsit that the armament under Lord Cathcart reached the Baltic 
shores ! 

433. Napoleon^ at the same time, while continuing in his ad' 
dresses to the Senate to profess his readiness for peace, was un- 
ceasing in his preparations for war. The ill-timed advances of 
Spain towards an alliance with Prussia (p. 261) afforded him a 
pretext for extorting an auxiliary force of 16,000 of her best troops 
under the Marquis of Romana, who reached the Elbe in the 
middle of May; but his efforts to detach Sweden from the coali- 
tion totally fftiled. Gustavus had indeed been compelled (in 
April), by the non-payment of the British subsidies, to conclude 
an armistice for Pomerania ; but he denounced it as soon as he 
was aware of the change of policy at London, and even at- 
tempted, in an interview with Marshal Brune, who commanded 
the corps opposed to him, to bring him over to the party of the 
Bourbons. To guard against any descent of the British, Napo« 
leon had meanwhile directed the formation of an army of re- 
serve on the Elbe ; while he concluded at Warsaw (May 7) 
treaties of alliance with Turkey and Persia, from both which 
powers he had received magnificent embassies. Already his 
early schemes of Oriental conquest recurred to his mind, and he 
was negotiating with the Porte for the passage of an army across 
its dominions, when the seizure of Parga and other towns on 
the Adriatic coas^ as dependencies of Venice, excited the alarm 
of the Divan ; and though the act was instantly withdrawn and 
disavowed, the suspicions of the Turks could not be allayed, and 
the passage of the troops was refused. 

434. The French army, meanwhile, largely recruited with 
gallant and enthusiastic Poles, lay in its quarters behind the 
Passarge, the passes over which were carefully guarded ; while 
the wants of the soldiers were amply supplied by the agricultural 
riches of Old Prussia and the immense requisitions levied from 
the conquered provinces in the rear. The Russians, the bulk of 
whose force^ky in an intrenched camp round Heilsberg on the 

272 SIEGE OF DANTZIC. a. d. 1807. 

Alle, were far from having at their disposal the same resources a» 
the French ; hut the two armies remained immoyahle for nearly 
four months after Eylau. Napoleon was awaiting the rednctiou 
of the Silesian fortresses in his rear (the fate of whidi has 
been anticipated on p. 261) ; hut the siege ol Dantzie, which 
was defended bj 17,000 men under Marshal Kalkreuth, was an 
operation of more difficuUj. Situated at the mouth of the 
Vistula, this great emporium of Polish commerce is defended not 
only by its own strong ramparts and the fort of Weichselmunde, 
but by the marshy nature of the surrounding country, whidi is 
traversed only by a few causeways. The first operations of the 
besiegers were directed against the Nehrung, or long tongue of 
land which separates the Frische-haff from the Baltic ; and which, 
after a series of conflicts (March 18-22), they succeeded in clear- 
ing of the Prussians, thus cutting off the land communications 
of the town ; while the Holm Island, at the extremity of the 
Nehrung, was carried by assault (May 6). The town was now 
pressed on all sides : a gallant attempt to raise the siege (May 
14), by a Russian corps which landed at Neufahrwasser at the 
mouth of the Vistula, was defeated, after a desperate conflict, by 
Oadinot and Lannes, who commanded the besieging corps ; and 
the works of the Hagelsberg fort, which covered the town on the 
west, were ruined by mines. The ammunition of the garrison 
was now nearly exhausted; and a British brig haying been 
captured in an attempt to pass the French batteries with a 
supply of powder, Kalkreuth was forced to capitulate (May 27) ; 
and this great fortress, with 900 pieces of cannon, fell into the 
hands of the French. 

435. During these operations, the Russian grand army had 
been reinforced by several corps, including the guards under the 
Grand-duke Constantine, so that the whole force under Benning- 
sen now amounted to 120,000 men — ^but not more than 90,000 
eould be concentrated on the Alle for the immediate shock ; 
while the French Emperor had not less than 150,000 foot and 
35,000 horse — ^a greater host than had ever yet been witnessed 
in modern Europe. The Russian commander had therefore 


constmeted formidable lines on both banks of the Alle, within 
which he intended to await the arrival of Prince Labanoff 
with 30,000 fresh men ; but the exposed situation of Ney's corps 
which lay at Guttstadt, half-way between the two armies, 
tempted him (June 5) to hazard a stroke for its destruction ; and 
by a skilful feint against the bridges of the Passarge, he com- 
pletely succeeded in surprising the French marshal, who was 
driven across that river with the loss of 2000 men. But Napoleon, 
moved by the danger of his lieutenant, concentrated his troops in 
such masses that the Russians in turn fell back to their intrench- 
ment at Heilsberg, which they reached in safety (June 9), after 
some desperate conflicts between their rear under Bagrathion 
and the pursuing French caValry. 

436. The design of Napoleon now was to engage the attention 
of the enemy by a front attack on their lines, while he moved 
50,000 men round their flank, so as to threaten their commu- 
nications with their magazines at Konigsberg — ^a plan rendered 
feasible by his vast superiority of force. Nearly 80,000 men, 
with 500 pieces of cannon, defended the Russian intrenchments, 
which were attacked by the divisions of St Cyr and Legrand 
(June 10) with all the characteristic impetuosity of the French 
soldiery. But the fire of the Russian batteries, and the obstinate 
valour of their right wing under Prince Gortchakoflj rendered 
all these efforts fruitless; fresh troops were in vain brought 
up; and after twelve hours of frightful carnage, the French 
were repulsed at midnight, with the loss of 12,000 men, to the 
great chagrin of Napoleon. The march of Davoust on his flank 
determined Benningsen, however, to retreat on Bartenstein — 
a movement which was executed without opposition on the 
night of the 11th. The French, however, followed close upon 
his traces ; and while Murat and Victor pressed forward over 
the lately ensanguined fields of Eylau, on the road to Konigsberg, 
Napoleon himself was on the point of interposing between the 
Russians and their own frontier; and Benningsen, hastening the 
march of his weary columns, arrived on the 18th at Friedland, a 
considerable town on the left bank of the AUe, 

274 BATTLE OF FRIEDLAND. A. d. 1807. 

437. On the following night, however, he received information 
that the corps of Lannes, which had been greatly weakened at 
the battle of Heilsberg, lay at a village only three miles in front 
of Friedland ; and instantly determining to seize the opportunity 
of crushing it, he attacked it on the morning of the 14th. Lannes, 
however, was soon supported by Mortier ; and while Benningsen 
still thought that these two corps were all he had to contend 
with, he was insensibly engaged in a general battle, with only 
55,000 men at his disposal, and the Alle in his rear, which he 
had crossed in his advance against Lannes; while Napoleon, 
who arrived on the scene of action at one o'clock, had not less 
than 10,000 horse and 70,000 infantry. He delayed the attack, 
however, for several hours ; and the Russian general began to 
hope that he might regain the right bank at night without moles- 
tation. But at 5 P.M. the signal was given ; and Ne/s column, 
charging on the French right with the fury of a tempest, drove 
in the Russian divisions opposed to it, and advanced nearly to 
the town of Friedland. Here, however, the French were in turn 
repelled with vast slaughter, by the Russian imperial guards— 
but the battle was restored by Victor, and the town and bridges 
of Friedland were fired by the Russian fugitives in their confusion. 
The retreat of the centre and right, which had hitherto combated 
with success against overwhelming numbers, was thus cut o£F; 
but these undaunted bands, closing their ranks, forced their way 
through the surrounding masses of the enemy at the point of 
the bayonet, and retired slowly and in solid order to the fords. 
The water was breast-high, and many were drowned, but not a 
single battalion surrendered ; and except 5000 wounded, few 
prisoners were made. .The total loss was 17,000 men, but no 
colours, and only 17 guns : the French lost 8000 men, besides 2 
eagles. The exhaustion of his troops, however, consequent on 
the desperate resistance which they had encountered, prevented 
Napoleon from following up the pursuit with his usual vigour : 
the Russians retreated without molestation to Allenberg and 
Wehlau, forming a junction at the latter place (June 18) with 
the corps of Lestocq and Eamenskoi which had evacuated 

A. D. 1807. TREATY OF TILSIT. 275 

Eonigsberg after bringing off the magazines. The united force 
crossed the Niemen at Tilsit on the following day, burning the 
bridges behind him. 

438. The disastrous battle of Friedland destroyed the confederacy 
against France. •» Disheartened by defeat, and disgusted by the 
parsimony of Britain and the timidity of Austria, Alexander 
had no longer any object or interest in continuing the war ; and 
an armistice was proposed on the I9th, and at once acceded to. 
The proposition, indeed, was not less agreeable to JNapoleon, who 
was unprepared to follow up his victory by carrying the war 
into the heart of Russia, while a British expedition was on the 
point of landing on the Elbe ; and an interTiew was arranged 
between the two Emperors, which took place (June 25) on a 
raft (the memorable rafi of Tihit) moored in the middle of the 
Niemen. The meeting of the rival monarchs was cordial : and 
the first words of Alexander were—'' I hate the English as much 
as you do, and am ready to join you against them." — ^'^ In that 
case," replied Napoleon, " peace is already made." Before they 
parted, the outlines of the treaty were arranged — ^the world 
afforded room for the aggrandisement of both. 

439. At a second conference on the following day, the King of 
Prussia was present : but that unhappy prince, destitute of every- 
thing, had no longer any alternative but submission to the 
conqueror. The Queen arrived two days later : but Napoleon 
had no chivalry in his composition, and all the talents and grace 
of this beautiful woman failed to procure any mitigation of the 
hard terms which he exacted from Prussia. The intimacy of the 
two Emperors had become sg great that everything was settled 
by themselves in private conferences ; and after a fortnight the 
treaties were formally signed — ^that between France and Russia 
on the 7th of July, the second, between France and Prussia, on 
the 9th. Silesia, and the provinces on the right bank of the 
Elbe, were restored to the King of Prussia ; but all the Prussian 
acquisitions in Poland (with the exception of the province of 
Bialystock, which was given to Russia) were bestowed, under 
the new title of the grand-duchy of Warsaw, on the King of 


276 ITS 8ECBET ARTICLES. a. d. 1807. 

Saxony ; Dantzic was declared, at least in name, a free city ; 
and the Prussian proyinces on the left bank of the Elbe were 
erected into a new kingdom of Westphalia, for Jerome Buona- 
parte, the Emperor's brother. Nearly half of her dominions 
and population were thus seyered at one sweep from Prussia ; 
but even the fortresses and territories of which she was nomi< 
nally left in possession were still occupied by French troops, as 
security for the payment of the war contributions — a pretext 
which (as these enormous sums never could be fully discharged) 
was made to justify their retention up to the campaign of 
Moscow ; while the establishment of the new kingdoms of West- 
phalia and Saxony, with the grand-duchy of Warsaw, virtually 
brought the French frontier up to the Niemen. The King, how- 
ever, could only submit to hard necessity ; and he took leave of 
the subjects thus torn from his sceptre in a noble proclamation, 
which commanded the sympathy of all Europe by the heroic 
resignation with which he bowed before this tremendous stroke 
of fortune. 

440. But thesechanges, important as they were, were inugnificant 
when compared with the secret convention concluded at the same 
time between the French Emperor and the Russian autocrat. 
Thesetwo potentates, deeming themselves invincible when united, 
had virtually agreed to divide the world between them. The 
East, including the greater part of the Ottoman empire, was 
assigned to Russia — ^the West to France ; while both were to join 
in* hostility against the maritime power of Britain, and <' to sum- 
mon the three courts of Stockholm, Copenhagen, and Lisbon to 
declare war against Great Britain.'i The existing dynasties in 
Spain and Portugal were to be replaced by princes of the family 
of Napoleon ; and in the partition of Turkey, Egypt and the 
Adriatic coasts were to be the share of France. Roumelia and 
Constantinople, however, were still to remain subject to the 
Sultan — neither party could be persuaded to cede to the other 
the possession of that matchless capital. 

441. But these triumphs had been purchased by France at a 
fearful price, in the blood of her best and bravest. Authentic 

Ju D. 1806. BERLIN BSCBEE. 277 

documents prove that, during the campaign from the Saale to 
the Niemen, not less than 420,000 sick and wounded were received 
into the French hospitals — a terrific catalogue, which shows that 
the triple conscription, amounting in all to 240,000 in eight 
months, was not more than was required to replenish the chasms 
in the ranks. 



i 1807-9. 

I. Continental System and Imperial Qovemmerd of Napoleon. 

442. The hattle of Trafalgar, hy annihilating the prospect of 
invading Britain, had changed the method, hut not the ohject, 
of Napoleon's hostility. His plan was now to sap the strength 
of Britain, and excite distress and disunion among her popu- 
lation, by a rigid exclusion of her flag and commerce from the 
harbours of all the Continental states ; and at last, having in the 
jnean time got possession, by force or by treaties, of all the fleets 
of Europe, to unite them on some central point, whence an 
invading army of irresistible numbers could at once be poured 
on the British shores. Hence the gigantic works constructed at 
Antwerp — ^a point, as he said, ^ in itself worth a kingdom ;*' and 
his refusal to resign which frustrated the negotiations at Ohatil- 
Ion in 1814 ; and hence the famous Berlin Decree (Nov. 21, 1806), 
which, ostensibly issued ii^ retaliation for the blockade of the 
Prussian coasts, was in fact an announcen^ent of the new system 
of hostility thenceforth to be directed against Britain. Under 
its provisions, " the British islands were declared in a state of 
blockade; all commerce or communication with them prohibited ; 
and all British subjects found in the countries under the control 
of France made prisoners of war. All British property or mer- 
chandise similarly circumstanced was confiscated ; and all vessels 
coming from Great Britain or any of its colonies were declared 


good prizes.*' Not a moment was lost in enforcing these rigor- 
ous enactments to the utmost : an army of inspectors, custom* 
house officers, &c., overspread the countries occupied by the 
French; and in North Germany particularly, the search for 
British goods became a pretext for innumerable extortions and 
abuses. So ruinous were its consequences that Louis Buonaparte, 
King of Holland, at first refused to enforce it in his dominions, 
and was only compelled to do so by the peremptory menaces of 
his brother. 

443. The first retort of Britain to the Berlin Decree, was by an 
Order in Council (Jan. 7, 1807) directing the capture of all vessels 
trading between any two ports from which British ships were 
excluded, thus cutting ofi^ the neutral coasting trade in these 
cases. But a few months' experience showed the necessity of a 
more rigorous and extensive system of retaliation ; and a second 
Order in Council appeared (Nov. 11), which, reciting the Berlin 
Decree as a preamble, proclaimed a blockade of France and the 
States under her sway, as the blockade of the British islands had 
been published by Napoleon — and declared all vessels good prizes 
which should be bound for any of their ports, unless they had 
previously touched at, or cleared out from, a British harbour. 
In answer to this second order. Napoleon forthwith (Dec. 17) 
fulminated the Milan Decree, declaring " all vessels which sub- 
mitted to be searched by British cruisers, or paid any British 
imposts, to have lost their neutral privileges ; and that all ships 
coming from, or going to, any harbour in Great Britain or its 
colonies, or any country occupied by British troops, should be 
made prize.'* 

444. But these prohibitive systems were soon evaded on both 
sides. Not many months after the Berlin Decree, a lucrative source 
of revenue was opened in France by the sale, at enormous prices, 
of licenses under the Emperor's hand for the importation of 
British goods, undor an obligation (easily eluded) of exporting 
French produce to an equal amount. British manufactures and 
colonial produce were consequently sold on the Continent at 
exorbitant prices ; and the example thus set was soon followed 


by the sale in Britain of similar licenses of exemption from the 
Orders in Council. Thus, while British goods were burnt in the 
market-places of Continental cities, and unhappy wretches shot 
for conniving at their introduction — while the British admi- 
ralty court was daily condemning ships for contravening the 
Orders in council, both governments were openly violating the 
very decrees to which they required such implicit obedience in 
others. The sale of licenses at length became a principal source 
of the private revenue of the Emperor, and was carried to such a 
pitch that, in 1812, the vaults of theTnileries contained in hard 
cash not less than four hundred millions of francs (j£l 6,000,000), 
derived almost wholly from this source. This vast sum did not 
appear in the public accounts ; but from it were chiefly derived the 
means for the stand against combined Europe in 1813 and 1814. 
445. Great and unparalleled was the joy which greeted Napo- 
leon on his arrival at Paris (July 27) after the peace of Tilsit. 
The great contest appeared to be over : Prussia had been crushed, 
Austria overawed, and Russia, if not subdued, converted into a 
firm ally. So unprecedented a series of triumphs might have 
turned the heads of a less enthusiastic people ; but the addresses 
of the orators in the Senate and Chamber of Deputies went 
beyond every allowable limit in their slavish adulation. A great 
Ute (Nov. 25) in honour of the Grand Army raised these trans- 
ports to a pitch of delirium ; but Napoleon had already (Aug. 
15) availed himself of this burst of feeling to eradicate the last 
vestige of public discussion in the legislature, by the final sup- 
pression of the already mutilated Tribunate, the functions of 
which were transferred to committees of the legislative body* 
The change was, however, received with thunders of servile 
applause even by the members of the Tribunate ; and Napoleon, 
encouraged by this success, took a still more decisive step in the 
establishment (Sept. 27) of a rigid censorship of the press, extend- 
ing not only to journals and periodicals, but to all works on 
whatever subject. From that time to the end of the Empire, 
every approach to free discussion on public affairs in France, and 
its dependent states, was more thoroughly stifled than any power 

280 TITLES OF HONODR REVIVED. a. d. 1808. 

had yet been able to effect ; and all who ventured to assert in^ 
dependence of thought were persecuted with relentless rigour by 
the Imperial police. Madame de Stael, driven first from Franee, 
and afterwards fromN Switzerland and yienn% found refuge 
at last only in Russia ; and her friend, the beautiful Madame 
Recamier, shared the same fate for a visit which she paid to the 

446. The thirst, meanwhile, for public employment — always 
great in France, from that passion for individual elevation which 
was the secret spring of the Revolution — ^rose to a perfect mania, 
and contributed greatly to the rapid progress of the system of ceti' 
trcUisation, Each prefect of a department, holding all the patro^ 
nage within his jurisdiction, was (as Napoleon remarked) ^ a little 
emperor;*' but he derived all his authority from the appointment 
of the monarch, in whom was also vested the nomination of all 
civil, ecclesiastical, military, or naval functionaries of every de- 
gree. But notwithstanding all the executive vigour resulting 
from this system, no one knew better than Napoleon that it was 
not thus that the foundation for a durable dynasty could be laid. 
" An aristocracy," said he, " is the only true support of a mon- 
archy ;" and to supply this defect was the constant effort of his life. 
In pursuance of this scheme he had, soon after Austerlitz, created 
most of his marshals and ministers princes or dukes, by titles 
taken from some foreign possession ; but the formal re-establish- 
ment was by a decree of the Senate on 11th March 1808, by which 
the titles of prince, duke, count, baron, and chevalier were 
restored, and conferred with great profusion ; most of the new 
noblesse being endowed with estates and revenues in the con- 
quered countries. The speeches on this occasion in the legislative 
body, many of the members of which had voted for the abolition 
of nobility in 1790, were signal monuments of political ter^ver- 
sation: but all the efforts of Napoleon (in pursuance of his 
favourite scheme of amalgamation, or fusion as he called it) to 
effect a union between these ennobled soldiers of fortune and the 
remains of the old nobility, whom he had recalled, met with but 
limits sui^cess. To the remnant of old republicans the resto* 


ration of hereditary distinctions was especially nnpalatable ; 
bat, on the other hand, the path of honour now laj open to all ; 
and the aspiring temper of the Tiers Etat was gratified by the 
possibility that every peasants son might attun these prizes. All 
the forms of the old etiquette were now reyived at the Tuileries 
with increased splendour and minuteness of detail ; and such 
was the state of the imperial court, that instances occurred of 
seven kings being seen waiting at one time for an audience of 

447. The despotism of the Imperial rule, however, was regular, 
conservative, and systematic ; and everything presented an aspect 
of order and tranquillity. The stoppage of external commerce 
gave a vast impetus to domestic industry and internal traffic ; 
and the manufacturers, free from all foreign competition, were 
roused into more than former activity, by the vast public expen- 
diture^ in which must be included the enormous sums levied 
from half Europe, in the shape of subsidies and contributions — 
all of which were laid out for the benefit of the French people. 
On his ret am from Austerlitz,the Emperor had found the treasury 
empty, and the bank nearly insolvent ; but the plunder of the 
next campaign gave him a year*s revenue in advance in the stat« 
coffers, besides a large reserved treasure in the vaults of the 
Tuileries. All the armies quartered beyond the frontier, more- 
over, were maintained and paid by the inhabitants of the coun- 
tries occupied ; so that, as long as the rule of Napoleon endured 
over foreign nations, no want of money was ever felt at head- 
quarters. Hence were derived the funds for the execution of 
the magnificent public works which illustrate this era. Roads, 
bridges, canals, and dockyards — colleges for instruction in sill 
branches — and public monuments commemorative of the glorious 
deeds of this brilliant period, were seen rising on all sides ; and 
the people at large, dazzled by the splendour of the spectacle, 
yielded to the illusion that the Revolution, nursed in violence, 
and baptised in blood, was now to shine forth in a blaze of 
unprecedented glory. 

448. But all these glories and substantial advantages were but 


the gildiDg of the chains of servitude. The Penal Code made its 
appearance, Feb. 1, 1810 ; and of the 480 crimes which it enume- 
rated, no less than 220 were state offences, so minutely subdivided 
and specified, as in effect to render amenable to punishment 
every one obnoxious in the smallest degree to government By 
a decree of 3d March in the same year, eight state prisons were 
established in France, and were soon filled with a strange and 
incongruous assemblage. Those in the north were chiefly 
occupied by Bourbonists and democrats : those in the south by 
ecclesiastics who had been involved in the fall of the Pope : but 
numbers were immured for no other reason than having acci- 
dentally excited the jealousy of the Emperor or his ministers. 
An order signed by Napoleon, or his minister of police, was a 
sufficient warrant, not only in France, but throughout Germany 
and Italy, for the arrest of any individual, who was paraded 
through the towns, loaded with chains like a malefactor, and 
then consigned to the gloomy oblivion of the state prisons. The 
universality of the Imperial sway added fearfully to its terrors ; 
except in Russia, Turkey, or Britain, Europe afforded no asylum 
for the victim of tyrannie persecution. A despotism was thus 
effectually maintained, unparalleled for rigour and severity in 
modem times ; not a whisper of discontent or resistance was 
heard ; and all classes vied in adulation of the ruler who was 
visibly draining the hearths blood of the country. 

449. It was in the enforcement of the conscription that the 
greatest difficulty was experienced. During the ten years of the 
Empire, not less than 2,300,000 conscripts .were voted by .the 
legislature, and furnished by the nation ; and of these 2,200,000 
perished in the service of the Emperor ! Penalties of the severest 
description were denounced against the refractory or deserters, 
till evasion became almost impossible : and the practical result 
was that the whole youth of the nation, of the requisite age, and 
capable of undergoing its fatigues, were voluntarily or involun- 
tarily enrolled in the profession of arms. 

450. The system of public instruction was also calculated to 
favour the same tendency. Except the ecclesiastical schools, only 


one of which was allowed in each department, the whole control 
of education was lodged in a body called the Imperial Uniyersity; 
but this institution was wholly different from a university in 
our sense of the term. It was rather a vast system of instruct- 
ing police diffused over the country, and dependent on a central 
board, consisting of a grand-master, with numerous high func- 
tionaries under him. The successive stages were through schools 
of primary instruction, coll^;es, and lyceums — ^from the last of 
which the most deserving youths were transferred to the military 
academies, or the Polytechnic School at Paris. The course of 
education was conducted on the strictest principles of military 
subordination : the pupils were classed in detachments under their 
officers, and their studies sedulously directed to whatever might 
encourage a spirit of devotion to the Emperor, and at the same 
time of military aggrandisement. Thus combining into one 
government all the known modes of enslaving mankind. Napo- 
leon forced, by the conscription, all the physical energies of his 
subjects into the ranks of war, while their thoughts were en- 
thralled by terrors of the police and the censorship of the press ; 
and by this system of centralised education, he apparently aimed 
at throwing still more irremovable chains over the minds of 
fature generations. 

II. The Copenhagen Expedition — War between Etusia and 


451. Thetreaty of Tilsit was far from being receivedat St Peters- 
burg with the same satisfaction as at Paris. Though Russia had 
extricated herself unscathed from the strife, she had still failed 
in the object of the war ; the nobles, moreover, foresaw, in the 
adoption of the Continental System, the loss of the principal 
market for their produce ; and so strong was this feeling of dis- 
content, that Savary, when he appeared in the Russian capital as 
ambassador of France, received not a single invitation to any 
private circle. The political changes resulting from the pacifica- 
tion were meanwhile in progress. New constitutions, framed by 


Talleyrand, were imposed on the grand-duchy of Warsaw ( Jalj 
22) and the Kingdom of Westphalia (Dec. 16). By the former, 
the ducal crown was declared hereditary in the house of Saxony, 
the Grand-duke being invested with the whole executive; while 
a shadow of representation appeared in a senate of eighteen, 
and a chamber of deputies of one hundred members, without 
power of open discussion. The Westphalian constitution was also 
wholly on the French model, consisting of a king, state-council, 
and silent legislature ; all exclusive privileges were abolished, and 
trial by jury introduced : the contingent of the kingdom, as part 
of the Confederation of the Rhine, was fixed at 20,000 soldiers. 
462. The Hanse Towns and Rhenish States, meanwhile, found 
themselves grievously disappointed in their hope that the peaco 
would deliver them from the scourge of warlike armaments and 
military contributions. Dantzic, which was to have been a free 
city, was occupied by a French garrison under Rapp ; but it was 
on the people of Prussia that the hand of conquest fell heaviest 
Hard as were the ostensible conditions of the treaty of Tilsit^ 
they were greatly aggravated in the course of the exaction. 
Besides the war contribution of £24,000,000, fresh claims, to the 
amount of £6,600,000, were brought forward after the peace by 
Daru, the French receiver-general for North Germany ; the prin- 
cipal fortresses were retained in pledge, for these payments ; 
while 160,000 men were quartered on the territory and main- 
tained at its expense. The King was further bound, by a sup- 
plementary conf ention, not to keep on foot more than 42,000 
men, to adopt the Continental System, and to declare war against 
Britain. To all human appearance the power of Prussia was 
completely destroyed : but the spirit of the King and the nation 
was unbroken ; and though Hardenberg was driven from office 
by the j ealousy of Napoleon, he found a worthy successor in Baron 
Stein, who now became minister of the interior. The admirable 
reforms which he introduced may be considered as the Magna 
Charta of the peasants and burghers, on whom he first conferred 
the right of holding land ; and though soon exiled, like Harden- 
berg, on the requisition of France, he continued from his retreat 


in Gourland to direct the Prussian councils, while the measures 
of Scharnhorst were equally effective in the war department. By 
the abolition of corporal punishment, and by throwing open to 
all the higher grades of the army, he revived the spirits of the 
soldiers ; and by introducing brief periods of service, and con- 
stantly supplying the place of those discharged by fresh recruits, 
he silently prepared the materials of a formidable army, while 
the apparent numbers of the troops were scrupulously kept 
within the prescribed limits. Meanwhile, the secret associations 
of the Tugendbund (society or bond of virtue), having for their 
object the future deliverance of Germany, were formed and rami- 
fied throughout the country. All ranks and classes, alike out- 
raged by the conquerors, combined in these fraternities, which 
were headed by some of the most exalted spirits of the age, and 
became, in after years, powerful auxiliaries in the overthrow of 
French despotism. 

453. Austria, during these transactions, was employed ingrar 
dually repairing her losses ; and had at length (Oct. 10) procured 
the evacuation of Braunau, which the French had held, under 
various pretences, since the peace of Presburg. The King of Sweden 
had continued in arms since the peace of Tilsit ; but, blockaded in 
Stralsund by an overwhelming force under Marshal Brune, he 
first withdrew with his troops to the isle of Bugen, and finally 
(Sept. 7) concluded a convention, in virtue of which he returned 
with his fleet and army to Sweden. But at the same moment, 
when the Continental war was thus closed, a blow was struck by 
Great Britain which proved of the highest importance to the 
future prospects of the maritime contest. 

454. In spite of the precautions of the two Emperors, the secret 
articles of Tilsit had become known to the British government ; 
and the march of French troops towards Holstein indicated 
that Denmark would forthwith be summoned to place her fleet 
at the disposal of the new alliance. The cabinet of Copenhagen 
was known to be far from averse to this coalition ; and the 
arrival of the French force would soon enable them to set Great 
Britain at defiances No time was to be lost in such an emer- 


gency. At the end of July, 27 ships of the line, carrying 20,000 
troops, part of the force originally destined for the Elbe, sailed 
for Denmark, and were joined by 10,000 more under Lord Cath* 
cart, who had been acting with the Swedes in Pomerania. The 
whole force appeared off Copenhagen on the 4th of August, and 
immediately stationed a squadron in the Great Belt to cut off 
the communication 1>etween the isle of Zealand and the shores 
of Jutland. To the terms offered by the British commanders— 
who, disclaiming all idea of conquest or capture, demanded the 
fleet in deposit till the conclusion of a general peace— a positive 
refusal was returned by the Prince-Royal (Aug. 16) : the troops 
were landed the same day, and the investment of the capital was 
soon completed. A body of militia, hastily assembled, was 
routed at Eioge by a corps under Sir Arthur Wellesley, whose 
name, already illustrious in Indian warfare, then first appeared 
in high command in Europe. But the Danes were wholly un- 
prepared for resistance ; and after a three days* bombardment of 
Copenhagen, in which great damage was done to the city, their 
stubborn valour was compelled to give way (Sept. 5), and a 
capitulation was signed. The British took possession of the 
-citadel and arsenals till the fleet could be rigged and equipped ; 
and at the beginning of October returned to Britain, bringing 
with them their magnificent prize, consisting of 18 ships of the 
line and 15 frigates, besides brigs and small vessels. 

455. A general cry of indignation burst forth throughout Europe 
against the Copenhagen expedition; and it was vehemently 
attacked in parliament as a gross act of national iniquity, which 
no circumstances could justify or palliate. These accusations 
derived additional weight from the pertinacious refusal of the 
ministers to produce the secret articles of Tilsit, of which they 
alleged themselves to be in possession — a refusal dictated by an 
honourable regard for the safety of those persons through whose 
agency the information had been obtained, but which led at the 
time to serious doubts whether such articles really existed.* 

* It was not till the death (in 1817) of the person who fiimished the 
intelligence, that the particulars were communicated to parliament. 


But the other secret stipulations were not long in being acted 
upon. Early in August, a show was made by Russia of offering 
her mediation to Great Britain for the conclusion of a general 
peace ; but as Mr Canning required, as a pledge of the sincerity 
of the Czar, a frank communication of the secret articles at Til-> 
sit, the proposal fell to the ground. While matters were in 
this state, the Copenhagen expedition took place, when, in. an* 
swer to the reclamations of Russia, the British ambassador, Lord 
Leveson Gower, justified the measure by aFOwing his knowledge 
of the articles in question. The cabinet of St Petersburg, ho wey er, 
still continued to hesitate ; but the pressing demands of Napo- 
leon (who had been stung to the quick by the promptitude of 
the stroke at Copenhagen) at length decided the Emperor Alex- 
ander on acting up to the pledges to which he had personally 
engaged himself at Tilsit The principles of the Armed Neutra- 
lity were once more proclaimed, and war was declared against 
Great Britain early in November. 

456. Immediately after the departure of the British, Denmark 
had concluded (Oct. 16) an alliance, offensive and defensive, 
with France, and Sweden was now summoned by Russia to join 
the Continental League. But the King, faithful to his engage- 
ments, resolutely refused submission; on which war was de- 
clared against him early in 1808, and an overwhelming force 
poured into Finland, the seizure of which by Russia had been 
agreed on at Tilsit. Napoleon, meanwhile, had made a show of 
fulfilling his engagements to the Porte by proffering his media- 
tion with Russia, and an armistice had actually been concluded 
(Aug. 1807). But as the evacuation of Moldavia and Wallachia 
was constantly delayed, the Turks speedily became aware that 
they were deluded by France, and prepared to renew the war. 

457. In the autumn. Napoleon set out for Italy, where impor- 
tant political changes were to be made. The laA vestiges of repre- 
sentative government were suppressed in the kingdom of Italy 
by the summary abolition (Nov. 20) of the legislative body ; and 
the puppet King of Etruria was forced to give up his dominions, 
which were incorporated with France under the title of the 


department of the Taro. Borne was occupied by French troops ; 
and the seizure of Ancona, and of all the eastern provinces of the 
Ecclesiastical States, completed the communication between the 
kingdoms of Naples and Italy, to the latter of which they were 
annexed. The territory of France was also rounded in other 
quarters, by the acquisition of Flushing from Holland, and of 
Kehl, Cassel, and Wesel, on the right bank of the Rhine. 

458. But all these usurpations were trifling compared with those 
on the point of taking place in the Peninsula. As these were, 
however, both in their nature and their ultimate results, the 
most important and eventful of the whole revolutionary period, 
the elucidation of the circumstances leading to them must he 
reserved for a separate section. 

III. Origin of the Peninsular War. 

459. No sooner had Napoleon returned to Paris than his mind 
rev^erted to his designs on the Peninsula. The seizure of Portugal 
bad, indeed, been planned as far back as 1806, when an " army 
of the Gironde,*' numbering 30,000 men, was assembled at 
Bayonne under Junot ; but this threatened Invasion had been 
postponed by the Prussian war. At the same time, the cabinet 
of Madrid discovered that Napoleon was ofiPering to alienate, with- 
out their consent, considerable portions of the Spanish dominions 
— as Puerto Rico to Great Britain, and the Balearic Isles to the 
King of Naples, in exchange for Sicily. As Spain had for ten 
years submitted to the ruin of her trade and navy, and paid an 
enormous war-subsidy in support of the French alliance, their 
indignation at the detection of this perfidy was boundless. A 
secret convention against France was concluded (Aug. 28, 1806) 
with the Russian ambassador at Madrid ; and a proclamation 
jcalliug the nation to arms was issued (Oct. 5) by the Prince of 
the Peace. The battle of Jena put an end to these schemes ; bat 
Napoleon, though he appeared satisfied with the assurance that 
the projected armaments had been against the Moors, availed 
himself of their trepidation to extort the cession of the flower of 


their troops, under the Marquis de Romana, as auxiliaries on the 
Baltic, thus weakening the Peninsula of its best defenders. But 
he still clearly perceived how easily a British army might be 
brought, from this unexpected quarter, up to the frontier of 
France ; he felt, like Louis XIY., that there must no longer be 
any Pyrenees ; and, after the peace of Tilsit, he lost no time in 
commencing operations. His first step (Aug. 12, 1807) was to 
summon Portugal to adopt the Continental System. The Prince- 
Regent, unable to resist, was compelled to close his harbours 
against British ships, and declare war against Britain ; but he 
refused to confiscate the property of the British merchants. 
Junot upon this Teceived orders to march, and crossed the 
Bidassoa accordingly (Oct 19) ; thus commencing the Penin- 
sular WAR. 

460. The Spanish royal family was at this time distracted by 
intrigue to a degree unprecedented even in the darkest periods 
of Italian faction. The King, Charles lY., though by no means 
destitute of talents or good qualities, was so extremely indolent 
as to have surrendered the direction of afiairs entirely to his 
Queen, a sensual and intriguing princess, and to her paramour, 
Bon Manuel Godoy — a man of noble but decayed family, whom 
her criminal favour had raised from the rank of a private in the 
body-guard to absolute authority. Godoy was not naturally a 
bad man, and his administration was never disgraced by acts of 
cruelty ; but his inordinate ambition had led him to conceive 
hopes of founding a new dynasty in Europe ; and the jealousy 
of the heir-apparent at his exorbitant influence had created a 
schism between this prince and his father. The prince of Astu- 
rias, afterwards Ferdinand YII., was at this time twenty-four 
years of age, of a temperament generally facile and luxurious, 
but liable to be roused into irascible impetuosity. He had been 
a widower since 1806, and had lately, under the advice of his 
chief counsellor, the Canon Escoiquiz, made secret overtures to 
Napoleon for the hand of a princess of his family. But Napo- 
leon had already other views on the Peninsula; and at last 
(Oct. 27) a secret treaty was signed at Fontainebleau, between 


France and Spain, for the partition of Portugal ! According to 
this scheme, the northern and southern provinces of that king- 
dom were to be occupied by Spanish troops, while a French 
armj of 28,000 men marched through Spain direct oh Lisbon ; 
and in order to prevent the escape of the Portuguese fleet, a Rus- 
sian squadron of eight sail, under Admiral Siniavin, steered at 
the same time through the Dardanelles for the Tagus. The 
central provinces, with Lisbon, were to remain in the hands of 
the French till a general peace ; the northern districts were to 
compensate the King of Etruria for the cession of his dominions 
to France ; Algarves and Alentejo were to be erected into a 
principality for GkHloy (who had already, at the treaty of Bale, 
received the famous title of Prince of the Peace) ; and Napoleon 
" guaranteed to his Catholic Majesty all his estates in Europe 
south of the Pyrenees." 

461. The iniquity obvious on the face of this treaty was yet 
more detestable from the double perfidy meditated at the same 
time by Napoleon against both Godoy and the Spanish court, and 
which was so little disguised, that Junot from the first received 
orders to administer Portugal solely in the Emperor's name. 
His orders were to proclaim peace to Portugal, and alliance to 
the Prince-Regent, but meanwhile to press on, so as to secure 
the fleet and fortresses of Lisbon before the British could reach 
them. In pursuance of this perfidious policy, the French 
advanced by forced marches, in severe weather and by bad roads, 
with such haste that their corps, composed chiefly of raw con- 
scripts, became wholly disorganised ; and had any resistance been 
offered, they must have been destroyed. Hurrying on like a 
band of robbers, subsisting often on nothing but chestnuts, and 
losing several hundred men a-day in the ravines and torrents, 
the leading bands of their disordered array approached Lisbon 
in the end of November. 

462. The Portuguese capital, defended by strong forts garrisoned 
by 14,000 men, and with a British squadron under Sir Sidney 
Smith in the Tagus, might have opposed a glorious resistance. 
Put the cabinet still continued irresolute, till an ominous line in 


the MoniUur — " the House of Braganza has ceased to reign ^ — 
showed that no submission could avert their fate ; and the 
Prince-Regent announced, in a dignified proclamation (Not. 26), 
his resolution to seek in Transatlantic climes ^ that freedom of 
which Europe had become unworthy." By the prompt aid of 
the British seamen, the fleet was made ready for sea ; and the 
Regent, accompanied by the insane queen and the rest of the 
royal family, and carrying with him the archives and treasure, 
embarked amid the lamentations of the weeping multitude, who 
saw their ancient sovereigns thus leave, apparently for ever, the 
land of their fathers. Scarcely had the ships cleared the bar 
when the French vanguard, about 1600 strong, entered the city 
(Nov. 30) without opposition. 

463. Junot immediately took military possession of the capital 
and surrounding provinces ; while Elvas, Oporto, &c., were occu- 
pied by the Spaniards. The fate of the country was not long in 
suspense. On the 13th December the Portuguese standard was 
everywhere taken down, and replaced by the tricolor flag ; a 
forced loan of £200,000 was levied from the merchants, and the 
people were universally disarmed. At length (Feb. 1, 1808) a 
proclamation from Napoleon was published, appointing Junot 
governor of the whole kingdom, imposing a contribution of 
£4,000,000 (above double the annual revenue of the monarchy), 
and ordering the administration to be carried on in the name of 
the French Emperor. These orders, amid the despair of the 
people, were instantly executed ; 9000 of the best troops were 
marched off to France, and the remainder of the army dis- 
banded ; and a general system of shameless rapine and spolia- 
tion, of which Junot himself set the example, completed the 
degradation of the country and the misery of the inhabitants. 

464. Events of not less importance were at the same time in 
progress in Spain. The overtures of Ferdinand for an imperial 
princess had been left unanswered by Napoleon ; but Godoy 
speedily discovered that some private negotiation was on foot, 
and at length (Oct. 29) an order was obtained from the King for 
the arrest of the prince, and the seizure of his papers. Though 


292 THE FRENCH INVADE SPAIN. a. d. 1808. 

their contents really indicated little more than ranoonr against 
Godoy, and fears of being deprived of the succession through 
the influence of the favourite, they were made the grounds of a 
public accusation against Ferdinand, of conspiring against his 
father's life ; and Charles lY., in a letter to Napoleon (Oct 30), 
invoked the aid of his potent ally against his unnatural son. 
Napoleon, however, was resolved to keep clear of these domestic 
scandals ; and the confession by Ferdinand of his proposal for 
an alliance with the imperial fi&mily wrought an ins^nt change 
in his favour — ^his enemies not knowing how far his relations 
with France might have been carried. The matter was there- 
fore hushed up, and the Prince, after a public profession of 
penitence, restored to his father's favour. But ESscoiquiz, the 
Dukes of Infantado and San Carlos, and other partisans of 
Ferdinand, were exiled ; and Napoleon, who had i|i truth not 
instigated this intrigue, saw with joy the opportunity afforded, 
by the hostility of the father and son, to ^possess both in his 
pwn favour. 

465. It was not long before this resolution was acted upon. By 
the treaty of Fontainebleau, an army of 40,000 (soon raised to 
60,000) men had been stationed at Bayonne, to support, if 
necessary, the force invading Portugal ; and these troops, with- 
out any authority from Madrid, now crossed the frontier. 
Dupont, with 24,000 foot and 4000 horse, reached Valladolid on 
9th January ; an equal force under Moncey soon followed ; and 
14,000 more,^ under Duhesme, marched on Barcelona ; while 
Godoy, lulled by the dreams of anticipated sovereignty, ventured 
on no remonstrance which might endanger his brilliant pros- 
pects. The four great frontier fortresses, Pampeluna, Figueras, 
Barcelona, and San Sebastian, were surprised and seized in 
succession, under circumstances of almost incredible perfidy; 
and by the beginning of March, without a single shot being 
fired, the whole country north of the Ebro was virtually wrested 
from the Spanish crown. A formal demand was at the $ame 
time made (Feb. 27) for the cession of all this territory to France, 
an elusory equivalent being offered in Portugal. 

A. o. 1808. SEYOLUnON AT ARANJUEZ. 293 

466L The tendency of these measares oould not be mistaken ; 
and the arrival of Murat at Boigos (Maich 13), with the title 
of " Lieatenant of the Emperor," completed the alarm of the 
Spanish court. Qodoy, now fully aUye to the danger, counselled 
the King to follow the example of the Prince-B^gent of Portugal, 
and embark for his American dominions; and preparations 
-were made at Aranjuez (March 16) for the journey of the royal 
family to Seyille. It had, however, been rumoured that Ferdi- 
nand was extremely reluctant to accompany the flight of the 
court ; and the peppl^ who regarded him as the only hope of 
the nation, apprehending that he might be forcibly torn away, 
Tose (March 17) in furious tumult The hotel of the Prince of 
the Peace was sacked by the mob ; and though Godoy himself 
escaped the first fury of their search, he at length fell into their 
liands, and owed his life solely to the interposition of Ferdinand. 
The King, deserted by all, and involyed in the opprobrium of 
the obnoxious minister, consulted his own safety by abdicating 
the throne ; and the Prince was proclaimed the same day, 
(March 19), amidst the enthusiastic shouts of the people, as 
Ferdinand VII. 

467. In the midst of these transports of popular joy, Murat, 
with the Imperial Guards and the corps of Moncey, was rapidly 
advancing from Burgos on Madrid. On learning the revolution 
at Aranjuez he redoubled his speed, and, entering Madrid on the 
23d, surrounded by a brilliant staff, took up his quarters in the 
palace of the Prince of the Peace. On the following day Ferdi- 
nand made his public entry into the capital, attended by an 
exulting crowd of 200,000 citizens of all ranks : but Murat, in 
spite of the obsequious flattery heaped on him, avoided every 
semblance of recognising him as king ; while Charles and his 
queen, encouraged by the presence of the French, openly pro- 
tested against the abdication as involuntary and invalid. The 
military posts were occupied by French troops ; and it was soon 
announced that Napoleon in person had resolved on visiting 
Spain, in order to settle, by his powerful intervention, the afiB^irs 
of the distracted Peninsula. 

294 ROYAL FAMILY GO TO BAYONNE. a. d. 1808. 

468. No sooner, in fact, had Napoleon received the account of the 
events at Aranjuez than his resolution was taken. On the fol- 
lowing day (March 26) he offered the Spanish Crown to his 
brother Louis ; and though it was instantly refused by that 
prince, the dethronement of the Spanish Bourbons was irrevo^ 
cably determined on. Savary, the unscrupulous agent of the 
Emperor*s worst deeds, was forthwith sent to Madrid — ostensibly 
to compliment Ferdinand on his accession, but in reality to 
entrap him, by any means, into the power of the Emperor. 
Alternately cajoled and intimidated, Ferdinand at length (April 
10) set out from Madrid to meet Napoleon ; but not finding him 
at Burgos, as he expected, he was drawn on step by step — ^in spite 
of the remonstrances of the more sagacious of his counsellors, 
and the loud murmurs of the people in the districts through 
which he passed — till, on the 20th, he at last crossed the frontier, 
and, proceeding to Bayonne, committed himself to the honour 
of the French Emperor. On the same evening, after dining with 
Napoleon, he was followed to his hotel by Savary, and informed 
that he must instantly resign the throne in favour of a prince of 
the Napoleon dynasty. 

469. While this act of unparalleled perfidy was in progress, 
Murat, at Madrid, had gained possession of the person of Grodoy, 
who was immediately sent under escort to Bayonne ; and the old 
King and Queen, acting under the insidious advice of the French 
chief to lay their grievances before Napoleon, soon after set out 
for the same place, where they arrived on the 30th April. But 
notwithstanding the complete success which had hitherto 
attended his machinations. Napoleon distinctly foresaw the 
disastrous results which might spring from a national revolt ; 
and his instructions to Murat were precise, to avoid everything 
which might rouse into action the dormant energy of the Spanish 
character. But the military rudeness of Murat was ill adapted 
for this delicate task ; and his precipitation and arrogance hast- 
ened the catastrophe which the Emperor was anxious to avoid. 
Sanguinary tumults had already occurred at Burgos, Toledo, and 
elsewhere, between the French soldiers and the inhabitants ; and 

A. D. 1808. MASSACRE AT MADBIB. 295 

the removal of the remainder of the royal family from Madrid 
(May 2) at length brought matters to a crisis. An immense 
crowd, which had assembled before the palace to oppose their 
departure, was dispersed by discharges of grape. Everywhere 
the people flew to arms ; several French detachments were sur- 
rounded and cut off; and it was not till after a furious conflict, 
in which upwards of three hundred fell on either side, that 
tranquillity was restored. Had this been all, neither party could 
have been severely blamed for what was clearly an unpre- 
meditated collision ; but a darker tragedy was in preparation. 
Numbers of Spaniards were seized by order of Murat, on the 
charge of having been concerned in the tumult, dragged before a 
military commission, and forthwith shot in cold blood, without 
being allowed the consolations of religion. This atrocious 
massacre, equally impolitic and unjustifiable, at once kindled a 
deadly spirit of national resentment : the tidings flew like wild- 
fire from district to district, and within a few days a general 
insurrection against the invaders had broken out through Spain. 
470. The views of Napoleon, meanwhile, met with an unex- 
pected obstacle in the firmness of Ferdinand, who persisted in 
refusing to yield his rights, with apertinacity which Napoleon had 
not calculated upon in a Bourbon. No man knew better the value 
of at least a show of legal right to win the moral consent of 
nations ; but the arrival of Charles lY. and the Queen at Bayonne 
soon relieved him from this embarrassment. The weak old King, 
completely deceived by Napoleon^s apparent kindness, at once 
lent himself to his projects, declared the Aranjuez abdication 
compulsory and null, and demanded from Ferdinand and his 
brother the resignation of their claims, under pain of being 
proceeded against as traitors. After scenes of scandalous recri- 
mination, in which the violence of the Queen exceeded all 
bounds of decorum, a conditional renunciation, subject to the 
approbation of the Cortes, was at length (May 1) extorted. But 
Ferdinand still refused an absplute resignation, and even author- 
ised a secret deputation, which reached him from the provisional 
government of Madrid, to exercise the functions of sovereignty 

296 JOSEPH MADE KING OF SPAIN. a. d. 1808. 

as long as he eontioued deprived of his liberty. The tidings 
of the bloody commotion at Madrid, however, exhausted Napo- 
leon's forbearance ; and Ferdinand, informed that he must choose 
between submission and death, at length (May 10) signed the 
act of abdication, confirming a deed by which his father had 
previously (May 6) resigned for himself and his descendants the 
crown of Spain and the Indies. Pensions and estates were 
assigned to all the royal captives except the Queen of Etruria, 
who was left wholly unprovided for ; and they were soon after 
removed to yalen9ay, a seat of Talleyrand's, in the heart of 
France, where they continued during the remainder of the war. 

471 . The other arrangements were soon made. The throne, 
refused by Louis, was conferred on Joseph, the King of Naples, 
whose kingdom was thus left vacant for Murat ; the authorities 
at Madrid, exhorted to submission by proclamations from both 
Charles and Ferdinand, were won over without much difiiculty 
by mingled threats and promises ; and an assembly of a hundred 
and fifty Spanish Notables was convoked at Bayonne, to afford 
the colour of popular sanction to the change of dynasty. Joseph, 
who had no choice but to obey, quitted with regret the peaceful 
shores of his Italian realm, and, arriving at Bayonne on 6th June, 
was the same day proclaimed King of Spain and the Indies. 

472. In the annals of the world there is not to be found a more 
atrocious system of perfidy, fraud, and dissimulation, than that 
by which Napoleon won the Peninsular kingdoms. After draw- 
ing off the flower of the Spanish troops into Germany, he entered 
into an agreement with Alexander for the seizure of both these 
monarchies, purchasing his consent by the abandonment of his 
own Turkish ally. He next concluded a treaty with Spain for 
the partition of Portugal, which was cast to the winds imme- 
diately after the occupation of that country ; meanwhile the fron- 
tier fortresses of Spain were seized in a moment of profound 
peace, the capital occupied by French troops, and the royal 
family, by the mingled influence of terror and hope, inveigled 
to Bayonne, only to hear their sentence of dethronement pro- 
nounced by their ally I 

A. D. 1808. DESCBlrtlON OF tHB COUNTRY. 697 

lY. Spanish War — Battle of Corunna. 

473. From the earliest times, the military character and mode of 
warfare of the Spaniards has been marked by peculiar character- 
istics. Inferior to many other nations in firmness to withstand 
the first shock, they are superior to all in the quickness with 
which they rally, and their invincible tenacity under defeat and 
disaster. When their armies are routed and their plains overrun, 
the numerous mountain-chains intersecting the country afford a 
refuge for their broken bands ; the cities make a desperate though 
insulated defence ; and from the wreck of all organised resis- 
tance emerges the formidable guerilla warfare. The geographical 
features of the country have had a principal share in producing 
this efiect. The whole surface may be considered as constituting 
a vast mountainous promontory, with plains of admirable ferti- 
lity stretching to the sea on the east and west ; while in the 
interior is found an assemblage of lofty ridges and elevated desert 
plains, in the centre of which, 1800 feet above the level of the 
sea, stands the city of Madrid. The great rivers consequently 
run to the east and west by long courses, fed by tributary streams 
flowing down ravines often of surprising depth. The roads are 
often mere mountain paths, and little communication is kept up 
between the towns ; while the cities are neither numerous nor 
opulent — the largest, next to the capital, not containing more 
than eighty thousand inhabitants. 

474. Thus intersected in every quarter by long rocky ridges, 
forming a barrier, almost as complete as the Alps or Pyrenees, 
between province and province, it may readily be imagined 
what extraordinary advantages the Peninsula presents to insu- 
lated and defensive war&re ; and the character of the population 
is marked by a similar tendency. The lapse of centuries had 
failed to amalgamate the various races united under a single 
monarchy — the local antipathies of the Gastilians, the Cata- 
lonians, the Aragonese, &c., had lost little of their ancient inve- 
teracy ; hence defeats in one quarter did not lead to submission 

298 COMPARISON OF THE a. d. 1808. 

in another ; and the provinces, when severed from each other, 
were always ready to maintain an independent defence. The 
almost universal corruption and degeneracy of the nobles bad 
not infected the peasantry, who were everywhere an athletic, 
abstemious, enduring race, calculated to become the basis of an 
admirable army. Untainted by revolutionary passions, and 
warmly attached to their clergy, whose spiritual ascendency was 
strengthened by the beneficence and charity with which they 
administered the vast estates of the church, the rural population 
everywhere flew to arms at the voice of their pastors, while the 
citizens were inflamed to equal zeal from opposite motives. The 
dissolution of government had thrown political power into the 
hands of the juntas of the cities ; revolutionary energies were 
called into activity by the very necessity which had everywhere 
thrown the people on their own resources ; and thus the two 
most powerful and usually antagonist motives which can agitate 
mankind — religious enthusiasm and democratic ambition — ^were 
brought for a time into cordial unionby the pressure of common 

' 475. Such was the country destined to become the great battle- 
field between France and Britain. The balance of force, in 
appearance at least, preponderated enormously in favour of Napo- 
leon, who had at his disposal 600,000 French soldiers — including 
70,000 horse — and at least 150,000 from the subject states ; and 
the quality of this vast force was even more formidable than its 
magnitude. Strong in the experience of fifteen years of warfare, 
terrible in the remembrance of a hundred triumphs, they were 
preceded by a prestige of victory, subduing the minds of men into 
that belief of their invincibility which was the surest means of 
realising it ; and their actual efliciency was not inferior to their 
renown. The system of promotion by merit, and the certainty of 
advance in rank which the consumption of life in battle afforded to 
the survivors, at once kept alive the military spirit, and insured 
the inestimable advantage of tried valour and skill in the oflicers 
of all grades, on whom the effectiveness of an army in the field 
must at all times principally depend. Yet the British army was 


far more efficient, both in discipline and experience, than was 
generally supposed on the Continent. In the spring of 1808, it 
consisted of 180,000 regulars— including 26,000 cavalry— 80,000 
militia for home service, nearly equal to the troops of the line, and 
290,000 volunteers. Great part of this force was indeed absorbed 
in the defence of the colonies, but 100,000 men, including 20,000 
cavalry, were still disposable ; and the vast improvements of 
the Duke of York, in discipline and organisation, had tended 
greatly to foster that undaunted moral resolution which has in 
all ages formed the great characteristic of British soldiers. The 
animating conviction of their own superiority in actual combat 
never forsook them ; and though in service as light troops, cheer- 
fulness under fatigue, and practical ingenuity, the French for a 
long time had the advantage, the British from the first bore off 
the palm when it came to the contact of the hostile lines. Their 
cavalry, though irresistible in a single charge, was scarcely equal 
to the French for the protracted fatigues of a campaign ; but 
their artillery was second to none in the world ; and in steadi- 
ness in action, and the terrible vehemence of their charge with 
the bayonet, the British infantry was unquestionably the first in 
Europe. In one important point the British army differed 
totally from the French — ^the officers, taken entirely from the 
higher classes, were separated from the private soldiers by an 
almost impassable line ; and the severe corporal punishments 
by which discipline was enforced, were in some measure neces- 
sary from the rank of society whence the recruits were almost 
exclusively drawn. But the British soldier was better fed, 
clothed, lodged, and paid, than any other in Europe ; and the 
system of pensions, varying according to length or amount of 
service, secured for the veteran, the maimed, or the wounded, an 
adequate maintenance for the rest of his life. 

476. Nor was the actual inequality so great in the projg^ess as 
in the outset of this momentous struggle. Napoleon indeed had, 
at the commencement of the war, 116,000 foot and 16,000 horse 
in the Peninsula, and the principal strongholds were in his 
hands. Subsequently, his force at one period exceeded 300,000 


men ; while there were never 50,000 British soldiers in the 
Peninsula, and for the first three years not more than half that 
number. Still the army of which this force formed the nuelena, 
with Portuguese levies of equal amount, disciplined by British 
officers, soon became extremely formidable, and its central posi- 
tion in Portugal gave it great advantages over the enemy in 
receiving supplies by sea; so that, whenever Wellington hazarded 
a battle, the numbers never differed so greatly as might have 
been expected from the discrepancy in the sum-total. The mili- 
tary force of Spain was far from formidable, either in numbers 
or composition : at the outbreak there were not 70,000 troops 
in the country, and the officers, chiefly taken from the lower 
ranks of gentry, were extremely deficient both in military 
knowledge and spirit. The Portuguese army was at first in 
even a more disorganised state than that of its neighbour ; but 
the ordenanzas, or local militia, afforded a good basis, and the Por- 
tuguese troops, when recast by the skill, and led by the courage 
of British officers, were not long in forming excellent soldiers. 

477. In the original disposition of his troops. Napoleon aimed 
principally at overawing the capital, round which 50,000 men 
were concentrated. Bessi^res had 23,000 around Burgos and 
Vitoria, and 15,000 were under Duhesme in Catalonia. Sueh 
was their situation when the insurrection broke out, in all 
the provinces, with as much vigour and unanimity as if an 
electric shock had pervaded the population. Separate and inde- 
pendent juntas sprang up in each province; and before the 
middle of June, 150,000 men in arms were ready to support the 
regular army. In the north, the movement was unattended 
by any violent ebullitions of popular fury ; but in the south, 
where the fiery Moorish blood predominated, it was far other- 
wise. Numbers were massacred as partisans of the French : the 
governors of Cadiz and Badajos were torn to pieces by the 
mob ; and at Valencia still more frightful atrocities were com* 
mitted. An ecclesiastic, named Balthazar Calvo, heading the 
populace, instigated the slaughter (June 5) of three hundred 
inoffensive French residents ; but the reign of terror was ere long 

jL. D. 1808. AGAINST THE FfiENCH. 301 

arrested hj the vigour of the junta, and Calvo, with many of his 
aoeomplices, suffered death. These deplorable excesses, however, 
called forth the energies of the higher orders, in order to suppress 
them ; and the wisdom and prudence of the junta of Seville^ 
at the head of which was Baavedra, late minister of finance, soon 
gave that body a kind of tacit pre-eminence. On the 6th of 
June they issued an eloquent manifesto, formally declaring war 
against France ; and on the 14th, the first important blow was 
struck, by the bombardment and capture of the French squadron 
under Admiral Bosilly, lying in the harbour of Cadiz. 

478. In the north the revolt had broken out with equal enthu- 
siasm ; and an extraordinary sensation was produced in Britain 
by the arrival of deputies from the junta of Oviedo, soliciting aid. 
The Spanish troops at Oporto were recalled to the defence of their 
own country, and speedily arrived in Oalicia ; while Napoleon, 
fully impressed with the danger of the contest, poured reinforce- 
ments into Spain with all possible expedition. The civil changes 
in progress at Bayonne were at the same time actively pursued. 
The assembled notables, and the late counsell(Hrs of Ferdinand, 
vied with each other in adulation of the new monarch ; and the 
constitution, framed by Napoleon, was unanimously accepted on 
the 15th June. The legislature was to consist of a Senate of 80 
members, named by the King ; and a Cortes of 182, comprising 
25 lay and as many ecclesiastical peers, and 132 deputies — partly 
elected by the provinces and municipalities, and partly selected 
by the King from lists presented to him. On the 9th of July, 
King Joseph set out for Madrid, which he reached on the 20th ; 
and his choice of his ministers, who were chiefly those of Ferdi- 
nand, throws a deep shade of doubt over their fidelity to their 
former unfortunate master. 

479. Future ages will find it difficult to credit the enthusiasm 
-with which the tidings of the Spanish revolt were received in 
Britain. All classes joined in exultation : the aristocratic party 
rejoicing that the wave of revolution had at last broken on a 
rugged shore ; while the lovers of freedom hailed it ad the first 
real effort of the people in the war. It was from the Opposition 

302 FIRST SIEGE OF SABAGOSSA. a. d. 1808. 

benches that the first parliamentary notice of these animating 
events proceeded, when Mr Sheridan (June 15) eulogised in a 
splendid speech the generous patriotism of the Spaniards, and 
called on the government to engage deeply and earnestly in the 
war. Animated by such powerful support from an unexpected 
quarter, the government made most liberal provision for the 
prosecution of the war : envoys were sent to all the provincial 
juntas, and supplies, to an enormous amount in arms, money, and 
stores, poured into Spain. The war-charges for the year (includ- 
ing a subsidy of £1,100,000 to Sweden) reached the prodigious 
sum of £48,300,000 : the total expenditure was £84,797,000, and 
the total income £86,780,000, including a loan of £12,000,000— 
but the unexpected expenses in Spain gave rise, besides this, to a 
liberal issue of exchequer bills, which fell heavily on future years. 
480. The first military operations of importance were those of 
Bessilres in Biscay and Old Castile, where, by sending forth 
columns in all directions, from Burgos as a centre^ he succeeded 
(June 6-12) in crushing the revolt through all the level country 
in the upper valley of the Douro. ]jefebvre, with 6000 foot 
and 800 horse, had been directed against Saragossa ; and after 
thrice routing (June 12, 13, 14) the Aragonese levies under 
the gallant Falafox, he appeared on the 16th before that heroic 
city. Saragossa, standing in a plain and surrounded only 
by a low brick wall, can scarcely be said to be fortified ; *^ but 
the valour of the inhabitants" (as Colmenar prophetically said, 
a century before) '* supplies the want of ramparts.** Repulsed 
in two successive attacks, Lefebvre left the prosecution of the 
siege to General Yerdier, who succeeded (June 27) in carrying 
the Torrero, a height commanding the town, whence he kept up a 
vigorous bombardment ; but neither this, nor repeated assaults 
on the gates, shook the firmness of the citizens, and Yerdier 
found it necessary to commence approaches in form. Palafox, 
who had issued from the walls in the hope of effecting a 
diversion, re-entered the city (July 8), having been again 
defeated; the slender defences were ruined by the French 
breaching batteries; and on the.2d August the assault was given. 


After a desperate struggle, the French penetrated into the streets; 
bat the Spaniards, eonstmcting barricades, and firing from the 
roofe and windows, maintained the conflict with unflinching 
obstinacy from street to street, house to house, and room to room^ 
from the 4th to the 14th of August. Bven the women and chil- 
dren took part in the mortal struggle ; and a reinforcement of 3000 
men haying at last appeared, the enemy retreated on the morning 
of the 15th, abandoning all their heavy cannon and siege stores. 
461. The movement of Moncey from Madrid on Valencia had 
not been more successful. Though he routed with loss a motley 
force which opposed him (June 24) at the rocky ridge of the 
Gabrillas, on the western boundary of the province, he found 
the Valencians, who were conscious that their recent enormities 
left them no hope of mercy, prepared to defend themselves with 
the courage of despair. After losing 2000 men in a fruitless 
attempt (June 28) to storm the hastily-constructed defences in 
front of the city, he was compelled to retreat towards Madrid, 
where Savary (who had succeeded Murat as lieutenant of the 
Emperor) was collecting all his troops to repel the advance of 
Cuesta and Blake from €hilicia, which threatened to intercept 
the communication between Bayonne and the capital. The dis- 
positions of Savary, however, were so vacillating and perplexed, 
that before any reinforcements reached Bessi^l^, that marshal 
had gained a great victory, with only 15,000 men, over 26,000 
Spaniards at Bio-Seco, in the plains of Leon (July 14). Contrary 
to the advice of his colleague, Cuesta had determined to risk his 
army, half of which consisted of new levies, in a general action : 
his dispositions were as faulty as his rashness was ill advised ; 
and the battle^ though for some time bravely contested by the 
regular regiments, ended in a total rout. Three thousand fell 
on the field ; 2000 prisoners and 18 guns were taken ; and the 
confidence of the Spanish soldiers was completely broken. 
Napoleon, now deeming the war over, quitted Bayonne for Paris ; 
while Joseph pursued his journey in security to Madrid, which 
he entered, as already stated, on the 21st of July. 
482.. But while the French Emperor and his brother were 


indulging these hopes, a blow had been stmek in Andalusia, 
which resounded from one end of Europe to the other. Dupont, 
an officer of high military reputation, had marched from Toledo 
upon Cadiz at the end of May, and, after some partial encounters 
with the peasants, reached Cordova (June 8). Though scarce any 
resistance had been made, the city was given up, during several 
days, to all the horrors of war ; rapine and slaughter were 
universal ; even the venerable cathedral, once the mosque of the 
Ommiade caliphs, was stripped of its wealth and ornaments; 
and the general himself and his officers were foremost in the 
work of plunder. But during his halt at Cordova, the insurgents 
had hemmed him in in such numbers that he gave up all farther 
advance into Andalusia as hopeless, and, commencing his retreat 
(June 16), reached Andujar in three days. Here, encumbered by 
the number of his sick, he remained inactive for three weeks, 
awaiting reinforcements ; while Castanos, at the head of 22,000 
regulars, and 30,000 armed peasants, was taking measures for 
enveloping him, and forcing him to surrender. The divisions 
of Vedel and Gobert at last reached Baylen, on their way to join 
him ; but Gobert was routed and killed (July 16) by Reding, 
a brother of the intrepid Swiss patriot ; and Dupont, who 
had imprudently separated his own corps from that of Vedel, 
was assaulted (July 19) by superior numbers under the same 
general in front of Baylen. The French, encumbered with 
innumerable waggons conveying the booty of Cordova, were 
thrown into disorder; two Swiss regiments abandoned the 
French standards, and joined their countrymen in the hostile 
ranks ; and the appearance of Castanos in the rear completed 
the confusion. Deeming extrication hopeless, Dupont proposed 
an armistice, in which the division of Yedel was also included ; 
and after a fruitless attempt to procure favourable terms of 
capitulation, the whole force, to the number of 20,000, laid down 
their arms, and became prisoners of war, on condition of being 
sent to France. 

483. Language can scarcely convey an adequate idea of the im- 
pression which this event produced in Europe. Since the opening 

A. D. 1808. ' :rOSEPH RETIRES TO BUBGOS. 305 

of the revolutionary war, the career of the French armies had heen 
one of almost unbroken success ; but now a disaster, such as they 
had never sustained since the battle of Pavia, had overtaken 
their eagles. Fame and incorrect statements even exaggerated 
the magnitude of the triumph ; and it began to be thought 
that the superiority of regular troops was at an end, when 
opposed to patriotism and popular enthusiasm — a delusion 
through which oceans of blood were in vain spilt in Spain. 
Still the burst of triumph in the first instance had a prodigious 
effect in determining many of the grandees to the popular side ; 
while the intrusive king and his adherents, struck with conster- 
nation, evacuated Madrid (July 30) and retired to Burgos, where 
he established his headquarters. The effect produced by the 
news on Napoleon showed how fully he was aware of its im- 
portance. Never since Trafalgar had he been so overwhelmed ; 
and Dnpont and his officers, on their return to France, were 
imprisoned many years without trial or investigation. But 
with respect to the private soldiers, the convention of Baylen 
was violated in a manner disgraceful to the victors Many 
were massacred in the first fury of triumph ; the remainder, 
to the number of 18,000, were confined by order of the junta, in 
spite of the remonstrances of Castanos, in the hulks at Cadias, 
whence few ever revisited their native country. 

484. In Catalonia, meanwhile, success had been more checkered. 
Two columns had been detached by Duhesme from Barcelona 
early in June — one of 4500 men, under Chabran, against 
Tortosa and Tarragona ; the other, of 3500 under Schwartz, to 
co-operate with Lefebvre before Saragossa. But the Somaten or 
tocsin was rung in all the hills ; and Schwartz, though he forced 
the celebrated pass of Bruch, was ultimately obliged (June 6) 
to retreat with loss ; and Chabran, who had already occupied 
Tarragona, was recalled on the news of this check. Elated by 
these advantages, the Catalans rose in arms en masse, Duhesme 
himself was foiled (June 20) in a eottp-de-main which he at- 
tempted against Gerona ; and the whole plain of the Llobregat, 
np to the walls of Bfircelona, was filled with the armed peasantry, 

806 WELLESLEr SENT TO POBTUGAL. a. d. 1808. 

who were reinforced at the end qf J11I7 hy 6000 regalar troops 
from the Balearic Isles. In a formal siege of Gerona (July 24, 
Aug. 16) undertaken hy the express orders of Napoleon, Duhesme 
was again repulsed with the loss of 2000 men and all his 
artillery ; and the French possessions in Catalonia continued 
restricted to Barcelona and the citadel of Figueras. The army 
of Castanos had entered Madrid in triumph from Andalusia 
(Aug. 25) ; and the Spaniards in general, intoxicated with J07, 
abandoned themselves to the illusion that their soil would soon 
be finally freed from its invaders. 

485. We must now return to the progress of events in Portugal. 
The Spanish troops in Lisbon had been disarmed by Junot at 
the first tidings of the outbreak in Spain ; but those at Oporto 
had, as already noticed, escaped into Galicia, and the insurrection 
of Portugal itself was not long delayed. The students of Coimbra 
were among the first to take up arms ; and a supreme junta was 
formed (June 9) at Oporto, under the direction of the bishop, 
who from the first signalised himself by patriotic zeal. In the 
northern provinces, the insurgent peasants were successful in 
repulsing the detachments sent against them ; but Loison, with 
7000 foot and 1200 horse, inflicted a signal defeat at Evora (Jnly, 
29) on the patriots of the Alentejo. This victory was sullied by the 
most savage cruelty : 8000 inhabitants of the town, armed and un- 
armed, were indiscriminately slaughtered ; and Loison was oon- 
tinuinghis blood-stained progress towards Elvas, when he received 
the news that a British army had appeared off thecoast of Portugal. 

486. The British government having determined to send out 
powerful military aid to the Peninsula, intrusted the command, 
in the first instance, to Sir Arthur Wellesley, already gloriously 
known, by his Indian achievements, as the victor of Assaye, 
and more recently by the easier overthrow of the Danish militia ; 
and 10,000 men were placed under his orders, who had been 
assembled at Cork by the late ministry for an expedition to 
South America. Sir John Moove, then in Sweden with 12,000 
men, was also recalled for the same purpose, and two smaller 
divisions set sail from Bamsgate and Margate. 


487. The force under Sir Arthur sailed from Cork (Julf 12), 
aDd, after the general had eommnuicated with the jnnta of 
Galicia at Gomnna — ^where he learnt the defeat of Rio-Seco— 
arrived in Mondego Baj (July 30). The disembarkation of the 
troops — now raised to 13,000 by the arrival of €kneral Spencer 
from the Bay of Cadiz — ^was effected in the first days of August ; 
and on the morning of the 9th the advance was commenced. 
Though not more than 1600 Portngnese troops, nnder (General 
Freire, joined the British, the peasantry everywhere welcomed 
their allies with enthusiasm, and the first encounter took place 
on the 17th. €^eral Laborde, with about 5000 men, had taken 
post on an elevated plateau in front of the Tillage of Roli9a, and 
attempted to hold the British in check till Junot had completed 
his arrangements ; but the heights were gallantly carried by 
the 29th regiment, whose colonel, Lake, was killed while cheer- 
ing them on ; and the French, finding their flanks menaced, drew 
off in good order, having lost 600 men and 3 guns : the British 
loss was about 500. Junot, meanwhile, advancing from Lisbon, 
joined Laborde at Torres-Yedras, but their whole disposable 
force was only 14,000 men ; while Wellesley, reinforced by the 
arrival of Ackland's and Anstruther's brigades, had 16,000, but 
scarcely any cavalry. His original plan had been to outflank the 
French, and cut off their retreat to Lisbon : but this movement 
was forbidden as hazardous by Sir Harry Burrard, his superior 
in command, who was now off the coast ; and Junot, con- 
tinning his advance, came in front of the British at Vimeira 
(Ang. 20). 

488. Barly in the morning of the 21st, the attack was com- 
menced on the British centre by a column of 6000 men under 
Laborde ; but no sooner had they reached the summit of the hill 
than the British artillery and shrapnel-shells — ^then first used — 
spread havoc through their ranks, and a charge with the bayonet 
by the 50th completed their repulse. A second attempt was not 
more successful ; and the French right, under Solignac, after a 
severe contest with Ferguson's brigade, was at last driven head- 
long down the steep by so tremendous a rush with the bayonet 


308 CONVENTION OP CINTRA, a. d. 1808. 

that the whole front line of one French regiment, above 300 
men, went down like grass before the scythe. An attempt to 
retrieve the day with Brennier's division, and the reserve under 
Kellermann, though at first partially successful, alsQ terminated 
in complete discomfiture. Brennier was taken prisoner, and the 
British were pressing forward in triumph, when they were 
suddenly halted by an order from Sir Harry Burrard. The 
French on this re-formed their broken ranks, and fell back towards 
the north-east, having lost 2000 killed and wounded, 13 guns, 
and 400 prisoners. Their line of retreat left open the road from 
Torres- Yedras to Lisbon ; and Sir A. Wellesley instantly proposed 
to follow up the victory by an advance on the capital, which 
would have driven Junot to a disastrous retreat into Spain. 
But this manoeuvre was too enterprising for Sir Harry Burrard, 
a cautious veteran of the old school ; and the French, to the in- 
finite chagrin of Sir Arthur, were suffered to regain, by a long 
circuit, the important defile. On the morning of the 22d, how- 
ever, Sir Harry was in his turn superseded by the arrival of Sir 
Hew Dalrymple — so that within thirty hours there had been 
three successive commanders-in-chief 1 — and an advance on Tor- 
res-Yedras was at length resolved on, when, on the 23d, Keller- 
mann arrived at the outposts with a proposal from Junot for a 
suspension of arms. 

489. It was, in truth, almost equally hazardous for the French 
marshal to attempt to resist the great superiority of force which 
the arrival of Sir John Moore would soon give the already vic- 
torious British, or to retreat, through a difficult country and ex- 
asperated population, into Spain. A convention was accordinglf 
concluded at Cintra (Aug. 23) for the evacuation of Portugal, by 
which the French army were to be sent back to France by sea, 
with their artillery, arms, and baggage ; while the Russian fleet 
in the Tagus, by virtue of a separate convention, was to be carried 
to Britain. Some delay occurred in the execution of the con- 
vention, from the difficulty experienced in compelling the French 
to disgorge the ill-gotten treasure which they had amassed by 
the plunder of the country. Many disfgraceful particulars of 


this extraordinary system of spoliation were brought to light, 
implicating equally the highest and the lowest ; but restitution 
to a certain extent was at last effected, the fortresses of El vas and 
Almeida were given up, and between the 15th and 30th Septem- 
ber, the whole French army, to the number of 22,000, sailed 
from the Tagus, and were safely disembarked in France. 

490. Posterity will scarcely be able to credit the burst of indig- 
nation with which this convention was received, both in the 
Peninsula and Great Britain. The Spaniards contrasted it with 
the unconditional surrender at Baylen ; the Portuguese com- 
plained of the amount of plunder carried off under the denomi- 
nation of private property ; and the British people, disappointed 
in the hope of seeing a marshal of France and 20,000 men brought 
prisoners of war to Spithead, gave vent to unbounded vexation. 
To such a length did the outcry proceed that a court of inquiry 
was instituted, which acquitted all the generals of blame, though 
without allaying the public discontent. A more senseless cla- 
mour, except that against Sir Robert Calder, was never perhaps 
set up ; since the convention not only at once liberated Portur 
gal, but, by securing an admirable fortified base for future 
operations, on the edge of the sea and the flank of the Peninsular 
plains, was, in fact, the foundation on which the whole future 
successes of the British arms were reared. Its importance was 
better appreciated by Napoleon : '^ I was about," said he, '' to send 
Junot to a council of war, but the British got the start of me by 
sending their generals to one." 

491. The command of the troops, on the departure of the three 
generals to attend the inquiry, devolved on Sir John Moore, 
who had landed with his corps at Lisbon ; while 15,000 more 
troops, under Sir David Baird, were expected at Corunna, to 
descend through Galicia, and co-operate in the advance. The 
Spanish troops, 5000 strong, who had been liberated at Lisbon, 
were re-equipped and sent by sea to Oatalonia; and means 
having been found to convey intelligence of the events in the 
Peninsula to the corps of Komana, then serving Napoleon in 
Jutland, the greater part of this gallant body, to the number of 


9500, ei^ected their escape from among the French divisions, and 
were conveyed in British vessels to the coast of Oalicia. Jhe 
central government of Spain, after much discord and discussion, 
had meanwhile heen vested in a supreme junta of thirty-five 
deputies from the different provinces, who met at Aranjnez 
(Sept. 25). But this body, though it oomprised Count Florida- 
Blanca, Jovellanos, and other eminent men and illustrious 
patriots, was composed, for the most part, of individuals un- 
known to public life, and raised to power solely by the pressure 
of the times: hence its proceedings presented an almost unvaried 
sc^ne of cupidity, vanity, and imbecility, in which corruption 
pervaded every department — the magnificent supplies sent from 
Britain were wasted or embezzled, and nothing was foreseen or 
provided either for the armies or the state. 

492. The disasters in Spain made the deepest impression on the 
far-seeing mind of Napoleon. The belief in his invincibility had 
been destroyed, and the effects were already beginning to appear. 
By a decree of 9th June, Austria had directed the formation of a 
landwehr or local militia, which would afford a reserve of 300,000 
men to the regular troops, and her explanations, when pressed 
by Napoleon, were far from satisfactory. To meet these dangers, 
a fresh conscription was ordered, of 160,000 men, half from those 
who attained the military age in 1806, 1807, 1808, 1809, and 
half from those of 1810 — ^so far had the demands of the Emperor 
already exceeded the increase of the human race ! — and a sub- 
sidiary treaty was concluded (Sept. 8) with Prussia, which 
released a considerable part of the force occupying that country. 
But Napoleon was well aware that the alliance with Russia was 
his true security beyond the Rhine, and a fresh interview was 
arranged between the two potentates for the settlement of the 

493. Erfurth was selected as the place of meeting ; and here Na- 
polean arrived (Sept. 27), Alexander having reached Weimar the 
evening before. The two emperors met amid the roar of cannon, 
the shouts of multitudes, and the cheers of ten thousand soldiers 
and embraced with the strongest marks of mutual esteem. The 


conference continued for seventeen days: the forenoons were 
spent by the two monarchs in conversations on general politics, 
and their private plans of administration ; they dined alternately 
with each other, and the evenings were devoted to festivity and 
the theatre. The brilliant cortege of marshals, generals, and 
diplomatists in attendance on the two sovereigns, with the 
crowd of princes who watched with obsequious attention the 
nod of Napoleon, presented such a spectacle of power and magni- 
ficence as the world had never yet seen ; jet, amid this parade 
of friendship, the keener-sighted of the spectators detected symp- 
toms of decline from the intimacy of Tilsit. In appearance, 
however, their cordiality continued unabated ; a joint proposition 
for peace was addressed to the British cabinet, and, in apparent 
concession to the entreaties of Alexander, a considerable reduc- 
tion was made in the burdens imposed on Prussia, whence the 
French troops (except the garrisons of Stettin, Oustrin, and 
Glogau) were ere long transferred to the Peninsula. Alexander 
gave his sanction to the changes in Spain, and to the promotion 
of Murat to the throne of Naples, and promised his aid to Napo- 
leon in case of a war with Austria ; while Napoleon assented to 
the schemes of Russian aggrandisement at the expense of Sweden 
and Turkey. But one irreconcilable point of difFerence (as it 
afterwards transpired) was Constantinople : Napoleon could not 
bring himself to yield this matchless prize to his northern rival, 
and this secret discord was not without its results. At length 
(Oct. 14) the conference broke up, and the two emperors parted, 
never to meet again. 

494. Thus secured, as he conceived, on the side of Germany, 
Napoleon, with his wonted vigpur, forthwith resolved to crush 
the Spaniards before the British could obtain a footing in the 
Peninsula ; and accordingly set out for Bayonne at the end of 
October. Such vast reinforcements had been poured into Spain 
that, after deducting the garrisons.and those in Catalonia, not less 
than 180,000 men remained disposable for service on the Ebro ; 
while, to oppose this immense force, the Spaniards had 18,000 
in Aragon under Palafox, 30,000 Galicians under Blake at Rey- 

312 DEFEATS OF THE SPAKIABDS, a. d. 1808. 

nosa, and 28,000 under Castanos in the centre — ^in all 76,000, 
but with only 2000 horse and 86 guns. The British auxiliaries 
were indeed approaching ; but Napoleon, determined to deal 
with the Spaniards before they could come up, lost no time iu 
commencing active operations. Prior to his arrival, the French 
had evacuated Tudela and Burgos, and had been driven from 
Bilbao (Sept. 23) by Blake ; but the latter town was retaken by 
Lefebvre (Oct. 31), who also obtained a partial advantage over 
Blake at Tomosa. But no sooner had Napoleon arrived at 
Yitoria than he directed 40,000 men, under Victor and Lefebvre, 
against Blake, who had fallen back to Espinosa. The Spaniards 
numbered only 25,000, including the brave corps of Bomana, yet 
they held their ground during the first day (Nov. 10) ; but the 
next morning their flank was turned by Victor, and a total rout 
ensued. Romana, with 10,000 men, made his way into Leon ; 
the remainder, attempting a stand (Nov. 13) at Reynosa, were so 
utterly overwhelmed by Soult, who had already (Nov. 10) inflicted 
a disastrous defeat at Burgos on the Estremadurans under Bel- 
videre, that Blake with difliculty rallied a few thousand half- 
naked fugitives in the heart of the Asturian mountains. The 
headquarters of the Emperor were established at Burgos, whence 
the country was scoured in all directions by the light troops, 
who completed the dispersion of the routed enemy. 

495. Castanos and Palafox had now effected a junction atTudela, 
where their united forces amounted to 39,000 foot, 4000 horse, 
and 40 guns. Before the two generals, however, could concur in 
any plan of operations, their disputes were brought to a close by 
the appearance of Lannes (Nov. 22) at the head of 35,000 men. 
The long scattered array of the Spaniards was pierced through 
the centre by the impetuous assault of the French ; but the 
Spanish guards and the victors of Baylen, on the left, routed 
the troops opposed to them, and, when at last overborne by the 
accumulation of enemies, fell back in tolerable order by Cala- 
tayud to Madrid. But the army was completely dissevered ; the 
right under Palafox, to the number of 15,000, had been driven 
back in disorder to Saragossa, and the road to Madrid lay open 


before Napoleon, who had now joined the army in person. The 
only obstade was the Somoderra pass, which was held by 12,000 
men nnder General San Jnan ; but the Polish lancers of the 
guard, spurring right up the steep ascent, in the fisMo of the fire 
(Not. 30), stormed the batteries, and speared the artillerymen at 
their guns. The central junta fled precipitately from Aranjuez ; 
and, on the morning of the 2d December, the French advanced 
guards appeared on the heights north of Madrid. 

496. An indignant refusal was returned from the city to the 
summons to surrender, and a frightful scene of tumult and 
disorder ensued. Twenty thousand armed men, without disci* 
pline or organisation, paraded the streets with furious cries, 
the bells of all the churches and convents rang without ceasing, 
barricades were erected, and everything seemed to portend a 
desperate defence. But on the morning of the 3d, the heights of 
the Betiro, which completely command the city, were stormed by 
the French ; and the authorities, in terror of a bombardment, sent 
to propose terms of surrender. Napoleon received the deputies 
with great harshness, particularly reproaching Don Thomas 
Morla, late governor of Cadiz, with the breach of the conven- 
tion of Baylen ; but submission was now inevitable, and at 10 
JLM, on the 4th, Madrid was again occupied by the French. 
The most exact discipline was observed, and ere long the city 
resumed the appearance of tranquillity ; while numerous depu- 
tations waited on Joseph to renew their protestations of attach- 
ment and fidelity. 

497. Napoleon himself established his headquarters at Cha- 
martin, four miles from the city, whence be issued decrees for the 
abolition of the Inquisition, the suppression of the greater part 
of the convents, of the feudal rights, &c. Severe measures were 
directed against all who had joined the patriots, after having 
sworn allegiance to Joseph; and five corps, under as nbany mar- 
shals, were sent to complete the reduction of the provinces. But 
there was yet another enemy, whom the Emperor had overlooked, 
or at least greatly underrated : this was the British army under 
Sir John Moore, who had long been extremely perplexed what 

314 MOORE INVADES SPAIN. a. d. 1808. 

to do from the imperfect and contradictory information which 
reached him. The repeated assurances which he received that 
Madrid would be defended to the last extremity, at length deter- 
mined him to advance on the enemy's line of communication : 
and moving, accordingly, by Toro and fienavente, he effected his 
junction with Sir David Baird (Dec. 20) at Moyorga. On the 
2l8t, a body of French cavalry were defeated in a brilliant 
skirmish at Sahagun, by the 10th and 15th light dragoons 
under Lord Paget ; and Soult, now seriously alarmed, called 
in his detachments from all quarters to resist the threatened 

498. But no sooner had the advance of Moore become known 
at Madrid, than the Emperor, instantly appreciating its impor- 
tance, sent orders for suspending all the operations in the south ; 
and putting himself (Dec. 21) at the head of 50,000 of his best 
troops, including the guards and Ney's corps, marched to throw 
himself on the line of the British retreat, while Soult attacked 
them in front. Two days were consumed in crossing the gorges 
of the Guadarrama mountains, in the midst of a hurricane of 
wind and snow : but the march was pressed with indefatigable 
activity, and, by the 26th, Ney had interposed himself between 
the British and the Portuguese frontier. Had he succeeded in 
reaching Benavente before them, and thus cutting them off also 
from Galicia, their situation must have been hopeless ; but the 
British general had early become aware of his danger — the 
retreat was already commenced, and the bridge of Castrogonzalo, 
over the swollen torrent of the Esla, destroyed. The French were 
thus detained for two days, during which (Dec. 28) the cavalry 
of the Imperial Guard were gallantly routed at the fords of the 
river by the British dragoons, and their commander, Lefebvre 
Desnouettes, made prisoner. 

499. On the 30th, however, the French effected the passage, and 
on January 1, 1809, all their columns were concentrated at Astor- 
ga, having in ten days marched two hundred miles from Madrid, 
across snowy ranges and swollen rivers, in the depth of winter 
— an exertion almost unparalleled in modern times. But intelli- 

A. D. 1809. BATTLE OP CORUNNA. 316 

gence here reached Napoleon, which left no doubt on his mind 
of the hostile designs of Austria ; and, instantly leaving the 
British to his lieutenants, he returned to Yalladolid, and thence 
hastened with extraordinary rapidity by Burgos and Bayonne 
to Paris, which he reached on the 23d. The pursuit, however, 
was kept up with unabated vigour, and the condition of the 
British became daily more deplorable. Though the rearguard 
continued with unabated resolution to repel the enemy, who 
were worsted (Jan. 5) in a sharp skirmish at Villa-Franca^ the 
rest of the line presented a frightful scene of misery, drunken- 
ness, and disorder, which all the exertions of the general failed 
to restrain. At Lugo, where they halted two days (Jan. 6-8), 
Sir John Moore offered battle, but the combat was declined by 
Soult ; and on the 11th, after a forced night-march, the disor- 
ganised columns of the British entered Gorunna, where the trans- 
ports from Vigo arrived on the 14th. 

500. For two days the French suffered the embarkation to pro- 
ceed unmolested, but on the 16th their columns, 20,000 strong, 
were seen advancing to the attack ; and the British, now reduced 
to 14,000, were quickly arrayed to oppose them. The impetuosity 
of their onset at first drove the British from the village of 
Elvina, in front of the centre ; but the 50th and 42d quickly 
retook it at the point of the bayonet, and followed up their 
advantage so far, that they were in turn assailed and broken by 
fresh French regiments. But Moore, instantly bringing up a 
battalion of the guards, again repelled the French with great 
slaughter; and when nightfall separated the combatants, the 
victo'ry of the British was decisive along the whole line. But 
in the moment of triumph Sir John Moore had been mortally 
wounded by a cannon-shot: he expired the same night, and 
was laid, wrapped in his cloak, in a hasty grave on the ramparts 
of Gorunna, where a monument was afterwards erected by the 
generosity of Marshal Ney. In the course of the night and 
succeeding day the embarkation was completed; when the 
Spaniards, who had bravely manned the walls to protect the 
retreat of their allies, surrendered the town to Soult, who a few 


days after occupied Ferrol, with its stores, and seven sail of the 
line in the harbour. 

V. Fresh War with Austria — Bai;U€8ofLand8hutandEchmuhZ, 

501. Since the unsuccessful struggle of 1805, the Austrian ca- 
binet had observed a rigid and cautious neutralitjyWhich not even 
the disasters of the French in the Polish campaign could tempt 
them to infringe : but this interval had not been idly spent. 
During 1806 and 1807, the war department was silently but 
indefatigably engaged in replenishing the arsenals and maga- 
zines, remounting the cavalry, &c. ; while the infantry, under 
the zealous direction of the Archduke Charles, was remodelled 
on the French plan of corps and divisions, the effie^ncy of 
which had been so amply demonstrated in the campaigns of 
Napoleon. A decree was further issued (June 8, 1808) for the 
formation of a landwehr or national militia, the force of which, 
at first fixed at 200,000, was soon raised to 300,000, for the 
hereditary dominions alone : while the Hungarian diet, in 
addition to large supplies of recruits for the r^fular army, 
sanctioned the calling out the insurrection (or levee en masse) 
of 80,000 men. These armaments drew forth urgent remon- 
strances (August) from Napoleon, who clearly perceived their 
coincidence with the occurrences in Spain ; but the address of 
Metternich, then ambassador at Paris, and the assurances of 
amity of which Baron Yincdht was made the bearer to Erfurth 
in October, apparently lulled his suspicions. But decisive intel- 
ligence at length (Jan. 1, 1809) reached him, as already men- 
tioned, at Astorga, which, coupled with the speech of the King 
of Great Britain on the previous 16th of December, left no doubt 
of the hostile intentions of Austria ; and the Emperor, after a 
long conference with Maret at Yalladolid, sent orders to the 
Bhenish princes to prepare for war, and returned with all haste 
to Paris. 

502. The measures of Austria, meanwhile, notwithstanding 
her warlike preparations, were by no means finally decided. All 


her efforts to procure the co-operation of Russia or Prussia had 
failed ; the previous ill success of the British hj land gave little 
hopes of their effecting any permanent diversion in Spain ; and 
the finances were still in a deplorable state of dilapidation. 
Even the Archduke Charles, taught by past experience, sided 
"with the peace party ; but the majority of the nobles, headed 
by the prime minister Count Stadion, and supported bylthe 
universal enthusiasm of the people, were eager for war. The 
Tyrolese, it was known, were ready at the first signal to fly to 
arms against the hated yoke of Bavaria; and a general effer- 
vescence, fanned by the secret ramifications of the Tugendbund, 
prevailed throughout Germany in favour of the Austrian cause. 
The French force in Germany, moreover, had been reduced, by 
draughts for Spain, from 160,000 men to half that number, 
besides 100,000 soldiers of the Rhenish confederation ; while the 
Austrian regulars now amounted to 300,000 foot and 30,000 
horse, besides 200,000 landwehr and the Hungarian insurrection. 
War, therefore, was resolved on. It was determined to assume 
the offensive, by invading at once Franconia, Lombardy, Tyrol, 
and the grand-duchy of Warsaw, in all which districts they 
had numerous and active partisans. On the 8th April the 
frontiers were crossed on all points; the Archduke Charles, with 
120,000 men, prepared to advance into Bavaria ; the Archduke 
John had 47,000 in Italy ; Chastellar led 12,000 into the Tyrol ; 
and the Archduke Ferdinand, with 30,000 foot and 5000 horse, 
moved on the side of Gallicia against Poland. 

503. Napoleon had certainly been taken in some measure at 
unawares by the commencement of hostilities : but the scattered 
divisions of the French had been for some time in the course of 
concentration; the Imperial Guard, under Bessi^res, had been 
summoned in all haste from Spain ; and Berthier was despatched 
early in April to take the command till the arrival of the Em- 
peror. His instructions were precise — ^to concentrate the army 
round Donauwerth or Ratisbon, according to circumstances ; but 
he was utterly bewildered by the magnitude of his charge, and 
scattered his divisions in so useless and absurd a manner, that 

318 COMBATS AT LANDSHUT a. d. 1809. 

his movements were ascribed bj more than one of the marshals 
(though without cause) to treacher7. Nothing but the extreme 
slowness of the Austrian advance saved the French army from 
ruin. Munich was occupied by Jellachich, the King of Bavaria 
flying to Stuttgard ; and when Napoleon arrived at Donauwerth, 
on the morning of 17th April, he found the Archduke with 
100,000 men interposed between Davoust and Massena — the for- 
mer of whom was at Ratisbon with 60,000, while the latter had 
remained, by Berth ier*s orders, at Augsburg, thirty-five leagues 
to the south-west ; and Oudinot and the Bavarians alone lay at 
Ingolstadt to oppose the Austrian advance. Dissembling his 
anxiety, however, he issued instant and pressing orders to the 
two marshals to effect a junction at all hazards; and addressed 
an energetic proclamation to his troops, reproaching the Austrians 
with commencing hostilities without cause, and promising them 
fresh glories in their overthrow. 

504. But these movements, notwithstanding all the zeal of the 
marshals, could not be performed with the requisite celerity ; 
and had not the Archduke, dividing his army, marched with the 
greatest part against Ratisbon, Davoust must have been crushed. 
They passed, however, within a short distance, without the bulk 
of the forces meeting : though a severe action took place (April 
19) between Davoust and the covering corps of Hohenzollem, 
who attempted at Thaun, though without success, to arrest the 
march of the French through the important defile of PortsaaL 
Napoleon's plan was now to separate the Grand Army under the 
Archduke from Jellachich and Hiller, and drive it up into the 
narrow space formed by the bend of the Danube at Ratisbon ; 
and, reassured by the junction of Davoust with the Bavarians 
under Lefebvre, he commenced the offensive by advancing his 
right against Landshut. On the 20th, accordingly, the corps of 
Hiller and the Archduke Louis were vigorously attacked on all 
points, and a running fight, rather than a regular battle, ensued, 
in which the Austrians, though not completely routed in any 
quarter, had generally the disadvantage. Following up his suc- 
cess, the Emperor again assailed Hiller on the following day, at 

A. D. 1809. AND ECHMUHL. 319 

the passage of the hridges at Landshut over the Iser ; the Aus- 
trian covering cavalry were broken by the impetuosity of the 
French horse, and Hiller, whose rear was at the same time men- 
aced by Massena, drew off towards the Inn, having lost nearly 
6000 men, 25 gans, and a vast quantity of baggage and ammuni- 
tion. In all these encounters. Napoleon, leaving the French to 
his marshals, headed in person the troops of the Confederation 
— a policy at once generous and prudent, which kindled to the 
ntmost their enthusiasm on his behalf. 

505. Davoust, in the mean time, had been unable to prevent 
the Archduke Charles from occupying Batisbon (April 20), and 
making prisoners the single French regiment left as its garrison : 
bnt the movements of the Archduke and Napoleon now evidently 
indicated the approach of a general engagement. The former 
had concentrated 80,000 men between Abensberg and Ratisbon; 
but half this number were thrown forward, under Kollowrath 
and Lichtenstein, on the great road to Neustadt, in order to 
menace the French left and rear, — so that Napoleon, on the 22d, 
-was able to bring 75,000 men against the remaining 40,000 under 
Rosenberg and Hoheuzollem, who lay behind the Laber, on the 
villages of Echmuhl and Laichling. The object of Napoleon was 
to cut off the Austrians from the Inn, and their communications 
with Vienna, and throw them back on Ratisbon ; and at mid- 
day the battle of Echmuhl commenced. Lannes, with an over- 
whelming force, turned and drove back the Austrian left ; and, 
following up his advantage, carried by a flank attack the village 
of Echmuhl in the centre, which had hitherto repulsed all the 
attacks of the Wlirtembergers in front. Davoust, on the other 
side, had made himself master of Laichling ; and the Archduke, 
perceiving a retreat necessary, prepared to fall back to Ratis- 
bon. The heroic gallantry of the Austrian cuirassiers, who 
covered this perilous movement, withstood till after nightfall the 
onset of the whole French cavalry ; the Imperialists reached the 
Danube in safety, and passed the stream during the night, over 
the bridge of Ratisbon, and a hastily-constructed pontoon bridge. 
Their loss in the battle had been 5000 killed and wounded, and 

320 ASSAULT OF BATISBON. a. d. 1809. 

7000 prisoners, besides 12 standards and 16 pieces of cannon : the 
French loss was about 6000 men. 

506. Ratisbon was assaulted at noon the next day ; and Napo- 
leon himself, in his anxiety, approached so close that a musket- 
shot struck his foot. Consternation instantly spread through the 
ranks — the soldiers, in spite of the tremendous fire of the 
Austrians, crowding from all quarters round their beloved 
chief ; but it was soon ascertained that the injury was a mere 
contusion, and the assault was resumed with redoubled fury. 
Lannes, with his own hand, at length planted a scaling-ladder — 
Labedoy^re, reserved for a melancholy fate in future times, was 
the first who mounted the wall — and the place was speedily 
carried. On the following day, a grand review was held under 
the walls ; honours and bounties were showered on those who 
had distinguished themselves ; and the troops of the Coufederar- 
tion, to whom such a scene was perfectly new, were delighted 
beyond measure by the ample participation to which they were 

507. The advantages gained were in truth very great. The 
errors of Berthier had been repaired — the Austrian forces every- 
where driven back with loss, their corps separated from each other, 
and the road to Vienna laid open to the conqueror. But though 
these splendid triumphs attended the arms of Napoleon where he 
attended in person, the event was far different in other quarters* 
Hiller, whose retreat towards the Inn had been followed up by the 
Bavarians under Wrede, finding that Napoleon had diverged la 
another direction, suddenly turned on his pursuers (April 24), 
and gave them a signal defeat ; and a still more serious disaster 
had befallen Beauharnais in Italy. His army, which was chiefly 
composed of Italians, was utterly routed by the Archduke John 
(April 16) at Sacile, between the Tagliamento and Adige, with 
the loss of 4000 killed and wounded, 4000 prisoners, and 15 guns ; 
but the further fruits of this brilliant victory were lost to the 
Austrians, from the progress of events in Germany, which ren- 
dered necessary the assembly of all their armies for the defence 
of Vienna. 


VI. Capture of Vienna — Battle of Aspem. 

508. Immediately after the battle of Echmuhl, Napoleon, re- 
solved on striking a blow at the heart of the Austrian power before 
they could rearrange their projects, issued orders in all directions 
for an advance on Vienna. Davoust's corps alone was left at 
Ratlsbon to observe the Archduke; and by daybreak on the 
26th, 100,000 men were in full march for the Inn. Hiller and 
the Archduke Louis, with 35,000 men, were all that intervened 
on the direct route ; and though the Tyrol was in full insurrec- 
tion on one flank, and the Archduke Charles, with 75,000 men, 
lay in the Bohemian mountains on the other, it was not the 
character of Napoleon to be deterred by such obstacles. The 
Guard, 20,000 strong, arrived on the 26th from Spain, and the 
onward march was pressed with ceaseless vigour. The advance 
was retarded for two days by the breaking of the bridges of the 
Salza ; but at the wooden bridge of Ebersberg, over the wide and 
impetuous torrent of the Traun, a desperate conflict took place 
(May 3) between Hiller, who had determined to defend this 
important post, and the French vanguard under Massena. Led 
by General Cohom (a descendant of the illustrious engineer), 
the French rushed to the attack with the exulting audacity 
derived from their late triumphs ; the small islands which 
divided the stream were carried, but the tire from the head of 
the long bridge over the main current repulsed them, and a scene 
of cam|ge ensued, exceeding even the passage of the bridge of 
Lodi. After repeated assaults, the bridge was at last cleared, 
and the castle of Ebersberg carried by le Grand ; but the 
Austrians still held their ground on tH^ heights, till, finding 
their flank menaced by troops which had crossed higher up, they 
drew off in the night to Euns. In this terrific combat 6000 
fell on each side ; and Napoleon testified his displeasure at this 
useless slaughter, which a flank movement might have rendered 

509. This severe loss incapacitated Hiller from further impeding 

322 BOMBARDMENT OF VIENNA. a. d. 1809. 

the progress of the French ; and he shortly after, in pursuance 
of orders which reached him, crossed to the left bank of the 
Danube. The French now redoubled their celerity, and on the 
10th of May, exactly a month since the Anstrians had crossed 
the Inn, their eagles appeared before Vienna. The Austrian 
capita], however, well provided with artillery, and garrisoned 
with 4000 regulars and 8000 landwehr, determined on defence ; 
but the bridges of the Danube islands were stormed, and on the 
12th a vigorous bombardment was commenced, from the same 
ground held by the Turks 126 years before. The city was soon 
on fire in several places ; but the direction of the mortars was 
changed by order of Napoleon, on learning that a princess of 
the Imperial house lay ill, and incapable of removal, in the 
palace immediately opposite his batteries — ^this was the Arch- 
duchess Maria Louisa, the future Empress of France! The 
Archduke Maximilian, however, who commanded in the city, 
becoming aware that his position was untenable, withdrew with 
his troops ; the authorities lost no time in capitulating ; and at 
noon on the 13th, the French a second time entered Vienna. 

510. The Archduke Charles, meanwhile, had set out from 
Bohemia to cover the capital ; but his march was pursued with 
a tardiness only to be explained by the error into which he fell, 
of mistaking Davoust's force for the whole French army, and thus 
conceiving that Hiller would be adequate to check the movement 
of any detached corps on Vienna. But for this fatal misconcep- 
tion, he might easily have reached the capital before it surren- 
dered ; but his van only arrived at the northern extvtmity of 
the bridges on the evening of the 15th, when the enemy were 
already in full possession. On the following day he effected his 
junction with Hiller, and stood prepared to oppose, with his 
whole force, the passage of the river by the French. 

511. The Archduke John, meanwhile, having been peremptorily 
summoned to the defence of the Hereditary States, had begun a 
retreat from the Adige (May 1) towards Friuli, followed at some 
distance by Eugene. His orders were to maintain himself in 
Styria, Carinthia^ and the Tyrol, and thence to operate against 


Lintz, on the line of the enemy's communications; but he 
unfortuDately deviated in all points from these judicious instrac- 
tions. On the 8th of May he gave battle to the French on the 
banks of the Piave; but the spirits of Eugene's army were now 
powerfully elevated by the news of the French triumphs in 
Germany — ^the fords of the river were forced, and the Austrians 
defeated, with the loss of 6000 men and fifteen guns. After this 
reverse he fell back, first to Yillach, and afterwards into Hungary, 
leaving the Tyrol and the Carinthian fortresses to their fate. 
The French, crossing the Austrian frontier on the 14th, succes- 
sively reduced, after a heroic resistance in each case, the moun- 
tain forts of Malborghetto, Col di Tarwis, Prediel, &c. ; while 
their right wing, under Macdonald, occupied Trieste (May 20), 
and took Laybach on the 22d, after routing the troops collected 
for its defence. Jellachich's division, which had moved towards 
Salzburg to co-operate with the Archduke John, was routed, and 
almost annihilated (May 24), in the valley of the Muhr ; and 
on the 28th Eugene's army, amid shouts of joy, joined Napoleon 
before Vienna. 

512. The eyes of all Europe were now fixed on the approaching 
struggle on the Danube, defeat in which to either party seemed 
fraught with irreparable ruin, since the Austrians had no other 
army to fall back upon, and a disastrous retreat to the Rhine 
would be the inevitable fate of the French. Well aware of the 
crisis, the Emperor was indefatigable in his efforts to station 
his troops so as to cover his rear and protect his communica- 
tionsy before he attempted to cross the Danube, the stream of 
which spreads near the city into a wide expanse, embracing 
several islands in its course. The first attempt was made (May 
13) at Nussdorf, immediately above Vienna ; but it was frustrated 
by the vigilance of Killer ; and 600 men, who had occupied an 
island, were made prisoners. The point next selected was the 
large island of Lobau, opposite Ebersdorf, the Austrian posts on 
which were surprised (May 19) by Massena's corps; and a 
pontoon bridge was completed the next day from the island to 
the opposite shore of the Marchfield. The passage instantly 

324 BATTLE OF A8PEBN. a. d. 1809. 

commeneed, and, bjnoon on the Slst, 40,000 men were aaaembled 
in battle arra7 on the north side. 

513. The Archduke Charles, relying on the expected co-opera* 
tion of his brother, had directed Kollowrath, with 25,000 men, to 
attack the bridge of Lintz (May 19), held by the WiirtembeigersL 
But the arriyal of Bemadotte with 30,000 Saxons defeated the 
enterprise ; and the Archduke, who lay with the bulk of his 
army on the woody heights of the Bisamberg, resolved to crush 
the corps of Massena, while still isolated on the left bank. Napo- 
leon's overweening confidence had in fact at length brought 
him into a situation full of danger, where he was liable to attack 
from superior numbers in an open plain, with a great riyer in 
his rear ; and the Austrians descended to the battle in the fall 
anticipation of a victory which would deliver their country; and 
its captive capital, from the hated presence of the stranger. The 
French bridge joined the bank halfway between the villages of 
Aspem and Essling, which lay a mile apart, covering either 
flank of the position held by Massena and Bessieres : and Napo- 
leon, who perceived the magnitude of the peril, made every 
exertion to get over the remainder of the army. But the bridges 
had been so injured by the rise of the stream, and the constant 
march of troops, so as to be almost impassable ; and 80,000 
Austrians, including 14,000 magnificent cavalry, with 288 guns, 
were already hastening to the attack. 

514. The Imperialists advanced in five massy columns, preceded 
by clouds of horse ; and the village of Aspern, which was attacked 
by Hiller and Hohenzollem, became the theatre of a murderous 
conflict, which continued with equal obstinacy on both sides for 
several hours. All the military skill and invincible tenacity of 
Massena were displayed in the defence : every house, every gar- 
den, was contested ; but the numbers and determination of the 
Austrians at last prevailed, and the village was carried amidst 
deafening shouts of victory. In the centre, meanwhile, a tre- 
mendous charge of cuirassiers against the Austrian artillery^ 
which was tearing to pieces the French line, was baffled by the 
firm squares of the Hungarian infantry, and the routed cavalry 

A. o. 1809. DEATH OF LAKNES. 325 

withdrew with the loss of half their numhers. A general charge 
was now ordered hy the Archduke, and nearly succeeded in 
breaking the French centre ; but all the efforts of Rosenberg 
failed to dislodge Lannes from Essling, which remained in the 
hands of the French at nightfall 

515. The peril of the French was now most imminent ; but 
during the night so many troops were got Qver, that in the morn- 
ing, when the battle was renewed. Napoleon had 70,000 men in 
line. With the first dawn Essling was again assaulted, and at 
last taken by Rosenberg ; but Aspern, on the other hand, was 
recaptured by St Oyr, till Napoleon, further reinforced by part 
of Davoust's corps, ordered a grand attack in the centre. The 
shock, led by the fiery valour of Lannes, was for the moment 
irresistible, and a huge gap appeared in the hostile line ; but the 
Archduke, feeling that the decisive moment had arrived, threw 
himself in person among the wavering troops, and led them 
back against the enemy. The reserve under the Prince of Reuss, 
supported by Lichtenstein's numerous dragoons, arrested the 
progress of Lannes' column, which was finally driven back 
with heavy loss; and Hohenzollem, at this instant perceiv-* 
ing an opening in the French line, dashed through with the 
Hungarian grenadiers, and maintained the vantage-ground he 
had thus won. The bridges were at the same time broken 
by fire-ships and heavy vessels sent down the stream ; and the 
French ammiuition, after two days' incessant firing, was nearly 

516. In this terrible moment Napoleon's courage did not for- 
sake him. Calm and collected, he gave general orders to fall back 
to Lobau, while the Austrians poured a terrific fire on the retiring 
columns, massed together at. the entrance of the bridge, and the 
Archduke in person led the reserve of Hungarian grenadiers to 
a final charge. In resisting this attack, Lannes was mortally 
wounded by a cannon-shot, which carried off both his legs : but 
his last effort of heroism had saved the French army, which 
effected its retreat into the island of Lobau, having lost in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners, not less than 35,000 men. The Austrian 

326 DESCRIPTION OP THE TYROL, a. d. 1809. 

loss, as admitted with German honesty in the official acconnty 
exceeded 20,000. 

517. Such was the glorious battle of Aspern, the first in which 
Napoleon had ever been defeated. In the midst of the public 
calamity he shed tears beside the death-bed of Lannes, his early- 
companion in arms ; but despair pervaded the whole host, the 
situation of which appeared almost hopeless. Cooped up as 
they were in an island, without ammunition, and exposed to 
the attack of a victorious enemy, victory appeared hopeless, and 
retreat impossible ; and in the council of war the marshals 
unanimously and strongly recommended a withdrawal to the 
right bank. But Napoleon, who clearly perceived that this step 
would be equivalent to an admission of defeat, absolutely negar- 
tived the proposition ; and measures were instantly taken for 
re-establishing the bridges, and restoring the communication 
with the right bank and the remainder of the army. 

VII. War in the Tyrol, Northern Germany, and Poland. 

518. The country of the Tyrol, the scene of the immortal 
struggle which we are now about to commemorate, consists of the 
mountains stretching eastward from the Swiss Alps, and separat- 
ing the plains of Bavaria from those of Italy. Though less lofty 
than the Helvetian peaks, those of the Tyrol are still more rugged ; 
while the narrow valleys round their bases are of matchless 
beauty, and the climate and products, to the south of the great 
central chain of the Brenner, partake of a more genial character 
than to the north of that range. The country, wholly without 
level plains, is intersected only by a few long and spacious 
valleys, of which the most considerable are those of the Inn, 
the Eisach, the Adige, and the Fusterthal. The first of these 
extends from the borders of Switzerland to those of Bavaria; the 
second from Brixen to Bolsano, where it joins that of the Adige 
<-*which, descending from the frigid Alps of Glarus, widens into 
the Fasseyrthal, the original seat of the Counts of Tyrol, and 
more famous in modem times as the birthplace of Hofer : the 


upper parts of the valleys of the Brave, the Salza, and the Brenta, 
are also within the boundary of the Tyrol. 

519. Though inhabiting the same mountain range, and under 
the same climate as the Swiss, the Tyrolese national character 
differs wholly from that of their neighbours. Though not yielding 
to the descendants of Tell in their ardent love of freedom, they 
have always been distinguished for their ardent and enthusiastic 
loyalty towards the house of Austria, to which they have been 
subject since 1363 ; and they have never expelled their ancient 
seigneurs, whose immense ruinous castles, perched on crags and 
lofty heights above every valley, form one of the most striking 
characteristics of the country. The romantic legends connected 
with them, and firmly credited by the superstition of the people, 
throw an air of Gothic interest over these relics of feudalism, — 
superstitions, too, of a gentler and more holy kind have arisen 
from the devout feelings of the people, whose uniform piety is a 
remarkable feature in their character. Nor has their religion 
been corrupted by any of those errors which have elsewhere 
dimmed the light of the Catholic church : absolution for money 
is almost unknown, and the control of the parish priests over 
their flocks is exercised with strict and unblemished conscien- 
tiousness. Though subjects of a despotic monarchy, they have 
fromi the earliest times possessed all the practical blessings of 
freedom, including a representative government and the right of 
self- taxation ; and the peasants in the German Tyrol are almost 
all owners of the land they cultivate — a circumstance which has 
further contributed to nourish the martial and independent spirit 
they have always displayed. The frequent practice of the chase, 
and of firing at targets, has given them an extraordinary pro- 
ficiency as marksmen — ^and to this is chiefly attributable their 
long and successful resistance, with little aid from Austria, against 
the united force of France and Bavaria. 

620. To such a people, and so warmly attached to their ancient 
princes, their forcible transference to the rule of Bavaria was 
immeasurably odious. Though all their privileges had been 
solemnly guaranteed to them by the treaty of Fresburg, this 

328 HOFER. A. D. 1809. 

compact was soon yiolated in every point Their oonstitntion 
was overthrown ; their monasteries suppressed, and the church 
plate sold ; new and oppressive taxes were arbitrarily imposed ; 
and the introduction of the conscription irritated the people 
almost to madness. These feelings were well known to the 
Austrian goyemment, and they kept np a constant correspon- 
dence with the malcontent leaders, in which the Archduke John, 
who had formerly passed much time in the Tyrol, was a prin- 
cipal agent. But the leaders of the peasantry, when they at last 
rose in arms, were taken from their own body ; and the most 
noted among these, besides the immortal Hofer, were Spech- 
bacher, Haspinger, and Teimer. Hofer himself was born in 1 767, 
and exercised in the Passeyrthal the hereditary profession of an 
innkeeper. His means of improvement, from his intercourse 
with travellers, and his frequent visits to Italy, had been supe- 
rior to those of most persons in his rank ; and his personal 
acquaintance with the Archduke John, fgrmed during that 
princess scientific rambles, gave him consideration in the eyes of 
his countrymen. His character was truly German, both in his 
merits and defects ; his honesty, piety, and patriotism were 
unbounded; and though sometimes slow and vacillating, he 
possessed (as was shown when he was invested with supreme 
power in the autumn of 1809) a just discrimination, hardly to 
be expected from his limited opportunities. Convivial some- 
times even to intemperance, he was often carousing when the 
troops were in action ; but his energy in action, and his undoubted 
sincerity of patriotism, always preserved to him the attachment 
of his followers. 

521. The other chiefs were persons of less note. Spechbacher, a 
substantial yeoman in the lunthal, had in his youth as a hunter 
acquired a knowledge of the country, and a degree of personal 
daring which made him superior to Hofer in the actual conduct 
of partisan warfare, though far his inferior in general powers of 
mind. Haspinger (often called Rothbard or Bed Beard) was a 
Capuchin friar, who led his men into action in his monastic 
dress, wielding as his only weapon a huge wooden crucifix; and 


the effieieney of Teimer, though a man of superior talents, hoth 
in war and negotiation, was impaired hy his not possessing the 
confidence of the peasants in the same degree as his colleagues. 
Such were the leaders of the peasants, when, on the night of 
the 8th April, the long-expected and agreed-on signal was giyen 
by throwing sawdust into the Inn, which floated down the 
stream, and was instantly understood. The people rose as one 
man, amid the tears and blessings of their families and the 
clergy ; eyery glen sent forth its band of intrepid riflemen, till 
the accumulated torrent, gaining strength at every step, pressed 
down the great valleys against the enemy ; and Chastellar, on 
entering the country with ten thousand regulars (April 9), 
found every part of it already in insurrection. 

522. The Bavarian commander Wrede lost no time in attempt- 
ing to suppress the revolt, but his troops were everywhere over- 
borne by the enthusiastic valour of the insurgents : two divisions 
were forced to lay down their arms : and on 11th April, Inn- 
spmck, the capital of the province, was stormed by 20,000 pea- 
sants from the Innthal, who put to the sword great part of the 
garrison. The French division of Bisson, 3000 strong, was com- 
pelled to surrender on the 12th ; the strong post of Hall, in the 
Lower Innthal, was surprised by Spechbacher ; and in a week 
from the outbreak, the whole province, except the fortress of 
Kuffstein, was cleared of the enemy. The French, discouraged by 
their reverses, evacuated Trent and Boveredo ; the flame spread 
through the Italian Tyrol, even into the kingdom of Italy ; while 
Napoleon, irritated by these disasters, fulminated a decree of out- 
lawry against Chastellar and the Baron Hormayer (a Tyrolese 
noble active on the patriotic side), both of whom he ordered, if 
taken, to be tried and shot by a military commission as brigands. 

523. Chastellar, meanwhile, after endeavouring to give some 
degree of organisation to the mountaineers, had commenced ope- 
rations on the Italian frontier ; but he was soon recalled to the 
north of the Brenner to repel Lefebvre — who, after the defeat of 
HiUer at Landshut, had routed Jellachich (April 29) near Salz- 
burg, and forced the defiles between Beichenhall and Worgl on 

330 BATTLE OF INNSPRUCK. a. d. 1809. 

Ascension-day (May 11), when most of the Tyrolese were at 
church or keeping holiday. A Bavarian corps, under Deroy, at 
the same time entered the country by Kufistein ; and Ghastellar 
determined to combat Lefebyre before this new enemy came up. 
But in two desperate conflicts, at Feuersinger and Worgl, he was 
overpowered by superior numbers ; and on the 19th, Lefebyre 
entered Innspruck without further opposition. 

524. Aflairs now seemed desperate, as another corps of 15,000 
men, detached from Eugene's Italian army, was advancing up 
the valley of the Adige ; but the cruelty of the Bavarians kept 
alive the spirit of resistance, and Hofer, who was at first over- 
whelmed with grief, once more summoned the Tyrolese to the 
general rendezvous at Mount Ysel. A proclamation (issued May 
23, the day after the victory of Aspern), in which the Emperor 
Francis engaged "never to lay down his arms till the Tyrol was 
reunited to Austria," raised their spirits to the highest degree ; 
and (May 29) a battle was fought near Innspruck, in which 
20,000 undisciplined peasants, aided by 900 Austrian infantry, 
with 70 horse and 5 guns, utterly discomfited 8000 regular troops, 
with 800 horse and 25 pieces of artillery. The Bavarians lost 
4000 men ; and Deroy, having concluded a suspension of arms, 
commenced his retreat the same evening, leaving the whole 
country in possession of the victors. The bands from the Tyrol 
and Vorarlberg now spread terror through all the adjacent parts 
of Germany and Italy ; Constance fell into their hands ; and no 
less than 17,000 of the Austrian prisoners taken at Echmuhl, 
&c., were released in the course of these incursions. The flame 
of insurrection spread from the Black Forest to Lombardy, and 
from Salzburg to the Grisons ; an^, besides the brave but 
undisciplined peasants, not less than 20,000 foot and 800 horsey 
regularly organised and equipped, were under arms to repel the 
hated tyranny of the French. 

525. During this heroic contest, a general revolt against the 
French had nearly taken place in Saxony and Westphalia, where 
the enormous burdens imposed on the people, and theinsolenceof 
the French troops, had kindled a deadly spirit of hostility against 

A. D. 1809. SCHILL^S REVOLT. 331 

the oppressors. Everywhere the Tagendbnnd were in actiyity; 
and the advance of the Austrians towards Franconia and Saxony, 
at the beginning of the war, blew up the flame. The two first 
attempts at insurrection, headed respectively by Eatt, a Prussian 
officer (April 3), and Domberg, a Westphalian colonel (April 
23), proved abortive ; but the enterprise of the celebrated Schill 
was of a more formidable character. This enthusiastic patriot, 
then a colonel in the Prussian army, had been compromised in 
the revolt of Dornberg ; and finding himself discovered, he boldly 
raised the standard (April 29) at the head of 600 soldiers. His 
force speedily received accessions ; but failing in his attempts on 
Wittenberg and Magdeburg, he moved towards the Baltic, in 
hope of succour from the British cruisers, and at last threw 
himself into Stralsund. Here he was speedily invested ; the 
place was stormed (May 31), and the gallant Schill slain in the 
assault, a few hours only before the appearance of the British 
yessels — the timely arrival of which might have secured the 
place, and spread the rising over all Northern Germany. 

526. The Duke of Brunswick-Gels, with his black hand of 
volunteers, had at the same time invaded Saxony from Bohemia; 
and though then obliged to retreat, he made a second incursion 
in June, occupied Dresden and Leipsic, and drove the King of 
Westphalia into France. After the battle of Wagram he made 
his way across all Northern Germany, and was eventually con- 
veyed, with his gallant followers, st^ll 2000 strong, to England. 

527. It has been already mentioned that, at the beginning of 
the war, an army of 36,000 men under the Archduke Ferdinand, 
with ninety-six guns, had been directed against the grand-duchy 
of Warsaw. As the bulk of the Polish forces were serving 
Napoleon either in Spain or on the Danube, Poniatowski had 
not more than 12,000 disposable troops : he, however, gallantly 
confronted the invaders at BASzyn (April 19) ; but the contest 
was too unequal, and he was forced to retreat, abandoning 
Warsaw to the enemy. The Austrians, now descending the 
left bank of the Vistula, menaced Thorn and Dantzic ; while the 
Polish general, ascending the right bank, threatened the Austro- 

332 WAB IN POLAND. a. d. 1809. 

Polish proyince of Gallida, and expected the aid of a Russian 
army under Gallitzin. Bat these snecours were slow and inef- 
fectual ; and a despatch was even (^ptured by the Poles, from 
the Russian general Gortchakoff to the Archduke, congratulating 
him on his success, and expressing a wish that the Russian and 
Austrian arms might soon be again united ! The letter was sent 
by Poniatowski to the French Emperor; and though it was 
disavowed at St Petersburg, and GortchakolBP disgraced, the 
impression remained on the mind of Napoleon, who frequently 
observed to those in his confidence, " I see, after all, I shall have 
to make war on Alexander." 

528. Another important political effect of Aspem was a secret 
negotiation for an alliance between Austria and Prussia ; but 
the exorbitant demands of Prussia caused it to fail in the first 
instance ; and before it could be renewed, the battle of Wagram 
had been fought, and the opportunity had passed away. The 
most energetic appeals, meanwhile, were everywhere made by 
the Austrians to the German people at large to rise in arms ; 
while Napoleon, weakened by defeat, could only maintain him- 
self by concentrating all his forces under the walls of Vienna. 

VIII. Battle of Wagram — Armistice ofZnaym. 

529. Both the military and political position of Napoleon were 
now full of peril ; but it was precisely in such circumstances that 
his genius shone forth with most lustre. Heat once saw that a 
victory before Vienna would enable him to disregard the Tyro- 
lese, the revolts in Northern Germany, and the threatened land- 
ing of the British in the Scheldt ; and his attention was directed 
solely to the keeping open the communications of the Grand 
Army with the Rhine. 

530. During the month of June, however, no encounter took 
place between the main armies before Vienna ; the French being 
engaged in covering the Isle of Lobau with field-works of the 
most gigantic magnitude and strength, and connecting it by three 
solid bridges with the southern bank — ^while one immense bridge 

A. D. 1809. BATTLE OF RAAa 333 

ran across all the islands from shore to shore, and three other 
movable bridges were conee&led, ready for use, in one of the 
narrow channels. The Austrians had also erected formidable 
intrenchments, running from Aspem across the late field of 
battle to the bank of the river at Enzersdorf ; and before the end 
of Jnne, the main forces of Austria were collected in these lines 
— all filled, by their late victory, with unwonted ardour and 
confidence. The Archduke, during the interval, had directed 
his efforts to regain his communication with the Archduke John 
and the Hungarian insurrection ; and a conflict ensued at the 
bridge of Presburg (June 3), between Bianchi and the corps of 
Davoust But the Viceroy, Eugene, with the troops under his 
command, was now detached in this direction by Napoleon ; 
and the Archduke John, in spite of the express injunctions of 
his brother the generalissimo, determined to give him battle in 
a strong position near Baab, where he had 22,000 regulars and 
18,000 of the new levies. The action took place on 14th June 
(the anniversary of Marengo). The Italian regiments gave way 
before the fiery valour of the Hungarians, but the advance of the 
French reserves restored the battle ; and the Imperialists were 
finally defeated with the loss of 6000 men. The fortress of Raab, 
with its intrenched camp, fell into the hands of the victors ; 
while the Hungarian levies, broken and disheartened, retired 
under the cannon of Komom. 

531. While these successes secured the French right, Marmont 
and Maodonald were rapidly approaching from Dalmatia and 
Styria ; and after several severe though partial actions with 
Giulay, and Chastellar in Carniola, arrived in the isle of Lobau 
(July 3). Eugene, with the Italian army, had also been sum- 
moned to join the Emperor ; and having concealed his depar- 
ture from the Archduke John, by pushing forward large masses 
of cavalry, he reached the camp (July 4), with his artillery and 
iufiintry. Carniola and Croatia, evacuated by this concentration 
of the French troops, were re-occupied by the Austrians ; and a 
British subsidy of £320,000 was landed in Dalmatia, and safely 
transported across the mountiuns into Hungary. 


532. The sucoessesof the Austrian arms in Poland, meanwhile, 
had come to an end. The Arehduke Ferdinand wasrecalled towards 
Austrian Poland by the bold stroke of Poniatowski against that 
province, where he had occupied Lemberg, and spread his light 
troops even beyond the Carpathians to the borders of Hungary 
— ^powerfully exciting the enthusiasm of the Gallicians by the 
sight of the national uniforms. Repulsed in an attack on Thorn, 
the Archduke commenced his retreat (May 30), severely har- 
assed by Dombrowski. Warsaw was abandoned to the Poles ; 
and though Gallitzin, with the Russian auxiliaries, refused to 
cross the Vistula, his presence on the right bank secured the 
operations of the Poles on the other side of the stream. An 
attempt of the Russians, however, to occupy Cracow (July 6), 
had nearly kindled into a flame the ill-suppressed animosity of 
the two nations, and Gallitzin yielded the point. Hostilities 
were soon afterwards suspended by the armistice of Znaym ; 
but the military ardour of the Poles was so strongly excited by 
their successes, that before the peace of Vienna, Poniatowski 
had 48,000 men under arms, in addition to those already raised 
for the service of Napoleon. 

533. It was from Lobau, however, that the decisive blow was 
to be dealt ; and thither, on the 3d and 4th of July, the different 
reinforcements converged from all points with a precision never 
yet known in military history, till 150,000 foot, 30,000 horse, 
and 750 pieces of artillery, were collected in a space two miles 
and a half long, by one and three-quarters wide. The Archduke's 
army was far from being equally concentrated, from the necessity 
of watching for a long space the banks of the river ; and the 
Archduke John was still at Presburg. By a skilful feint, on the 
evening of the 3d, Napoleon succeeded in impressingthe Austrians 
with the belief that the passage would be attempted at the same 
point as on the former occasion ; but his real design was far 
different. While a tremendous fire was poured from all the 
Austrian batteries on the bridge of Aspern, the three movable 
bridges, already mentioned, were silently transported to a point 
opposite Enzersdorf, lower down the stream ; the passage 

A. D. 1809. BATTLE OF WAGRAM. 335 

instantly commenced ; and such was the unprecedented activity 
exerted that, by 6 a.m. on the 5th, the whole French army, with 
its artillery, was grouped in dense array on the northern shore, 
in a position which took the Austrian lines in reverse, and cut 
oflT their communication with Hungary. The Imperial generals, 
struck with astonishment at this manoeuvre, abandoned their 
now useless intrenchments, and fell back to a field previously 
chosen, on the vast elevated plateau of Wagram, four miles from 
the Danube, at the northern extremity of the Marchfield. Here, 
in a position presenting a concave front to the French advance, 
strengthened by the villages of Wagram and Nensiedel at each 
angle, and covered in front by the stream of the Bussbach, they 
awaited the assault of Napoleon and his legions. 

534. The French army, which had at first been drawn up in an 
immense close column perpendicular to the Danube, spread out 
its corps like the folds of a &ii during its advance across the plain, 
to which the Archduke, who had at the moment only 60,000 
men actually in position, offered no serious resistance. Napoleon, 
perceiving thisf, directed an instant attack by his own centre, 
100,000 strong ; and at 6 p.m. the action was commenced by the 
corps of Oudinot ; while Eugene, fording the Russbach, gallantly 
ascended the heights of Wagram in the face of a murderous dis- 
charge of grape, which the Austrian artillery poured from their 
vantage-ground. The first line gave way before the shock ; but 
the Archduke hastened in person to the spot, with the veteran 
regiments of Zach, Vogelsang, and D'Erlach ; while the attacking 
column, enveloped and assailed on the right flank by Hohen- 
zollem, and on the left by Bellegarde, at last gave way, and was 
driven in confusion headlong down the steep. The Saxons, who 
were advancing under Bernadotto, were overwhelmed by the 
flying battalions ; two eagles were taken ; and had the Imperial-^ 
ists been aware of the panic and disorder of the French line, the 
consequences might have been decisive. At eleven o'clock at 
night, however, a retreat was sounded; and the two armies 
rested during the night on their former positions. 

535. Encouraged by this success, the Archdukeresolved toassume 

336 DANGER OF THE FRENCH. a. d. 1809. 

the offensive. Orders were despatched to the Archduke John to 
hasten his march; and at daybreak on the 6th, Rosenbei^g moTcd 
against the French right, in order to outflank it, and thus co- 
operate with the expected succours. As Prince John, howeva, 
had not come up, the attack on this point was suspended ; but 
the village of Aderklaa^ in the centre of the field (whence 
Bellegarde had driven the Saxons), became the scene of a desperate 
struggle. St Oyr, with the leading division of Massena's corps, 
had at one time retaken it ; but while disordered hy success, his 
troops, taken in flank by the cavalry, and charged in front by 
the grenadiers, led by the Archduke in person, were driven 
back at the point of the bayonet; the panic spread to the 
Saxons, Darmstadters, ^c, and the progress of the victors was 
with difficulty arrested by the Guard and the cuirassiers, whom 
Napoleon himself led to the spot. On the French left, the 
advantage gained by the Austrians was still more unequivocal. 
Kollowrath and Klenau had swept the field with overwhelming 
numbers, taken 4000 prisoners and many guns, and driven the 
French to the edge of the Danube : already the cry was heard — 
^' All is lost : the bridges are taken ! " and a general consternation 
began to pervade the ranks. But at this critical moment the 
formidable corps of Davoust, which had made a long circuit out 
of the range of artillery, commenced its attack on the Austrian 
left, which was at last forced back, and driven from Neusiedel 
and from the angle of the plateau ; and Napoleon, who still 
remained in the centre, gave orders for a general charge. The 
triumphant right wing of the Austrian was held in check by 
ten regiments of cavalry under Bessi^res ; Eugene, Marmout, and 
Bemadotte were directed against Wagram ; and a formidable 
column of all arms was arrayed by the Emperor himself, for the 
decisive eflbrt in the centre. 

536. The onset was led by Macdonald with eight strong bat- 
talions ; but the storm of fire by which they were assailed on either 
flank was so tremendous, that this band of heroes, reduced to 1500 
men, was at length compelled to halt ; but the Emperor himself 
was at hand, and all the disposable troops were pushed forward 

A. i>. 1809. THKIB ULTIMATE YIOTOBr. 337 

to prevent the halt from becoming a retreat The cavalry every- 
where recoiled before the tempest of cannon-balls, but the ad- 
Yanee of the infantry was resumed with more success ; and the 
Archduke, despairing of maintaining his position, ordered a 
general retreat This movement, covered by KoUowrath, was 
eonducted with consummate skill, and hardly any loss: the 
exhausted French were incapable of vigorous pursuit ; and in 
spite of the chagrin of Napoleon, who repeatedly exclaimed, 
^ No results ! neither prisoners nor guns !" the Austrians took 
up their position at night on the great road to Brunn, while the 
French bivouacked on the field of battle. Twenty-five thousand 
on each side were killed or wounded : 6000 prisoners were taken 
by the Austrians, and 2000 by the French ; but at no single 
point were the Austrians defeated, and it was at the command 
of their chief alone that they retired, unbroken, from the well- 
fought field of battle. 

537. At the dose of this mighty conflict, the columns of the 
Arehduke John at length approached the field, advancing between 
three and four o'clock up to Neusiedel, and even to Wagram, 
through which the French had recently passed in pursuit ! 
Finding, however, that the Austrians had retreated, he instantly 
countermarched his army, and before midnight regained Mar- 
check, 13 miles distant Some of his advanced patrols of cavalry 
caused a panic in the French rear, which showed what might 
have been the results of his appearance at an earlier hour, when 
the fate of Europe hung in iraspense on the success of Macdonald's 
column. But the opportunity was gone ; and the tardiness of 
this prince^ whether arising from incapacity or from jealousy of 
his brother, again proved fatal to his country, as it had before 
done when he was ordered to combine with KoUowrath at the 
bridge of Lintz. 

BdS. Napoleon, according to his custom, rode the next day over 
the field, and personally inspected the relief of the wounded, 
whose multitude exceeded all the efforts of the surgeons. The 
inestimable services of Macdonald, between whom and the Em- 
peror a coldness had hitherto subsisted, were repaid by a mar- 

338 ARMISTICE OF ZKATM. a. d. 1809. 

shal's baton, and the same distinction was conferred on Oadinot 
and Marmont Bemadotte, on the contrary, was sey^rely repri- 
manded for the misconduct of the Saxons under his command^ 
as weU as for a gasconading proclamation which he had ad- 
dressed to them. He retired in disgrace to Paris ; and his ancient 
jealousy of the First Consul, thus reviyed, probably contributed 
in no small degree, when he became a sovereign, to his appear- 
ance in arms against his old master. 

539. Two lines of retreat lay open to the Archduke — one to 
Olmutz and Moravia, the other to Bohemia ; and the strength of 
the country about Prague, as well as the important arsenals in 
that city, determined him on the latter. The Grand Army ac- 
cordingly took the high road to Znaym (July 7), followed by 
the corps of Davoust, Massena, and Marmont ; while the Viceroy, 
with 50,000 men, observed the Archduke John on the side of 
Presburg ; and Macdonald remained to take charge of Vienna, 
and repel, if needful, the advance of Giulay from Oroatia. The 
retreat of the Austrian main army was unmarked by any con- 
siderable action till its arrival at Znaym ; but the Archduke 
halted on the strong position afforded by that town, and re- 
pelled with great slaughter (July II) all the efforts of Marmont 
and Massena to dislodge him. But in the midst of the action it 
was announced that an armistice, proposed by the Aichduke 
the night before, had been accepted by Napoleon. Hostilities 
were immediately suspended, and the two armies remained 
stationary on the positions they then held ; while Napoleon lost 
no time in imposing, on the provinces thus occupied, a war con- 
tribution of 237,000,000 francs (£9,500,000), a burden at least 
equal to what £50,000,000 would be on Great Britain ! The 
Imperial cabinet, then at Komorn at Hungary, at first hesitated 
to ratify the armistice, which appeared to them unnecessary ; 
but it was at last signed (July 18) by the Emperor ; and the 
flames of war were quenched in Germany till they broke out 
with awful violence, three years later, on the Niemen. 


IX Walcheren JSxpeditionr—Second War in the TyroJ^De- 

thronemerU of the Pope. 

540. Nature has formed the Scheldt to be the riyal of the 
Thames ; and Antwerp, the key of this great estuary, has been in 
every age the point whence the independence of Britain has been 
seriously menaced. It was in the Scheldt that the preparations 
of the Duke of Parma were made, in the time of Elizabeth, 
for the overthrow of the liberties and religion of England ; and 
it was from the Scheldt that Napoleon, after the ruin of his 
profound naval combinations in 1805, intended to invade the 
British Isles. Hence for centuries it bed been the fixed policy 
of Britain to prevent this formidable outwork against her inde- 
pendence from falling into the hands of her enemies. 

Ml. When the war commenced, the cabinet of Vienna had 
earnestly requested a diversion, by a British land force, in the 
north of Germany, where so many ardent spirits were ready to 
rise in revolt ; and also that an Anglo-Sicilian expedition should 
be sent to the coast of Italy. But matters were changed since 
1807 ; and instead of Germany, Antwerp was chosen as the grand 
point of attack — a selection judicious both from the importance 
of the position, and from the absence (from the employment of 
the French army in Germany and the Peninsula) of any con- 
siderable force which could be sent to its relief. But the value 
of time in war was not even yet understood in Britain ; and 
though the Austrians crossed the Inn on the 9th of March, it 
was not till the end of May that any serious preparations began 
to be made ; and the expedition did not finally sail till the 28th of 
July, a week after the battle of Wagram was known in Londoti. 
Its strength, however, was on a scale truly worthy of the mistress 
of the seas : 37 ships of the line, 23 frigates, 33 sloops, 82 gun- 
boats, and innumerable transports, with 40,000 land troops, fully 
equipped with stores, battering-trains, k^, formed the largest 
and most formidable armament which had ever put to sea in 
modem times, and which, if conducted with vigour and directed 


340 ITS FAILURE. a. d. 1809. 

by skill, might have shaken the empire of Napoleon to its foun* 

542. On the 30th of July, 30,000 troops were disembarked 
in Walcheren and took Middleburg; while another division 
occupied Cadsand ; and South Beveland, with the fort of Bahtz, 
which commanded the junction of the East and West Scheldt, 
surrendered to Sir John Hope. It is admitted by all the Freneh 
military writers that, had the English at once pushed on for 
Antwerp, it must have fallen into their hands without resist- 
ance ; but Lord Chatham, the general-in-chief, though a respect- 
able veterauy had none of the energy of his family, and in 
defiance of the dictates of common sense, he determined, in the 
first place, to besiege Flushing. After three days' bombardment^ 
this fortress, with its garrison of 6000 men, surrendered (Ang. 
16) ; but during this precious breathing-time the French fleet 
had been removed above Antwerp ; and when, on the 26th, 
Lord Chatham at length moved forward, the city had been put 
in a state of defence, and 30,000 troops collected there under 
Bernadotte and the King of Holland. The British, moreover, 
were suffering severely from the pestilential air of the marshes ; 
and further advance being deemed impossible, the whole force 
was withdrawn, early in September, into Walcheren, of which 
it was intended to retain possession. But the ravages of fever 
among the troops were such that before Christmas the whole 
army was brought back to Britain, having lost seven thousand 
men by sickness ; while many of the survivors felt the effects of 
the disease during the remainder of their lives. 

543. An untoward consequence of this expedition was a schism 
in the cabinet. Mr Canning, then foreign secretary, having unsuc- 
cessfully endeavoured to procure the dismissal of LordCastlereagh 
from the secretaryship of war, threw up his own ofilce — a duel 
ensued, and Mr Canning having been wounded, Lord Castlereagh 
found himself also under the necessity of retiring. The Duke of 
Portland soon afterwards withdrew from oflice on the plea of 
declining health ; and after a fruitless negotiation with Lords 
Grey and Grenville, a new Tory ministry was constructed under 

A. D. 1809. PEACE OF VIENNA. 341 

the leadership of Mr Pereeval — the Earl of Liverpool taking the 
war-offiee, while Mr Ryder became home, and the Marquis 
Wellesley foreign secretary. The cabinet, thus constituted, though 
consisting chiefly of men of respectable rather than brilliant 
talents, possessed the inestimable advantage of unanimity on all 
vital questions, especially on the great one of the prosecution of 
the war; and the glorious triumphs achieved under their 
administration remarkably indicate the power of unity and 
resolution of purpose to compensate for the want of those showy 
qualities which usually command popular admiration. 

544. During all this time Austria was anxiously protracting a 
painful negotiation, in the vain hope of some favourable change 
in the political horizon. The victory of Wagram had at once 
restored at least the appearance of cordiality between France 
and Prussia, in accordance with the usual temporising policy 
of the latter power ; and, secure in this quarter. Napoleon in- 
sisted at first on terms so extravagant as to amount to a virtual 
subversion of the monarchy. He even threatened, if driven to 
extremities, to separate the crowns of Hungary and Bohemia 
from that of Austria, and confer them on two of the Archdukes ; 
and he afterwards, at 8t Helena, expressed his regret for not 
having done this. Still the Emperor was not free from disquietude 
on account of the danger of Antwerp, the war in the Tyrol, and 
the disasters in Portugal ; and an attempt (Sept. 15) by an 
enthusiastic youth, named Stabs, the son of a clergyman at 
Erfurth, to assassinate him as the merciless enemy of his father- 
land, was probably not without its efi^ect. The peace of Vienna, 
which was signed on 14th October, was sufficiently humiliating 
to Austria. Territories were given up containing 3,500,000 souls, 
including great part of Gkdlicia, ceded partly to Russia, partly to 
the grand-duchy of Warsaw ; Salzburg, with an important line 
of strong frontier, to Bavaria, which also retained the Tyrol ; 
and Gamiola^ with Trieste, part of Croatia and Carinthia, Fiume, 
and various other towns and districts, to the kingdom of Italy. 
The army was moreover to be reduced to 150,000 men, and 
a further ooutribation of £3,500,000 levied on the occupied 

342 SECOND WAR IN THE TYROL. a. d. 1809. 

provinces. Such was the treaty of Vienna. It excited great dis- 
approbation at 8t Petersburg, from the augmentation of the 
grand-duchy of Warsaw, which Alexander, in spite of all 
Napoleon*s assurances, viewed with suspicion as tending towards 
the national restoration of Poland ; but Napoleon now began 
to perceive that an ultimate rupture with Russia was inevitably 
and paid less attention than formerly to these remonstrances. 
No sooner was the treaty ratified than he set out for Paris, 
having given orders, before leaving Vienna, for blowing up the 
ancient ramparts of the city — a useless piece of tyranny, which 
bitterly exasperated the citizens. 

545. The battle of Wagram, and the armistice of Znaym, fell 
like a thunderbolt on the Tyrolese in the midst of their triumphs. 
Abandoned by the Austrian soldiers, who received orders 
(July 21) to evacuate the country, their cause at first appeared 
hopeless ; and Lefebvre, who re-entered the country with 20,000 
men, marched into Innspruck (July 30) without resistance. But 
Hofer, Haspinger, and the other patriot leaders, at length re- 
covering from their consternation, met at Brixen, and mutually 
pledged themselves to sacrifice their lives rather than abandon 
the cause of freedom ; and hostilities were recommenced (Aug. 4} 
by a desperate and successful attack on a Bavarian corps under 
Bouyer at the bridge of Laditch, on the road from Innspruck to 
Bolsano. Lefebvre himself, in attempting to force his way with 
his whole force over the ridge of the Brenner, was defeated with 
immense loss (Augl 10, 11) by the armed peasants under Hofer. 
The enthusiastic valour of the Tyrolese was equally triumphant 
in other quarters ; and a decisive battle was at last fought 
(Aug. 12) before Innspruck. The French and Bavarian force 
amounted to 25,000, including 2000 horse and 40 guns ; but the 
troops were dispirited by defeat, and filled with a mysterious 
awe of the prowess of the mountaineers ; and after a contest which 
lasted from six in the morning till midnight, they gave way on 
all sides, with the loss of 6000 men. Lefebvre immediately 
evacuated the Tyrol, retreating with his whole army to Salz- 
burg ; while Hofer entered Innspruck in triumph, and assumed, 

A. D. 1810. EXECUTION OF HOFEB. 343 

as general-in-ohief, the entire ciyil and military command of the 

546. Bat darker days were approaching, in which all the 
patriotism and valour of the Tyrolese were destined to be unavail- 
ing. No sooner was the Tyrol given up by Austria, at the peace 
of Vienna, than the country was invaded (Oct. 10) at three diffe- 
rent points — from Bavaria, from Oarinthia, and from Italy^by 
forces amounting in the aggregate to 50,000 men ; and Hofer, 
warned by the Archduke John that no further aid could be given 
by Austria, issued (Nov. 8) a proclamation recommending submis- 
sion. But a few days after, finding that the spirit of the people 
was still unsubdued, he once more put himself at their head, and 
continued for a month a heroic but hopeless struggle. The 
setting in of the winter, however, soon rendered the mountains 
untenable ; and by the middle of December most of the chiefs 
had taken advantage of an amnesty published by Eugene Beau- 
hamais, and were allowed to retire into Hungary. Hofer alone, 
refusing either to fly or submit, was betrayed in his concealment 
by a treacherous friend (Jan. 5, 1810), and carried prisoner to 
Mantua, where he was instantly brought to a court-martial, 
condemned, and shot, on the charge of having fought against 
the French after the amnesty — a judicial murder, which leaves 
one of the darkest stains on the memory of Napoleon. Peter 
Mayer, another patriotic leader, was also taken and executed ; 
but Spechbacher and Haspinger, after numberless perils, and 
many hair-breadth escapes, reached Vienna in safety, where they 
were sheltered and provided for by the gratefal bounty of the 

547. This eventful year was marked by yet another momentous 
occurrence— the dethronement and imprisonment of the Pope. 
The dazzling reception which the pontiff had met with in Paris, 
at the coronation in 1805, had given him the hope of regaining, 
from the new Charlemagne, the temporalities of which the Holy 
Bee had been stripped during the war ; but not only were all 
his representations on this point eluded, but fresh encroachments 
soon followed. In October 1805, the French troops occupied 

344 DETHRONEMENT OF THE POPE. a. d. 1809. 

Ancona ; and Napoleon, in reply to the remonstranees addressed 
to him, openly declared that he was Emperor of Borne, and the 
Pope only his viceroy. The ahsorhing cares of the war for a 
time drew off his attention from Italy ; hut soon after the peace 
of Tilsit, he renewed his assaults on the independence of the 
papal government, and, on the continued refusal of Pius YIL to 
declare war against Britain, Borne was at length (Feb. 2, 1808) 
occupied by French troops, and the government of the city given 
to General Miollis. The Pope, with his secretary of states Car- 
dinal Pacca, became virtually a prisoner in the Quirinal palace; 
but, as all the insults heaped on him failed to shake his resolu- 
tion, a decree was at last issued from the camp at Schfinbrnnn 
(May 17, 1809), annexing Bome and the Ecclesiastical States to 
the French empire. 

548. This edict was carried into effect at Bome (June 10), and 
was immediately responded to by the publication of a bull of 
excommunication against Napoleon, and all concerned in this act 
of spoliation. Miollis, alarmed at this vigorous measure, instantly 
entered into communication with Murat at Naples ; and before 
the intelligence had reached Napoleon at Vienna, it had been 
determined between them to seize the Pope's person. A mili- 
tary force, under General Badet, accordingly forced an entrance 
into the palace at daybreak (July 5) ; and the Pope, having 
steadfastly refused to subscribe the resignation which was required 
of him, was conducted under an escort, in company with Cardi- 
nal Pacca, first to Florence and afterwards to Alessandria. Here 
they were separated — ^the Cardinal being hurried off to the state- 
prison of Fenestrelles, amid the Alpine snows of Savoy, where 
he was closely confined till 1813; while the Pope was conducted 
across the Alps to Grenoble, and finally fixed at Savona, where 
he remained under restraint, though not guarded, till after the 
Moscow campaign, when he was transferred to Fontainebleau. 

549. Napoleon subsequently declared, with apparent truth, that 
the seizure of the Pope was wholly without his knowledge, and 
that he was at first much perplexed what to do with him. 
However this may have been, he speedily approved of what had 


been done, and kept his hold of his prey so tenaciously that the 
captiye pontiff was only liberated on the passage of the Rhine 
by the Allies in 1814. Rome, meanwhile, was declared the 
second city of the empire ; and the difference between the drowsy 
mle of the cardinals, and the energetic sway of Napoleon, speed- 
ily became manifest The rains and accumulations of fourteen 
hundred years were cleared away from the majestic monuments 
of ancient Rome, which again stood forth in renovated splen- 
dour; and the hideous practice of private assassination was 
repressed by severe laws impartially executed. 


PENINSULAR WAR. — 1809-12. 

I. Domestic History of Great Britain from 1809 to 1812.* 

550. The reign of George III. comprehends, beyond all ques- 
tion, the most eventful and important period in the history of 
mankind : it embraces the transition, not only from one century 
to the next, but from one age of the world to another. Its com- 
mencement was coeval with the glories of the Seven Tears' War, 
and the foundation of the Indian empire of Britain ; its meri- 
dian witnessed the momentous conflict for American indepen- 
dence ; and its latter years were involved in the heart^stirring con- 
flicts of the French Revolution. New elements of fearful activity 
were brought into operation in the moral world, and new prin- 
ciples of government established. Nor were the characters less 
remarkable which rose to eminence during this period. The 
military genius of the Prussian Frederick ; the burning eloquence 
and lofty patriotism of Chatham ; the incorruptible integrity 
and philosophic spirit of Franklin ; the spotless virtue and serene 

*In order to simplify the narrative, it has been found necessary, in this 
flection^ slightly to anticipate the course of events ; but any such allusionB 
will be fully elucidated in the subsequent sections of this Part. 


fortitude of Washington ; the masculine understanding and 
ruthless ambition of Catherine of Russia, would alone have ren- 
dered memorable any other age. But still more brilliant was 
the constellation which followed later in succession ; when the 
British senate was shaken by the rival genius of Pitt and "Fox, 
and the prophetic wisdom of Burke ; when the arm of Nelson 
cast its thunderbolts on every shore, and the deluge of imperial 
power was stayed by the prowess of Wellington : while the 
Revolution was illustrated by the splendid genius of Mirabeau, 
the republican virtue of Carnot, and the marvellous exploits and 
universal intellect of Napoleon. 

651. Inferior to many, perhaps all, of the illustrious men of 
this era, both in intellect and attainments, George III. will yield 
to none in the importance of the duties to which he was called, 
or the enduring benefits which he conferred on mankind. It 
was his fate to hold, during an age of revolutions, the sceptre of 
the only free empire in existence ; and no monarch ever pos- 
sessed qualities more peculiarly fitted for the difficulties with 
which he had to contend. His education had been neglected, his 
information was not extensive, but he was endowed, in a high de- 
gree, with that strong sense and just discrimination, for the want 
of which no intellectual culture can compensate. With the per- 
sonal courage hereditary in his family, he combined an unrivalled 
share of moral determination, which was memorably exhibited 
on the occasion of the run on the Bank, and mutiny at the Nore 
in 1797, and in his opposition to Fox's India Bill in 1783, when 
he expressed his resolution rather to resign his crown, and retire 
to Hanover, than permit it to become a law. It is true that this 
inflexible temper sometimes betrayed him into undue obstinacy: 
he prolonged the unhappy contest with the Americans long after 
his ministers were aware that it had become hc^eless ; but his 
first words to the American envoy who came to his court after 
the peace — ^^ 1 was the last man to acknowledge your indepen- 
dence ; but I will be the first to support it, now that it has been 
granted" — ^portray at once the firmness and the honesty of his 
character. He had long survived the popular obloquy of which. 

A. D. 1810 11. DEBATES OK THE BEQENCT. 347 

in his earlier ^^rs, he had been the object ; and the jubilee of 
1809, for the 50th year of his reign, was celebrated by the whole 
nation with loyal thankfalness and devotion. But the rule of 
the yenerable monarch was now drawing to a close. The anguish 
consequent on the death (Nov. 2, 1810) of his favourite daughter, 
the Princess Amelia, induced a return of the mental aberration 
"which had afflicted him in 1788 ; and the malady having assumed 
a fixed character, Mr Perceval (Dec. 20) brought forward in the 
Commons the subject of a regency. 

5^2. Vehement debates ensued in both houses on this momentous 
question, in which (as in 1788) the two parties took sides diame- 
trically opposite to what might have been expected — the Whigs 
supporting the inherent right of the heir-apparent to the regency ; 
while the Tories strove to negative the claim dejure, and confer 
it only by act of parliament, and under such restrictions as the 
legislature might think fit to impose. After a long and violent 
contention, the ministers at length prevailed, though some clauses 
of the bill (particularly those restricting the Regent's prerogative 
for a year, in the creation of peers, and other points) passed by 
extremely slender majorities ; and on Feb. 6, 1811, the Prince of 
Wales entered on the functions of royalty. From the intimacy 
which had long subsisted between the new Regent and the Whig 
leaders, it was universally expected that his first act would be to 
place Lords Grey and Grenville at the head of a new ministry ; 
but to the surprise of all parties, the Tories were still retained 
in office. An attempt was, however, made (Feb. 1812) on the 
retirement of the Marquis Wellesley (who was succeeded as 
foreign secretary by Lord Gastlereagh), to form a ministry from 
both parties, on the principle of mutual concession ; but irrecon- 
cilable subjects of difference (of which Catholic Emancipation 
was one of the principal) were soon discovered to exist, and the 
project of coalition fell to the ground. 

553. A dreadful and unexpected event, however, soon after gave 
rise to a renewal of the negotiation. This was the assassination 
of Mr Perceval, who was shot dead in the lobby of the House of 
Commons (May 11), by a man named fiellingham, in revenge 


for the neglect of an application for indemnity lor seyare losses 
sustained in Russia. He was tried, condemned, and executed 
on the 18th, in spite of an attempt to prove him insane. A vote 
of ;£60,000 to the family of the deceased minister, and of an an- 
nuity of jSSOOO to his widow, unanimously passed the Commons ; 
and a monument was erected to him in Westminster Abbey. 
But, notwithstanding the removal of this uncompromising oppo- 
nent, the Whigs still found insuperable difficulties in the way of 
their accession to office ; and the Prince-Regent at last, irritated 
at what he deemed an unwarrantable attempt to interfere with 
his choice of his household, broke off the negotiation^ and 
appointed Lord Liverpool (June 8) first lord of the treasury- 
Lord Gastlereagh continuing foreign secretary. And thus, from 
such inconsiderable causes, was averted a change of ministiy 
which, occurring at the crisis of the war, would probably haTe 
changed the destinies of the world. The Whigs, fettered by their 
continued protestations against the war, must have taken the 
first opportunity of concluding it ; and Wellington would haTe 
been withdrawn, with barren laurels, from the Peninsula. 

554. It was the good fortune of George IV. to wield the British 
sceptre during the most glorious period in our annals ; yet no 
monarch ever owed less to his own wisdom or exertions. He 
mounted the throne at the time when the seed sown by the sagacity 
and valour of preceding statesmen and warriors was beginning 
to come to maturity ; and thus he reaped the harvest prepared 
by others. Tet his talents were of no ordinary kind ; and he is 
entitled to the credit of having, in no small degree, kept together 
the discordant elements of the Grand Alliance, amidst the occa- 
sional disasters and frequent jealousies of the last years of the 
war. Similar to the good fortune of his royal master was that 
of Lord Liverpool, who, called to the helm at a crisis of unex- 
ampled difficulty, was, almost from that moment, borne forward 
on an uninterrupted flood of success ; so that, though far inferior 
in capacity to most of those who had preceded him, he surpassed 
them all in the felicity of his career. His talents, however, were 
still such as entitle him to a respectable rank in the second class 


of statesmen : the efforts of Wellington and Oastlereagh were 
admirably seconded by his pnidenoe, temper, and judgment, as 
well as by the skilful use which he made of the unexampled re- 
sources placed at his disposal by the spirit of the nation. 

555. The year 1811 was marked by the occurrence of alarming 
disturbances, arising from the distress in the manufacturing 
districts. Various causes had combined to produce this efiect ; the 
Tast improvements of Arkwright in machinery, which greatly 
lessened the demand for labour ; the closing of the Baltic ports 
against British produce ; the deficiency of the harvests of 1810 
and 1811 ; and, above all, the American Non-intercourse Act of 
Feb. 1809, whereby the United States, irritated at the unbounded 
vexations to which they were exposed by the operation of the 
French decrees and the British Orders in Council, broke off all 
trade with both France and Britain, thus closing a market 
which took off jCl3,000,000 annually of British manufactures. So 
overwhelming were these embarrassments that, notwithstanding 
a loan of six millions advanced by government (Feb. 1811) to 
uphold commercial credit, a wide-spread conspiracy was formed 
among the starving operatives for the destruction of the ob- 
noxious machinery, to which they attributed their <^]amities. 
The LvddUes (as they were called, from the name of an imaginary 
leader) at length carried their outrages so far that the offence was 
made capital, and no fewer than seventeen men were executed 
for frame-breaking at one time at York. This dreadful but 
necessary example stopped the evil ; and before the end of the 
year all disposition to these excesses died away, under the im- 
pulse given to manufacturing industry by the peace with Russia, 
and consequent opening of the Baltic harbours. 

556. Three great subjects of internal debate, during 1811 and 
1812, occupied the parliament and the nation : these were the 
currency question, the repeal of the Orders in Council, and the 
prosecution of the Peninsular war. The suspension of cash 
payments by the Bank, first adopted by Mr Pitt in February 
1797, had been prolonged from time to time, till it was at last 
enacted that the restriction should continue till six months after 

350 THE BULLION REPORT. a. d. 1810. 

a general peace. Meanwhile the issues of Bank paper had 
increased from £11,000,000 in 1797, to £21,000,000 in 1810. 
Gk>ld and silver, from the immense drain occasioned by the 
foreign subsidies, and the expenses of the Peninsular war (the 
money for which was necessarily remitted in specie or bullion), 
had almost disappeared from circulation; and this state of 
things, occurring simultaneously with a vast increase of foreign 
trade and domestic industry, was a phenomenon so extraordinary 
that a committee, comprising many of the ablest men on both 
sides in Parliament, was appointed (Feb. 1810) to report on it 
The Bullion Report (as the resolutions agreed to by the majority 
were called) was presented to the House in May ; and the debate 
which ensued was one of the most important, and the most 
ably conducted on both sides, in the modem history of Britain. 
Mr Horner, the chairman of the committee, ably supported by 
Mr Huskisson, and on most points by Mr Canning, urged the 
absolute necessity of returning to cash payments, and suggested 
two years from that date as the time of their resumption; 
while counter-resolutions were moved by Mr Vansittart, and 
supported by the whole ministerial party, deprecating the 
proposed reaction as fraught with ruin to the national credit 
and solvency, if carried into effect when the country was in the 
eighteenth year of a costly war, waged for its very existence. 
These latter propositions eventually triumphed (May 13) by a 
majority of 40. 

557. The repeal of the Orders in Council, which was earnestly 
-pressed both by the Opposition and the manufacturers, afforded 
another fertile subject of discussion during 1811-12; and these 
debates are further memorable as the occasion on which a states- 
man, reserved for the highest destinies in future days — Henry 
Brougham — first rose to distinguished eminence. Between these 
Orders on the one hand, and the French decrees on the other, the 
trade of neutrals was wellnigh destroyed ; and the Americans, 
on whom, as the only great neutral carriers, the weight of these 
penalties principally fell, felt themselves so deeply aggrieved, that 
they determined on breaking off all communication with both 

A. D. 1812. WAR WITH AMERICA. 351 

of the belligerents. A Non-iDtercourse Act was accordingly passed 
(Feb. 6, 1809), prohibiting all intercourse between the United 
States and either France or Britain. Various abortive diplo- 
matic efforts were made to restore a good understanding ; and 
the British envoy, Mr Erskine, at one time went so far (April 
1S09) as to promise a withdrawal of the Orders in Council if 
the Non-intercourse Act were repealed ; but as he had exceeded 
his powers in this point, the government at home refused its 
ratification, thereby awakening a storm of indignation in 
America at what was considered the duplicity of the British. 
The Non-intercourse Act, therefore, continued in force during 
the whole of 1810 and 1811 ; and such was the distress which 
the consequent cessation of all exports to the United States 
occasioned in the manufacturing districts, that petitions were 
presented from all quarters against the Orders in Council ; and 
little resistance was opposed by the government to the argu- 
ments advanced, with uncommon ability, by Mr Brougham, Mr 
Baring, and Mr Fonsonby. A fortnight after the debate, which 
ended without a division, the Orders in Council were revoked 
(June 23), conditionally on the Americans recalling their acts 
against British commerce. But this concession came too late: 
the democratic party was in the ascendant in America, and war 
had been declared before the conciliatory act of the British 
government had crossed the Atlantic. 

558. The prosecution of the Peninsular war was the last of the 
momentous subjects which occupied parliament during 1810-11. 
But both houses, by large majorities, supported the ministers in 
their determination to continue the war, and ample supplies 
were voted in 1811 for its prosecution. 

559. To this period also belongs an attempt in April 1810, 
which was frustrated by the extravagant demands of Napoleon, 
to procure an equitable exchange of prisoners, who had accumu- 
lated on both sides to an unprecedented extent — ^not fewer than 
50,000 French being in the hands of the British ; while Napoleon 
had nearly as many — 10,000 of whom were British, the remainder 
being Spaniards and Portuguese. 


II, Maritime War, and Campaign of 1809 in Portugal 

and Spain, 

560. Though the military power of France and Britain had 
never heen brought fairly into collision during the war, and 
though the government and the nation were almost inconceivably 
ignorant of the principles of land warfare, the military spirit of 
Britain had been raised, by the universal arming of all classes, 
to a height of which the Continental nations were wholly un- 
aware; and both soldiers and citizens w^ere fully penetrated 
with the recollection of their ancient victories, and the conviction 
of their natural superiority to the French. The fidelity, more- 
over, with which the national engagements were adhered to, 
was nobly exemplified in the refusal to entertain the proposals 
of peace made by Alexander and 'Napoleon (Oct. 12, 1808) from 
Erf urth, unless the existing government of Spain were admitted 
as a party — and this at a time when the Spanish war was little 
more than a tumultuary insurrection. A treaty, offensive and 
defensive, was soon after (Jan. 14, 1809) concluded with Spain, 
though her armies were utterly routed and dispersed, her capital 
taken, and more than half her territory in the hands of the 
enemy ; and a treaty had been signed (Feb. 8, 1808) for support- 
ing and subsidising Sweden against Russia, which was confirmed 
and extended by a new convention a year later. Peace was also 
signed (Jan. 5, 1 809) with the Porte, where the knowledge of 
the secret articles of Tilsit had completely overthrown French 
influence ; and the extensive sea-coast of the Ottoman empire 
became, during the remainder of the war, a vast inlet for British 
manufactures and colonial produce, which thence penetrated np 
the Danube through Austria and Germany. 

561. But praiseworthy as was the constancy of the British 
government at this crisis, the defeats of the Spaniards, the fall of 
Madrid, and the calamitous retreat of Sir John Moore, had filled 
the public mind with desponding anticipations. Nevertheless^ 
the government resolved to continue their support to the Spanish 
war. The land forces for the year were 210,000 men, besides 


80,000 militia ; the navj, manned by 130,000 seamen, numbered 
no less than 1061 vessels of all sizes : of 242 line-of-battle ships, 
113 were actually at sea>*the highest point reached by the navy 
during the war, and to which the world had never seen, and 
perhaps never will see a parallel 

562. The first success which revived the hopes of the British, 
after the disasters in Spain, was in consequence of the escape from 
Brest of a squadron of 8 sail of the line and 2 frigates^ under 
Admiral ViUaumez, which effected its junction, in Basque Roads, 
with another force of 3 ships and 5 frigates. They were imme* 
diately blockaded by 11 sail of the line under Lord Gambler ; and 
as the strength of the French position under the batteries of Isle 
d'Aix and Oleron, and surrounded by shoals, made a regular 
action hazardous, an attack was resolved on by fire-ships ; and 
was executed with such courage and skill on the night of the 11th 
April, by Lord Cochrane, that the whole French fleet slipped 
their cables in dismay and ran on shore. The whole, as the 
French themselves confess, might have been taken or destroyed 
if Lord Cochrane had been properly supported ; but Lord Gam- 
bier hesitated to entangle his fleet among the shoals ; and though 
Lord Cochrane, with a single frigate and some small craft, suc- 
ceeded in burning five ships and a frigate, the rest were got 
afloat and warped into the Charente. Public indignation was 
loud against Lord Gambler ; but after a protracted trial by court- 
martial, he was not only acquitted of misconduct, but received, 
as well as Lord Cochrane, the thanks of both houses of parlia- 

563. The victory in Basque Bioads, however, led to the capture 
of the French West India islands, which it had been the object of 
the ill-fated sortie of the Brest squadron to relieve. Martinique 
yielded in February to an expedition from Jamaica ; the fortress 
of St Domingo was taken in July, by General Carmichael ; and 
the French flag was thus wholly excluded from the West Indian 
Sea. The African settlement of Senegal was also captured ; and 
the Isle of Bourbon, in the Indian ocean, surrendered (Sept. 
21). In the Mediterranean, meanwhile, an Anglo-Sicilian force 

354 PENINSULAB WA£. a. d. 1809. 

of 15,000 men, sent in June, under Sir John Stuart, to the coast 
of Naples, failed in gaining any durable advantage ; but the 
seven Ionian Isles were reduced in October by Lord Colling- 
ivood — a conquest the importance of which was not adequately 
perceived at the time ; and on the 30th of the same month, a 
large French flotilla was burnt or destroyed in the Bay of Rosas, 
by the boats of the squadron under the same gallant commander. 
But these brilliant operations had no decisive effect — ^the naval 
contest had been decided at Trafalgar. It was on land that the 
struggle now lay ; it was on the soldiers of Wellington that the 
eyes of the world were turned. 

564. After the retreat toCorunna, there remained in the Penin- 
sula about 8000 British, under Cradock, chiefly in and about 
Lisbon, who were raised to 14,000 at the end of February, by the 
arrival of reinforcements : the Portuguese troops were not more 
than 9000. Afiairs in Spain were still more unpromising. Blake 
had only 8000 or 9000 ragged and half-starved troops in the 
Galician mountains ; Castanos, who had been reinforced from 
Andalusia, had 25,000 at Toledo ; and 10,000 more were at 
Badajos. The Aragonese and Catalonians were fully occupied 
within their own bounds ; and altogether there were not more 
than 120,000 men scattered all over the Peninsula, to resist a 
French force amounting, even after the departure of the guards 
for Germany, to 280,000 infantry and 40,000 cavalry. But the 
spirits of" the Spaniards were revived by the assurances of con- 
tinued support from Britain, and by the alliance just concluded 
with that power. General Beresford, appointed a marshal in 
the Portuguese service, had raised 20,000 new levies, to be taken 
into British pay; and further encouraged by the landing of 
Sir Arthur Wellesley with fresh troops at Lisbon, the Central 
Junta, now established at Seville, issued an animated proclama- 
tion, declaring their resolution to maintain the contest to the 

565. The first place of noteattackedby the French was Saragossa, 
before which 50,000 French, under Moncey and Mortier, appeared 
(Dec. 20, 1808). After the battle of Tudela, Palafox had retired 


thither with 15,000 soldiers ; and the number of defenders was 
raised to 50,000 hj the multitude of stragglers and armed peas- 
ants who flocked in, bringing with them, unhappily, the seeds 
of a contagious malady. The defences had been considerably 
strengthened since the former siege : but the walls were soon 
levelled by the French cannon ; and on 27th January an assault 
was ordered by Lannes,''^ who, as well as Junot, had arrived to 
aid in the conduct of the siege. The strong convents pf the 
Capuchins and of Sta Engr^cia, on the ramparts, were stormed 
after a desperate struggle, and the convents of St Augustin and 
Sta Monica (Feb. 2) shared the same fate. But now began a 
dreadful war from house to house, while the French had recourse 
to mining and blowing up the edifices so dauntlessly defended ; 
and for three weeks did this murderous strife continue, without 
intermission night or day. The suburb on the left bank of the 
Ebro was at length (Feb. 18) carried by assault ; and Bic, second 
in command to Palafox (who was himself disabled by fever), 
capitulated on the 20th. Never had such a spectacle been seen as 
the town exhibited when entered by the French : 6000 corpses 
lay unburied in the streets among the ruins, and 16,000 sick filled 
the cellars, the only places which could protect them from the 
shot and shells of the enemy. The French had 3000 killed and 
1 2,000 wounded during the siege. The capitulation, however, was 
but ill observed by the victors : the church of Our Lady of the 
Pillar, one of the richest in Spain, was rifled by Lannel of all its 
jewels, to the enormous amount of £184,000 ; and several of the 
monks and clergy, who had taken an active part in the defence, 
were put to death in cold blood by his orders. Tlie fall of Sara- 
gossa drew after it the submission of Aragon : Jaca, Benasque, 
and other strongholds, surrendered without resistance ; and by 
the end of March the reduction of the province was complete. 

566. A sanguinary war&re was meanwhile going on in Cata- 
lonia^ the subjugation of which had been intrusted to St Cyr, 
with an army of 30,000 men. His first operations were against 

* Lannes had not yet been called to Germany, where, in the summer 
of this year, he was killed at Aspem, as already narrated. 


B56 SIEGE OF OEBONA. a. d. 1809. 

Rosas, which capitulated (Dec. 4, 1808) after a 8i^e of a month, 
the defence having heen prolonged h7 the presence and example 
of Lord Cochrane, who la7 with a frigate in the harbour ; and the 
marshal then moyed to the relief of Barcelona^ where Duhesme 
was still shut up with 8000 men. A motle7 force of 14»000 
men, under Vivas and Beding, was totally routed in half an 
hour (Dec 16), at Gardaden ; Barcelona was relieved ; and on 
the 21 St, the Spaniards sustained a decisive overthrow near 
Molinos del Bey, in which all their stores^ including 30,000 
English muskets, fell into the hands of the French. Not yet 
dismayed, however, the gallant Reding once more collected his 
scattered followers, in the hope of relieving Saragossa ; but at 
Igualada (Feb. 17) he was again defeated, receiving a mortal 
wound in the action. This decisive victory terminated the 
regular ,war in Catalonia ; and St Gyr, retiring to Yich, com* 
menced preparations for the siege. of (lerona. The undertaking 
was for some time delayed by the discord of St Gyr and Yerdier ; 
but in the beginning of May they appeared before the town, 
and on the 1st of June the investment was completed. But 
the prowess of the Spaniards nowhere appeared to greater 
advantage than in the defence of their walled towns : it was not 
till 12th August, after thirty-seven days of open trenches, and 
two unsuccessful assaults, that the French possessed them- 
selves of the fort of Monjuich, which commands the town : 
yet the g^dlant governor, Alvarez, still held out, and the safe 
arrival of a convoy sent by Blake reanimated the spirit of the 
garrison. The grand assault of the lower town was given 
(Sept. 17) ; but the French were repulsed from the breach 
with the loss of 1600 men ; and St Gyr, despairing of carrying 
the place by force, converted the siege into a blockade. The 
capture of three successive convoys, sent by Blake for their 
relief, reduced the besieged at last to extremity ; &mine and 
pestilence devastated the city ; but it was not till the inhabi- 
tants were reduced to the necessity of eating hair that the 
place was yielded (Dec. 12) to Augereau, who had superseded 
St Gyr in the command. A more siemorable resistance is not 


on record ; but the heroic Alvarez, to the eternal disgrace of 
Angerean, was inmrared in a dungeon at Figueras, where he 
soon afterwards died. 

567. Junot, in the mean time^ had been taken ill, and was suc- 
ceeded in the command in Aragon by Suchet^ a young general 
whose talents and success gave him a brilliant career in the later 
years of the empire. His first essay, however, was unfortunate ; 
for the indefatigable Blake, encouraged by the retreat of St Cyr 
towards the Pyrenees, had again advanced with 12,000 men ; 
and an action ensued (May 23) at Alcaniz, In which the French, 
seized with a panic, fled in confusion from the field. This 
unwonted success emboldened Blake to approach Saragossa; but 
the discipline and manoeuvres of the French asserted their 
wonted superiority in the pl%ns ; the Spaniards were routed' 
close to Saragossa (June 16), and more decisively at Belchite 
the next day. The army of Blake was entirely dispersed ; and 
all regular resistance ceased in Aragon^ as it had done in Cata- 
lonia, after the fall of Gerona. 

568. In Asturias and Qalicia, 6000 or 8000 half-starved troops, 
under Bomana, without cannon, stores, or resources, were all 
that upheld the standard of independence ; and Napoleon, appre- 
hending no danger in this quarter, sentiordersto Soult to invade 
Portugal from the north with 25,000 men, while Victor, with 
30,000 more, was to co-operate from the side of Estremadura. 
Soult broke up from Vigo accordingly early in February ; but 
his progress was arrested on the banks of the Minho, then swoln 
into a raging torrent, by the firm countenance of the Portuguese 
nulitia ; and he was at last obliged to make a painful circuit by 
the bridge of Orense. It was not till the 17th March that he 
advanced from Chaves, where ho established his hospitals and 
depots ; and on the 20th he encountered and routed with great 
slaughter, near Braga, 22,000 Portuguese, only 2000 of whom, 
however, were soldiers, the remainder being a confused and 
furious rabble, who had murdered their general^ Freire, on an 
unfounded suspicion of treachery. No force now remained to 
impede his progress to Oporto : but on his appearance before 

358 DEFEATS OF THE SPANIARDS. a. d. 1809. 

that city (March 29), he was opposed by a tumultnous body of 
25,000 men, animated by unbounded hatred to the French, but 
without discipline or organisation. The victory was easy, but 
sullied by savage cruelty : 4000 of the fugitives were slaughtered 
by the cavalry on the banks of the Douro, or perished in the 
river ; in the city itself, 8000 were massacred, and all the horrors 
of an assault were carried to the utmost by the ruthless victors. 

569. Ney, during these operations in Portugal, was waging a 
harassing and desultory war&re, from March to May, against the 
undaunted mountaineers in Galicia and Asturias, among whom 
Bomana still wandered with a few thousand followers, cutting^ 
off insulated detachments, and animating the guerilla resistance 
of the people. Hard pressed in all directions, Romana at last 
gave Ney the slip, by setting s^l from Gijon in Asturias, and 
landing in North Galicia, whither Ney was following him, 
when, as will be afterwards mentioned, he met Soult (May 29) 
at Lugo, retreating after his defeat by the British in Portugal. 

570. It now only remains to notice the state of affairs in Estre- 
madura and New Oastile ; in which latter province the Duke del 
Infantado had assembled 20,000 men after the fall of Madrid. 
But so little were the Spanish generals aware of the inferiority 
of their troops to the Frvnch, that no sooner had he heard of the 
march of Napoleon and Ney against Sir John Moore, than he 
advanced in the hope of retaking Madrid ! and was most disas- 
trously defeated by Victor (Jan. 13) at Ucles: 1600 were slain 
on the spot ; 9000 taken, with all their stores and artillery. The 
clergy and inhabitants of Ucles were massacred by the victors, 
with circumstances of ferocious cruelty which recalled the Reign 
of Terror ; and great numbers of the prisoners were murdered 
in cold blood. The soldiers who escaped rallied, however, in the 
Sierra Morena, under Oartaojal and the Duke d' Albuquerque, 
who ventured, at the end of March, on a movement towards Toledo, 
only to be routed in half an hour by Sebastiani (March 27), near 
Giudad Real, with the loss of 4000 men. Even more signal was the 
overthrow sustained in Estremadura by Cuesta, who was assailed 
by Victor (March 28) at the bridge of Medellin on the Guadiana. 


The loss of the Spaniards in killed, wounded, and prisoners, 
exceeded 10,000 men ; and Guesta, with onl7 a few horsemen, 
escaped with difficulty into the recesses of the Sierra Morena. 

571. While defeat and disaster thus everywhere attended the 
Spanish armies, Soultlay inactive in Oporto ; and the Galicians, 
again taking up arms, availed themselves of his absence to block- 
ade and take Vigo, with the military chest and a garrison of 
1300 men. Chaves, with its magazines and sick, fell, about the 
same time, into the hands of the Portuguese under Silviera. 
Soult was, in fact, doubly embarrassed at this juncture, having 
himself set on foot an intrigue for assuming the crown of Portugal ; 
while many of his officers were organising a conspiracy for the 
overthrow of Napoleon and his marshals, and the restoration of 
republicanism in France. Both these schemes became known 
to Napoleon, who had the wisdom and magnanimity to overlook 
them ; and secret overtures in reference to the latter were made 
to Sir Arthur Wellesley, who had landed at Lisbon (April 22) — 
an important epoch, from which the annals of the Peninsula, 
instead of a confused and involved narrative of separate ope- 
rations, begin to present a connected and consecutive stream of 

572. Operations against Soult having been resolved on in the 
first instance, Wellesley himself, with 15,000 foot and 1600 horse, 
moved direct from Coimbra on Oporto ; while Beresford, with 
6000 foot and 1000 horse, marched by Visen and Lamego towards 
the Upper Douro. The advanced posts met on the 11th of May ; 
but the French, rapidly retreating, crossed the Douro, and burned 
the bridge of boats. A few skiflBs, however, were fortunately 
discovered on the morning of the 12th, and about 100 of the 
Buffs were ferried over, who, protected in some measure by the 
British artillery, held their ground with invincible obstinacy till 
the passage of the rest of the army forced the French to a hasty 
retreat, abandoning their sick and great part of their stores ; and 
so complete was the surprise, that Wellesley sat down to the din- 
ner prepared for Soult. The French, meanwhile, fell back towards 
the bridge of Amarante on the Tamega, the only line of retreat 

360 BATTLE OF TALAYERA. ▲. d. 1809. 

practicable for artillery; bnt it was already in the hands of 
Beresford, and Soult's situation appeared desperate. Belin- 
quishing, however, his artillery, ammnnition, and baggage^ he 
made his way, by almost impracticable hill-roads, to Montalegre, 
burning and ravaging all the country on his route, till he at 
length joined Key at Lugo, as previously mentioned, " in much 
worse condition" (says Jomini) ^ than that of C^eral Moore six 
months before." 

573. After this brilliant opening of the campaign, Wellesley 
returned to Oporto, where he was detained above a month by 
the want of money, and not less by the necessity of enforcing 
order among his troops, whose conduct to the natives (as he him* 
self said) was ^ worse than that of an enemy." At length (June 
27) he marched from Abrantes for the Spanish frontier, with 
22,000 men, including 3000 horse ; and effected his junction at 
Oropesa (July 20) with Ouesta, who had 32,000 foot, 6000 horse, 
and 46 guns. Venegas, at the same time, moved from the south, 
with 26,000 men towards Toledo ; and Joseph, alarmed at the 
convergence of so considerable forces towards Madrid, summoned 
his detachments from all quarters, and appeared in front of the 
enemy (July 24) at Talavera de la Reyna. 

574. The right of the Allied position, secured in flank by the 

Tagus, was held by the densebut disorderlyarray of the Spaniards, 

who occupied the town, with the olive woods and enclosures 

beyond it ; while the British were drawn up on the open and 

rugged ground to the left, whence a rivulet ran along the front 

of the whole position. The battle commenced on the afternoon 

of the 27th, by an attack of Victor on the British outposts, which 

were driven back in disorder by the violence of the onset; and 

Victor, encouraged by this partial success, hazarded at nightfall 

an attack on the British left. The firmness of Hill's division, 

however, repulsed the assailants with the loss of 600 men ; on 

the renewal of the battle the next morning the assault was 

repeated in the same quarter with the same ill success, and 

Joseph at length ordered a general charge of the whole line. 

But now were apparent the disadvantages of the attack in column 

A. D. 1809. BATTLE OP TALAVERA. 361 

against a steady opponent : torn by a rolling fire on eacli flank, 
and charged with the bayonet by Campbeirs division, the French 
were repulsed with the loss of ten of their guns ; while Ruffin 
and Villatte were once more foiled in an attack on the left, 
though some of the British cavalry, pressing the pursuit too far, 
were severely handled by the Polish lancers. The centre, mean- 
while, where the Guards and German Legion were posted, was 
galled by the fire of 50 heavy cannon, under cover of which the 
division of Lapisse rushed up the hill with shouts of victory. 
But the assailants were bravely met and hurled back by the 
Guards : and though' these gallant troops, while disordered by 
success, were in turn charged and broken by the French reserve, 
the advance of the 48th restored the battle ; and the French, 
beaten at all points, drew ofF in good order across the Alberche. 
Seventeen guns remained with the British as trophies of the 
victory, which cost the French nearly 9000 men : the loss of the 
British was 6268 ; that of the Spaniards, who took hardly any 
share in the battle, very trifling. Such was the glorious battle 
of Talayera, ** which at once" (says Jomini) " restored the repu- 
tation of the British army, and proved that the British infantry 
could dispute the palm with the best in Europe." 

675. But as Wellesley was preparing to follow up his victory by 
an advance on Madrid, he received (Aug. 2) the unexpected in- 
telligence, that the combined forces of Soult, Mortier, and Ney, to 
the number of 34,000, having evacuated Galicia and Asturias in 
pursuance of orders from Joseph, had already reached Placentia, 
directly in his rear. He accordingly moved against this new 
enemy, leaving his wounded at Talavera, in charge of Cuesta ; 
but Cuesta speedily abandoned the town, leaving the wounded 
to their fate ; and Wellesley, in theapprehension of being attacked 
in frcmt and rear by two armies, each superior to his own, crossed 
to Deleitosa on the south of the Tagus (Aug. 7), destroying the 
bridges. The French generals, however, satisfied with having 
saved Madrid, again separated their forces, and thus lost the 
most favourable opportunity which ever occurred of crushing 
the British power in the Peninsula. 

362 SPANIARDS ROUT£D AT OCANA. a. d. 1809. 

676. During these operations, Yenegas had adyanoed as far as 
Aranjuez, and was besieging Toledo ; but the retreat of the Brit- 
ish having set the French armies at liberty, he was attacked and 
defeated after a sharp action at Almonacid (Aug. 11) by Dessoles 
and Sebastiani ; and Sir Robert Wilson, who had approached 
Madrid with 6000 Spaniards and Portuguese, was encountered 
and driven back byNey (Aug. 8) at Puerto de Baiios. The Brit- 
ish at length, after lying a month at Deleitosa, were compelled, 
by the scandalous failure of the Spanish authorities to furnish 
them with supplies or provisions, to cross the mountains and fix 
their headquarters at Badajos, after an angry correspondence 
between Wellesley and Cuesta, who soon after was removed from 
his command. A gleam of success at Tamanes, where Marchand 
was routed with loss (Oct. 24) by Boroana's army under the 
Duke del Parque, encouraged the Spaniards to make another 
effort for the recovery of Madrid ; and an army of 50,000 men, 
including 7000 horse and 60 pieces of cannon, advanced for this 
purpose from the Sierra Morena, under General Areizaga. The 
battle was fought (Nov. 12) at Ocana, near Aranjuez ; but though 
the Spaniards behaved with considerable spirit, the miserable 
incapacity of their commander counterbalanced all their efibrts, 
and an unparalleled rout was the result Pursued over the 
wide plains of Castile by the French cavalry, 20,000 prisoners 
were taken, with all the guns and stores : the wreck was com- 
plete and irretrievable ; and the defeat of the Duke del Parque 
(Nov. 25) at Alba de Tonnes, dispersed the last force which 
could be called a Spanish army. It was evident from these 
events that Portugal was the only basis from which the deliver- 
ance of the Peninsula could be effected ; and Wellesley, after 
conferring with the junta at Seville, withdrew his troops north- 
wards, early in December, from the valley of the Guadiana^ where 
they had suffered dreadfully from fever, and quartered them on 
the banks of the Agueda, between Almeida and Oiudad Bodrigo, 
commencing at the same time those formidable lines of Torres- 
Vedrasy the importance of which was subsequently so amply 


577. In this campaign of 1809, Great Britain first appeared in 
the field on a scale adequate to her mighty strength, though her 
success was not yet equal to the magnitude of her exertions. 
With, a fleet of near 1100 vessels, including 240 of the line, she 
blockaded every hostile harbour in Europe, and still had 37 ships 
of the line to strike a blow at the Scheldt. With 100,000 regular 
troops she maintained her immense colonial empire : with 
191,000 more she kept in subjection her 70,000,000 of Indian 
subjects : with 400,000 regular and local militia, she guarded the 
British Isles : and with yet another 100,000 disposable troops she 
carried on the war on the Continent, and menaced at once 
Antwerp^ Madrid, and Naples. 

III. Napoleon divorces Josephine^ ^nd marries MariorLouisa — 

Campaign of Torres- Vedras, 

578. The battle of Wagram, and the peace of Vienna, had 
placed Napoleon on the highest pinnacle of present greatness 
and power. Russia, Prussia, and Austria had been successively 
vanquished ; the Spanish contest seemed hopeless; and if Britain 
still continued the maritime war, her barren sovereignty of 
the seas was purchased only by the sacrifice of all the objects 
for which the dominion of the earth had ever been coveted. 
Yet all the glories, all the achievements of Napoleon but inad- 
equately compensated for the want of historic descent and ances- 
tral recollections ; the rapid fall of almost all dynasties founded 
on individual greatness, recurred even to superficial observers ; 
and the Emperor himself was too clear-sighted not to perceive, 
that the policy of his own government, by reviving the sway of 
old feelings in the breasts of the people, in regard to the throne, 
might react in a manner dangerous to his own line. In order to 
supply this deficiency, he had long meditated divorcing Josephine, 
and marrying a princess who might give him hopes of an heir ; 
and though, from the genuine affection which he felt for the 
partner of his youth, he suffered severely from the prospect of 
this separation, these emotions were with him always subor- 

364 MABBIAGE OF MABIA-LOUISA. a. d. 1810. 

dinate to considerations of public necessity or reasons of state 

579. It was atFontainebleaa, in November 1809, afterthe return 
of Napoleon from Wagram, that this cmel resolution was made 
known to Josephine. Her grief was at first heartrending : but 
by degrees she was convinced of the necessity of the sacrifiee ; 
and on the 15th December the Emperor and Empress, in language 
suitable to the dignity of the occasion, announced their intended 
separation to the Imperial &mily and the great officers of state. 
The marriage was the same day dissolved by an act of the Senate : 
the jointure of Josephine (who retained the title of Empress) 
being fixed at £80^000 a-year, and Malmaison assigned as her 
residence. Proposals had already been made simultaneously 
to the courts of St Petersburg and Vienna ; but as difficulties and 
delays were started by the Empress-mother of Russia, an alliance 
with Austria was definitively fixed upon. So rapidly were the 
preliminaries arranged, that the marriage-contract between 
Napoleon and the Archduchess Maria-Louisa was signed on the 
15th February ; and the marriage was celebrated by proxy at 
Vienna on the 11th of March. 

580. On the following day the youthful Empress set out for 
Paris, and was met at Oompidgne (March 28) by Napoleon ; who^ 
breaking through all the previously arranged etiquettes, intro- 
duced himself at once to his wife. The formal marriage was 
celebrated on 1st April, with extraordinary pomp, at St Cloud : 
four queens held the train of Maria-Louisa — all the splendour 
of riches, all the brilliancy of arms, was exhausted to give mag- 
nificence to the scene. The innocence and simplicity of his new 
consort, whose character, though utterly without any lofty 
impress, was amiable and prepossessing in the highest degree, 
speedily won the a£Fection of the Emperor, whose warm regard 
she retained to the last hour of his life ; though his esteem for 
Josephine at the same time knew no diminution : and he often 
visited and consulted her in her retirement. In the company 
of his young bride he visited the Low Countries, where he 
inspected the immense works in progress at Antwerp, and 


directed the reparation of the daxaages done by the British at 

581. A deplorable accident occurred soon after their return to 
Paris, which brought to mind the equally sinister augury which 
had marked the nuptials of her aunt Marie- Antoinette. At a 
grand ball given (July 6) by the Austrian ambassador Prince 
Schwartzenberg, a temporary room fitted up for the occasion took 
fire ; many persons were injured by the flames and the falling 
beams ; and the Princess Pauline of Schwartzenberg, sister-in-law 
of the ambassador, perished in the burning pile. This frightful 
incident occasioned a deep sensation, and was regarded as an evil 
omen for the young Empress. But the pique of the Emx>eror 
Alexander, who considered that the negotiation for the hand of 
his sister had been too abruptly broken ofi^, was of more serious 
import ; and the coldness between the two courts soon became 

582. This period was rendwed remarkable by the disgrace of 
Fouch6, in consequence of an unauthorised negotiation which 
he opened, through ihe capitalist Ouvrard, with the Marquis 
Wellesley, to whom Napoleon had at the same time caused pri- 
vate overtures to be made, through a difierent channel, for a 
general peace. ^So ! " said the Emperor on detecting this in- 
trigue, " you assume to make peace and war without my know- 
ledge : your head ought to fall on the scafibld." His punishment, 
however, was finally limited to dismissal from ofiiice ; and he 
was allowed to live in retirement at Aix in Provence, till Napo- 
leon was at last obliged once more to have recourse to him. 

583. An important result of the journey of Napoleon to the 
Low Countries was the resignation of the Dutch throne by Louis, 
with whom the Emperor had long been dissatisfied for his reluc- 
tant and imperfect execution of the decrees against British trade, 
particularly during the Walcheren expedition, when an enormous 
importation had taken place. Louis was first compelled (March 
16) to cede to France the whole left bank of the Rhine, including 
Walcheren, South Beveland, Cadsand, &e. But the menaces of 
Napoleon still continued ; and at last, threatened with an armed 


interveDtion, he fled (July 10) to Toplitz in Bohemia : and on 
the 9th of the same month, Holland was formally incorporated 
with France. This rupture in his own family gave great pain 
to Napoleon ; but it was soon followed by an event which still 
more deeply affected him. His brother Lucien, whose sturdy 
republicanism, and refusal to divorce his wife (an American lady) 
for a more exalted match, had for some years caused a coldness 
between them, had fixed his residence in Rome ; but on the 
union of that city to France, he determined to take refuge in 
America. He was captured, however, by a British frigate : and 
being allowed to reside on parole in the British dominions, took 
up his abode near Worcester, where he lived in affluent retire- 
ment, engrossed with literary pursuits, till the end of the war. 

584. The retreat from Talavera, and the balanced success of the 
preceding campaign, produced an extraordinary degree of de- 
spondency in the British public, at this seemingly unprofitable 
waste of British gallantry : and this feeling, sedulously fomented 
by the Opposition, rose so high that when, on the capture of 
Giudad Bodrigo in 1811, parliament granted an annuity of £2000 
on Wellesley (now created Lord Wellington), the Common 
Council of London not merely petitioned against the annuity, but 
even prayed the King for an inquiry into his conduct ! Both the 
abilities of the general, and the policy of continuing the war in 
Spain, became the subject of repeated and violent philippics 
from the Whig leaders : and these speeches, though they failed 
in shaking the resolution of the government, were ostentatiously 
quoted in the Moniteur by order of Napoleon, who trusted to 
these party declamations as an index to the real feelings of Great 
Britain, and was consequently led to believe that either the 
nation would compel the government to abandon the struggle, 
or that the strength of Britain must speedily be worn out by 
the distress resulting from its long duration. 

585. The Austrian alliance having now secured Napoleon on 
the side of Germany, he deemed it high time to complete the sub- 
jugation of the Peninsula. A great part of the army engaged in 
theWagram campaign, to the number of 120,000, was aisoordingly 


sent across the Pyrenees, thus raising the total e£Fective French 
force in Spain to no less than 366,000 men ; but this immense 
force (on the Emperor's principle of making war support war) 
was almost entirely maintained by requisitions from the Spanish 
provinces, the resources of which were so thoroughly exhausted, 
that Joseph had nothing to depend upon but the tolls collected 
at the gates of Madrid. Early in January 181 1, 65,000 men, under 
King Joseph, Soult, and Mortier, were collected on the north of 
the Sierra Morena: and the passes of Despino-perros and Puerto 
del J^ey forced, almost without resistance, on the 21st and 22d 
of that month.. 

586. The Spanish troops, still stunned by the catastrophe of 
Ocana, everywhere gave way at the approach of the invaders : 
Granada and Cordova quietly submitted to different French 
corps ; at Malaga alone a slight and ineffectual defence was at- 
tempted ; and on 1st February, Joseph entered Seville in triumph. 
Cadiz, the last refuge of the Central Junta and of Spanish inde- 
pendence, was only saved from the same fate by the vigour of 
the Duke d^ Albuquerque (Cuesta's successor), who by an extra- 
ordinary forced march reached the city (Feb. 3) with 8000 men, 
just as the outposts of Victor appeared on the other side : and by 
breaking the bridges between the Isla de Leon and the mainland, 
secured the place for the time. The arrival (Feb. 23) of 5000 
British and Portuguese troops raised the garrison to near 20,000 ; 
the British fleet lay in the bay ; and the government at Cadiz, 
thus fortified, continued to present an undaunted front to the 

587. Suchet, at the same time, experienced a check before 
Valencia, having advanced up to the walls of the city (March 3) 
without heavy guns, in the expectation of its being betrayed to 
him : but the plot was detected, and he suffered severely in his 
retreat to Saragossa from the attacks of the guerillas. Campoverde 
and O'Donnel, meanwhile, kept the field in Catalonia against 
Augereau : Hostalrich, however,after a longblockade,fell into the 
hands of the French on 12th May ; and Lerida surrendered on the 
14th to Suchet, who also made himself master, after a siege of 


three weeks, of the almost inaccessible castle of Mequinenza on 
the Ebro. Bat the French detachments, injndicionsly dispersed 
over the country, continued to be cut up in detail by O'Bonnel 
and the guerillas ; and the incapadty of Augereau for separate 
command became at last so obvious, that Napoleon recalled him 
&om Spain, and gave the supreme command in Catalonia to 

588. The short campaign of Talavera had fully oonvineed 
Wellington that no reliance could be placed on the co-operation 
of the Spanish armies in the field ; and he therefore sedulously 
employed himself, during the winter, in disciplining and equip- 
ping the Portuguese levies, and completing the vast fortifications 
commenced during the autumn at Torres-Yedras. But the diffi- 
culties of his military position were far from being all with which 
the British general had tocontend. Neither Mr Perceval nor Lord 
Liverpool, now secretary at war, possessed that self-confidence 
in their own judgment, in warlike matters, necessary to insure 
their a£Fording him adequate support: the unfortunate issue of 
all their enterprises, and particularly of the Walcheren expedition, 
had materially diminished their popularity; and they distinctly 
stated that they threw upon him the entire responsibility of the 
continuance of the British troops in Portugal. The weakness, 
imbecility, and corruption of the Portuguese regency afibrded 
him even less prospect of efiScient assistance: yet under all these 
discouraging circumstances, Wellington did not for a moment 
swerve from the plan which he had formed, and on the success 
of which he risked at once his popularity, military renown, and 
chances of glory. 

589. The forces which Napoleon was preparing for the subjuga- 
tion of Portugal were immense. The three corps of Reynier, Ney, 
and Junot, in all 86,000 men, were placed under the command- 
in-chief of Massena ; 22,000 more under Drouet formed a reserve 
a,t Yalladolid ; and 15,000 under Serras covered the right of the 
army towards Galicia. Wellington, on the other hand, had at 
the utmost not more than 25,000 British and 30,000 Portuguese 
regular troops ; and, after making the necessary detachments, 


only 32,000 remained under his own command on the frontier, 
while 13,000 under Hill guarded the Tall«y of the Tagus: there 
were, moreover, about 30,000 Portuguese militia, who could be 
relied on onl7 for partisan warfare. The first operation of Mas- 
sena, who joined the army on 1st June, was the siege of Oiudad 
Bodrigo, which was most gallantly defended : but Wellington, 
though lying in the immediate vicinity, ventured not to risk his 
inexperienced army in a battle with a veteran force of twice its 
number, and this important fortress was compelled to surrender 
(July 11). Almeida was next invested (July 25), after a 
spirited skirmish on the preceding day with the British rear- 
guard under Cmufurd, at the bridge of the Coa. The French 
batteries opened their fire on 26th August ; but the explosion of 
the great powder magazine on the same evening deprived the 
garrison of the means of defence ; and the place was yielded the 
next day to the French. 

590. Wellington now retreated down the valley of the Mon- 
dego, followed on the north bank by Massena. But this retro- 
grade movement, with the crowds of fugitives who flocked into 
Lisbon, struck consternation into the capital ; and Wellington, 
who had been joined (Sept. 21) by Hill, feeling the necessity of 
striking a blow to support their drooping spirits, halted his 
whole army, about 50,000 men, on the summit of the ridge of 
Busaco, north of the Mondego, and there awaited the enemy, 
whose force in the field was 72,000. At daybreak on the 27th, 
the British position was assailed by the French in overwhelming 
masses ; but their attacks were repulsed with slaughter, through- 
out the day, by the firmness of the British and Portuguese ; and 
in the evening Massena drew off, with the loss of 1800 killed, 
and 3000 wounded, while the total loss of the Allies was not 
above 1300. 

591. Wellington expected that this battle would have stopped 
the advance of Massena ; but the orders of Napoleon were peremp- 
tory, and the French marshal, defiling to the right, gained the 
great road from Oporto to Lisbon ; while the British, rapidly fall- 
ing back^ and driving the population before them, collected their 

370 LINES OF TORRES-VEDRAS. a. d. 1810. 

whole forces, between the 8th and the 15th of October, within 
the lines of Torres-Yedras. These famous intrenchments pre- 
sented three distinct lines of defence, one within the other, of 
which the first, extending 29 miles from Alhandra on the Tagm 
to the sea, was fortified by 30 redoubts and 140 guns ; the second 
line, eight miles in the rear, was still stronger; and on the 
whole defences, not less than 600 cannon were mounted on 150 
redoubts. Such was the appalling obstacle which unexpectedly 
appeared to bar the progress of the French marshal, who had 
never heard of its existence. For more than a month did Mas- 
sena watch this impregnable barrier, in the vain hope of starving 
out the enemy, who were amply supplied by sea ; while 15,000 
Portuguese militia, gathering round the rear of the French, cat 
' off their communications, and captured 5000 of their sick and 
wounded at Coimbra. At length, having no alternative but 
retreat or starvation, Massena broke up from his position (Nov. 
14) ; and for the first time since the accession of Napoleon the 
French eagles were seen permanently receding. 

592. Wellington immediately advanced with 60,000 men in 
pursuit ; but Massena at first retreated only to Santarem, where 
he took up a strong position at the junction of the Bio Mayor 
and the Tagus, with the intention of crossing the latter river 
into the fertile and hitherto untouched province of Alentejo. 
But Wellington, anticipating the design, detached two divisions 
across the Tagus under Hill, who watched the banks so closely 
that Massena, though joined by Drouet with 10,000 men, found 
it impossible to pass — till hearing of the arrival (Feb. 2) of strong 
reinforcements from Britain, he finally broke up from Santarem, 
retreating by the mountain road towards Almeida. 

593. Soult, meanwhile, leaving Victor to conduct the opera- 
tions against Cadiz, had invaded Estremadura with 20,000 men; 
captured Olivenza (Jan. 22) after a siege of twelve days ; and 
immediately after laid siege to Badajos. Wellington instantly 
resolved to despatch Bomana (who had recently joined him 
with two divisions) to the relief of this important fortress ; but 
the sudden death (Jan. 23) of that noble Spaniard left the 

A, D. 1811, BATTLE OP BAROSSA. 371 

command in the incapable hands of Mendizabal, who only led 
his troops under the walls of Badajos to be surprised and 
annihilated (Feb. 19) by Soult The town itself was still stroug 
and wdl provided, but it was surrendered (March 11) by the 
treachery of Imaz, who succeeded to the command on the 
death of the brave governor, Manecho ; and Soult, after this 
short but brilliant campaign, returned in all haste to Andalusia, 
where his presence was loudly called for. Sir Thomas Graham, 
who commanded the British and Portuguese troops in Cadiz, 
encouraged by the absence of Soult, had sailed for Algesiraz in 
hopes of compelling Victor to raise the siege. But the enter- 
prise was ruined by the misconduct of the Spanish general, la 
Pena, who took the command-in-chief ; and though, in a battle 
under the heights of Barossa (March 6), the French were routed 
with the loss of 2300 men, six guns, and an eagle, no farther 
results could be obtained; and Graham, disgusted with his 
Spanish allies, re-entered the Isla de Leon a few days before the 
arrival of Soult. 

594. Massena, meanwhile, was conducting with consummate 
skill the retreat of his army, encumbered as it was with 10,000 
sick and an immense artillery, from Santarem to the Spanish 
frontier. Ney, with a powerful rear-guard, covered the march 
and kept at bay the pursuing British; and the French arrived 
at Celorico (March 21) with comparatively little loss. But this 
retreat, though admirable as an example of military ability, 
was disgraced by such systematic and deliberate barbarity, as, 
in the words of Wellington, '^has been seldom equalled, and 
never surpassed." Everywhere the villages, towns, and con- 
vents were burned, the peasants massacred, and nothing but 
ruins and desolation left to mark their route. At Celorico, 
however, Claparede joined the army with 9000 fresh men, and 
Massena, in opposition to the opinion of Ney, determined to 
make a stand ; but several partial conflicts with the British, 
about Guarda and on the Coa, convinced him of the inability of 
his diminished army to maintain itself in Portugal, and he 

accordingly fell back across the frontier (April 5) into the 


372 BATTLE OF FUENTES D'ONORE. a. d. 1811. 

neighbourhood of Salamanca, having lost during the intasion 
and retreat, by want, sickness, and the sword, not less than 
45,000 men. 

595. Almeida was immediately invested by Wellington; and 
Massena, in obedience to peremptory orders from Kapoleon, 
again advanced with 50,000 men to its relief, and engaged 
Wellington's covering army of 30,000 men (May 4) at Fuentes 
d*Onore. The British were drawn up on the level summit of a 
plateau between two deep ravines, accessible only by a neck of 
land on their right ; and against this point the attack of the 
French was directed. So vehement was their onset that the 
British were driven back ; and Montbrun, with 4000 cuirassiers 
(covered with the glories of Wagram, and to whom the AUies 
had only 1200 horse to oppose), instantly taking advantage of 
the confusioD, turned and broke the right wing. Wellington 
now fell back at right angles to his former position — a 
perilous movement, but executed by his troops with invincible 
steadiness in the face of the enemy ; and the desperate oombat 
continued without decided advantage till nightfall, when the 
French drew off. The loss on each side was about 1500; but 
though the British were certainly more nearly defeated than in 
any other action in Spain, their object was gained. Finding it 
inipossible to relieve Almeida, Massena sent orders to the 
governor to blow up the works and evacuate the place, which 
was done on the night of May 10, though 400 of the garrison 
were made prisoners in the attempt to escape — and thus the 
soil of Portugal was cleared of the enemy. 

IV. Proceedings of the Cortes — War in Spain — Reduction 

of Java, 

596. When the Central Junta, expelled from Seville by the pro- 
gress of the invaders in January 1810, had sought a precarious 
refuge in Cadiz, they had passed a decree vesting the power 
which had fallen from their hands in a regency ad interim of 
six persons (which was proclaimed Jan. 31), and laying down 


regalations for the eonvocation of a national Cortes, which was 
appointed to meet on Ist March, " if the national defence would 
permit." But as the whole of Spain, except Qalicia» Astnrias, 
and part of Catalonia, was in the hands of the enemy, the 
deputies for the other proyinces, as well as for the marine 
dependencies of Spain (forming a great majority of the whole), 
were to be chosen within the walls of Cadiz by electoral juntas 
of the natives of those r^ons-— a proceeding which threw the 
elections almost wholly under the influence of the municipal 
junta of the city, and imparted from the first a democratic 
character to the body. The revolutionary action in Cadiz, in 
fact, soon became so violent, that only the presence of 27,000 
Allied troops prevented it from breaking out into all the excesses 
of the French Revolution. The members of the late Central 
Junta, including the venerable and illustrious Jovellanos, were 
the first objects of popular frenzy, and most of them were either 
imprisoned or banished; and, as the elections proceeded, the 
torrent became irresistible. The three estajnentos, or chambers^ 
of the nobles, clergy, and commons, each of which (according to 
the ancient institutions) had a negative on any enactment, 
were merged in a single chamber ; the elective franchise was 
thrown open to ev^ry Spaniard above the age of twenty-five ; 
and, after innumerable delays, the Cortes thus constituted, and 
thus elected by universal suffrage, met on 24th September. 

597. They began, like the French National Assembly in 1789, 
with religious ceremonies and monarchical forms ; but their first 
resolution was decisive of the character of their proceedings. It 
ran — ^ The deputies, representing the Spanish nation, declare 
jthemselves legitimately constituted in the general Cortes, in 
whkh is vested the national mverei^y" This usurpation of 
supreme power, which virtually converted the monarchy into a 
democracy, was followed up by a declaration that they should be 
addressed by the title of majesty ; an oath of allegiance to their 
body was exacted from all the authorities ; and the Bishop of 
Orense, who alone attempted to stem the torrent, withdrew, 
after a fruitless opposition of several months, to his Galiciaii 


diocese. The liberty of the press was decreed (Nov. 10), and a 
deluge of inflammatory pamphlets and jonmals immediately 
appeared ; while the language of many members of the Cortes 
was calculated to stimulate, rather than allay, the popular 
effervescence. The example of Robespierre and the Jacobins 
was openly cited, not as a warning, but as a pattern for imita- 
tion ; and it was with difficulty that the more moderate of the 
representatives, aided by the Allied commanders, prevented 
matters from coming to extremities. In two important par- 
ticulars, however-^their rigid adherence to the Roman Catholic 
faith, and their resolute defiance of the French — ^the Cortes faith- 
fully represented the Spanish people; and the proclamation 
which they issued (Jan. 1, 1811), declaring their resolution 
« never to treat for peace while a French soldier remained in 
the Peninsula," must ever be held as a memorable instance of 
constancy, when it is remembered that the bombs from the 
French batteries were at that moment reaching the nearest 
houses of Cadiz, and that more than three-fourths of Spain was 
in the possession of the invaders. 

598. During all this time a committee had been busily employed 
in framing a constitution for the whole monarchy, on a uniform 
and systematic plan ; and, after more than a year's discussion, 
the important task was completed. On the 19th of March 1812, 
the Cortes took the oath to the new constitution ; and as this 
famous instrument was the model of the subsequent democratic 
constitutions of Spain, Portugal, Piedmont, and Naples, its 
enactments deserve particular attention. Supreme sovereignty 
was declared to reside in the nation — ^the Roman Catholic to be 
the sole established religion— «nd the supreme legislative power* 
to be vested in the Cortes, which alone raised taxes, levied troops, 
enacted laws, and appointed judges. The royal prerogative was 
confined within very narrow limits: the king could neither 
marry, leave the kingdom, nor make peaceand war, without the 
consent of the Cortes ; he nominated the public functionaries, 
but from a list furnished by the same body ; and an act of the 
legislature^ to which he had twice refused his assent, became 


valid the third time without his sanction. The Cortes was to sit 
in a single chamber ; the elections took place by three successive 
steps of parishes, districts, and provinces ; and every Spaniard 
above the age of 25 was qualified, without restriction as to pro- 
perty, either to elect or be elected. The American colonies 
were to be fully represented in the assembly, which was to be 
renewed every two years ; but no member was capable of re- 
election for two successive legislatures. Such were the leading 
provisions of -this celebrated constitution, the democratic ten- 
dency of which insured it an enthusiastic reception in the great 
towns ; but the country population, whose ancient faith and 
loyalty were still untainted, viewed it with unqualified hatred, 
as leaving the king and the church powerless in the hands of 
the urban populace ; and the provinces occupied by the French, 
which had sent no representatives, loudly complained of being 
deprived of their rights by an assembly chosen at Cadiz without 
their concurrence. The pernicious tendency of these democratic 
measures was from the first clearly perceived by Wellington, 
whose predictions, though little heeded at the time, have now 
acquired an extraordinary interest from their exact and melan- 
choly accomplishment ; and an attempt was made by the British 
cabinet (March 1810) to contrive the escape of Ferdinand from 
Valen9ay, in order to provide a legitimate head for the govern- 
ment at Cadiz. But the enterprise failed; and the British 
government, though far from insensible to the dangers of the 
republicanism which had thus sprung up, as it were, under their 
very wing, deemed it inexpedient to interfere in any way with 
the internal affairs of their ally. 

599. Meanwhile, Napoleon, in defiance of his guarantee given 
at Bayonne for the integrity of Spain ,had begun to develop his 
long-entertained project of uniting to France the provinces 
north of the Ebro ; and a decree appeared (Feb. 1810) organising 
this territory into four military governments, as a preparatory 
step to its final incorporation. The design of dismemberment, 
however, was vehemently opposed both by the well-meaning 
Joseph and his able minister Asanza ; and the intrusive king at 

376 SIEGE OF CADIZ. a. d. 1810. 

length, finding his orders disregarded, and his revenues seized by 
the French marshals, while his kingdom was oppressed and 
rained without its being in any degree in his power to prevent 
it, set ont in disgust for Paris, and laid his resignation (May 
1811) at the feet of Napoleon. The Emperor, well aware of the 
scandal which would be caused by such family dissensions, did 
his utmost to appease him, and he at length ooimented to return 
to Madrid. The transference of the northern provinces was 
postponed for a time, and before it became practicable to resume 
it, the whole kingdom was reft from both Napoleon and Joseph 
by the arms of Britain. 

600. The conquest of Spain, in a military point of view, might 
have been considered almost complete at the commencement of 
1811. The aggregate French force in the Peninsula amounted to 
fully 300,000 men, admirably equipped, commanded by veteran 
generals, masters of nearly all the strongholds, and of all the main 
roads and interior lines of communication. To oppose this im* 
mense host, there were at the utmost 80,000 or 90,000 Spaniards, 
37,000 of whom, in Valencia and Murcia, pretended to the name 
of regular troops, but were so wretchedly inefficient in equip- 
ment and discipline that no reliance could be placed on them ; 
the new levies in Galicia, 15,000 strong, were only fit to defend 
their native mountains ; the remainder chiefly consisted of the 
Catalonian guerillas, who still kept up a desultory warfare in 
the mountains, though the level country, except the fortresses of 
Tortosa and Tarragona, was entirely in the hands of the French. 
But the keystone of this brave but disjointed resistance was in 
Cadiz, the natural strength of which, from its situation in the Isia 
de Leon, and its being separated from the continent by an arm of 
the sea 300 yards wide, and by sal t marshes of still greater breadth, 
afforded extraordinary fsusilities for defence. Tet such was the 
incredible ignorance of the Spanish engineers, that the two 
strong forts of Matagorda and the Trocadero, on the promontory 
of the mainland nearest the city, had been abandoned before the 
arrival of Gen. Stewart with 2000 British troops from Gibraltar 
(Feb. 11, 1810). Matagorda, however^ was regained by 150 sea- 


men and marines under Captain Maclaine, and defended with 
heroic gallantry for fifty-five days ; and though this undaunted 
little band, after losing half its number by an incessant bom- 
bardment of 36 hours, was at last withdrawn, the panic had 
m^nwhile subsided in Cadiz. The fleet had come round from 
Ferrol ; 6,000,000 dollars had arrived from Mexico ; and the 
garrison, British, Portuguese, and Spanish, amounted to 30,000 
men, supported by 24 ships of the line and 12 frigates. The 
defence of Matagorda had saved Cadiz ; and Victor, finding its 
speedy reduction hopeless, turned the siege into a blockade. 
Enormous intrenchments, extending in a semicircle of ten 
leagues from sea to sea, were constructed round the bay, at the 
distance of a league and a half beyond the exterior defences of 
the Isla de Leon ; but the real object of these gigantic works 
was only to prevent this powerful garrison from issuing forth to 
rekindle the war in Andalusia, and accordingly they were 
guarded by 20,000 men under Victor, while Soult and Sebastian!, 
at the head of powerful divisions, ruled in princely state at 
Seville and Granada. 

601. The campaign in Southern Catalonia, meanwhile, was 
conducted with consummate energy and skill by Suchet ; while 
Augereau in the north, as already noticed, had been superseded 
by Maedonald. Nearly 60,000 excellent troops, besides those in 
garrison, were at the disposal of the French generals, to whom 
Gampoverde and O'Bonnel could only oppose 20,000 men ; but 
this deficiency of numbers was supplied by the multitudes of 
guerillas and armed peasants, by whose bands Barcelona itself 
was so closely blockaded, that supplies! could only be thrown 
into it nnder cover of a force of 10,000 men ; and Maedonald, 
finding the northern parts of the province entirely exhausted by 
repeated requisitions, crossed the mountains (Sept. 1810), and 
took up his quarters near Lerida. O'Donnel forthwith availed 
himself of his absence to make a sudden attack on the scattered 
detachments in the Ampurdan and Upper Catalonia, which were 
surprised and cut off in detail ; and Maedonald, retracing his 
steps at the news of this disaster, sustained a severe repulse at 

378 SIEGE OF XARBAGONA. a. d. 1811. 

Gardona (Oct 21). After revictualling Barcelona, and leaving 
Baraguay d'Hilliers with 14,000 men in the Ampardan, he 
again moved south at the end of November, to cover the siege of 
Tortosa, which had been some months blockaded^ and which 
Suchet was now assailing in earnest. The trenches were opened 
on 19th December ; but the defence did little credit to the 
governor, the Conde de Alache, who, seized with a panic, 
surrendered at discretion (Feb. 2, 1811), without abiding an 

602. After the &11 of this important fortress, the keyof southern 
Catalonia, Macdonald again marched northwards, and was en- 
gaged for some time in desultory operations. While engaged in 
these, his movements were further discon,certed by the loss of 
FigueraS; which was captured by surprise (April 10), with the 
governor and most of the garrison, by a partisan leader named 
Martinez. Suchet, meanwhile, had been occupied during several 
months in preparing for the siege of Tarragona, the principal place 
now remaining in the hands of the Spaniards, and the seat of the 
ruling junta ; and at length (May 4) he appeared before its walls 
with 20,000 men and 100 pieces of cannon. The first efibrts of 
the besiegers were directed against Fort Olivo, a strong outwork 
half a mile from the town, which, after an intrepid defence, was 
breached and carried by storm on the night of 29th May. But the 
city was still garrisoned by 17,000 men, supported by a British 
squadron in the port; while Campoverde and Sarsfield, with 
14,000 irregulars, hovered round the French camp. Such was 
the vigour of the defence that it was not till 21st June that the 
lower town, with its citadel of Fort-Royal, was carried by the 
besiegers ; the upper town still dauntlessly held out, and the 
arrival (on the 26th) of 2000 British from Cadiz, under Colonel 
Skerrett, raised the spirits of the garrison to the highest pitch. 
But these invaluable auxiliaries, who might have rendered Tar* 
ragona as impregnable as Acre had been to the enemy, were first 
directed to co-operate with Campoverde in an attempt from 
without to raise the siege, which the inactivity of that general 
rendered futile ; and they finally remained on board their trans- 

A. D. 1811. SIEGE OF MUBVIEDRO. 379 

ports, passive spectators of the last and fatal assault, which was 
given on 29th June. The struggle on this occasion was desperate, 
the combatants on both sides being wrought up to the highest 
pitch of inveteracy; but the Spaniards were at length overborne 
hj the pertinacity of the assailants, who tarnished their glory 
by savage cruelty after the city was taken. Above 6000 of the 
defenceless inhabitants, without distinction of age, rank, or sex, 
were butchered by the infuriated troops ; and *< the blood of the 
Spaniards," to quote a French historian, " inundated the streets 
and the houses.'' Gampoverde, disheartened by the fall of the 
city, retreated to the frontier of Aragon, where most of his men 
disbanded as regular troops, joining Mina and the other guerilla 
leaders of the neighbouring provinces. 

603. The reduction of Tarragona earned for Suchet his mar- 
shal's baton, and he was directed by Napoleon to invade 
Valencia ; but before undertaking this enterprise, he succeeded 
in carrying by a coup-de-main (July 25) the celebrated mountain 
convent of Montserrat, overlooking the plain of the Llobregat 
near Barcelona, which had been converted into a patriot strong- 
hold. Figueras, after a long blockade, was also compelled by 
famine to surrender to Macdonald (Aug. 19) ; and the subjuga- 
tion of Catalonia being now deemed complete, Suchet commenced 
bis march against Valencia early in September, at the head of 
20,000 men. The first resistance which he experienced was at 
Murviedro (the ancient Saguntum, renowned for its resistance to 
Hannibal), the citadel of which, perched on a rock inaccessible on 
three sides, repelled with the loss of 400 men the first attempt to 
carry it by escalade (Sept. 28), and the French were compelled to 
commence the investment in form. A second assault after the 
walls had been breached (Oct. 18) was also unsuccessful ; bands 
of guerillas, closing round the besieging army, cut off its com- 
munications and supplies ; and the Empecinado, Mina, d*Eroles, 
and other partisan leaders, at the same time overran Aragon and 
Catalonia, captured the French detached posts and convoys, and 
even crossed the frontier, and plundered the valleys on the 
French side of the Pyrenees. The situation of Suchet, detained 

380 SUCHET TAKES YALEXCIA. a. d. 1812. 

before Murviedro while these disasters were occnrring in his 
rear, was becoming extremely hazardous ; but he was relieyed 
from his embarrassments hj the imprudent daring of the Span- 
iards 'themselves. Blake, now captain-general of Valencia, 
advanced to raise the siege with 25,000 men, comprising nearly 
all the remaining Spanish regulars, and a battle was fought (Oct 
25) under the walls of Murviedro ; but after an obstinate con- 
test, in which Suchet himself was wounded, the assailants were 
compelled to retire on Valencia with considerable loss ; and the 
garrison of the beleaguered fortress, disappointed in their hopes 
of succour, surrendered the same night. 

604. Notwithstanding this important success, Suchet halted for 
SIX weeks at Murviedro awaiting reinforcements, and occupied in 
dispersing the guerillas under Buran and Campillo, who infested 
his rear. The arrival of two fresh divisions having raised his 
total force to 33,000 men, he again moved forward in the b^in- 
ning of Becember, and succeeded by a rapid manoeuvre, on the 
night of Christmas day, in crossing the Guadalaviar, and getting 
round the intrenched camp which had been constructed in 
front of the town, so as to cut off the retreat of the Spaniards 
towards Alicante. In two attempts to break the leaguer (Bee. 
26 and 28), the Spaniards were repulsed in severe conflicts on the 
margin of Albufera* or salt lake of Valencia, though about 
4000 succeeded in forcing their way through and reaching Ali- 
cante. The intrenched camp was abandoned in despair ; and 
Suchet, perceiving the depressed and irresolute state of the 
enemy, determined on trying the effect of a vigorous bombard- 
ment, instead of wasting time in regular approaches. His ex- 
pectations were speedily realised : the bombardment had only 
continued a few days, when Blake, pressed by the inhabitants^ 
whose spirit was completely broken, surrendered (Jan. 8, 1812) 
at discretion. Sixteen thousand regular troops laid down their 
arms, and were sent as prisoners into France; 390 pieces of 
cannon, 30,000 muskets, and immense military stores of all kinds, 

* Suchet was created, in memory of this exploit, Duke of Albufera. 

A. D. 1811. EEDUCnON OP JAVA. 381 

fell into the hands of the victors ; and a contribntion of not less 
than j£2,000,000 was exacted from the war-wastej city and pro- 
vince. The conquest of Valencia was complete : Alicante alone 
continued to hold ont ; and its defenders bdng shortly after 
strengthened by the arrival of a powerfal British force from 
Sicily, this city eventually shared, with Cadiz and Carthagena, 
the glory of being the only Spanish cities never sullied by the 
presence of the enemy. 

605. The yearlSll was memorableforthe reduction of Java, the 
last colonial possession of the French empire — ^the Isle of France 
having surrendered in December 1810, and Amboyna and Banda 
in February 1811. Shortly after, a force of nearly 11^000 men, 
under Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and accompanied in person by 
Lord Minto, the (Governor-general of India, sailed from Madras 
for Java, and landed near Batavia (Aug. 4). The French and 
Dutch troops, under Qeneral Jansens, to the number of about 
10,000, occupied the strong intrenched camp of Fort Cornelius ; 
but their lines were stormed with severe loss early on the morning 
of 26th August ; and though Jansens endeavoured to prolong 
his defence, he was eventually obliged (Sept. 26) to capitulate 
with his whole force. The whole of this magnificent island 
(afterwards relinquished by misplaced generosity) fell under 
British dominion; and Lord Minto with great but well- 
founded pride, announced in his despatches that ^Hhe French 
flag was nowhere to be seen flying from Cape Comorin to Cape 

Horn I" 

606. Thus was the maritime war closed by the extinction of 

the LAST BEMNANT of the colonial empire of France. 

V. Campaign of 1811 on ^ PorhiguMe frontier, 

607. When the retreat of Massena from Torres- Vedras, and 
the battle of Fuentes d'Onore had insured the security of 
Portugal, WeDington's eyes were immediately turned towards 
Badajos, the loss of which he justly considered as one of the 
greatest calamities which had befallen the Allies. From its 

382 STRENGTH AND BE30URCES OF a. d. 1811. 

great strength, and its position on the Estremaduran frontier^ it 
at once formed the base for the operations of an army invading 
Portugal, and (with Ciudad Rodrigo) the strongest defence of 
the Spanish territory, which it was hopeless to enter while 
these two fortresses were in the hands of the enemy. But 
as the first siege of Badajos, and its immediate consequences, 
are the true commencement of the delirerance of the Penin- 
sula, it is necessary, in the first place, to give a clear idea of 
the relative position and force of the contending armies at this 
eventful period. 

608. The Anglo-Portuguese army was nominally above 80,000 
strong, but from the reduced state of the Portuguese regiments, 
and the vast number of British sick, amounting (in Oct. 1811) 
to upwards of 19,000, not more than 50,000 were fit for actual 
service. The whole French force, on the other hand, amounted 
to the enormous number of 370,000, including 40,000 cavalry ; 
and though a considerable part was actively engaged under 
Macdonald and Suchet, and in keeping up the communications 
with France, the united forces of Soult in the south, of Joseph 
in the centre, of Marmont in Leon, ^nd of the army of the 
north under Bessi^res (afterwards succeeded by Gaffarelli), were 
not less than 240,000 men, at least 140,000 of whom were dis- 
posable for active service in the field against the British, after 
providing for garrisons and detachments. It is obvious that all 
the generalship of Wellington, and all the gallantry of his troops, 
could never, under ordinary circumstances, have prevailed against 
so overwhelming a disproportion ; but many causes co-operated 
to produce this result. The first of these circumstances was his 
central position, midway between the widely scattered stations 
of the French generals, with a secure retreat to the sea, and with 
the command of the navigable rivers, which brought up from 
Lisbon the supplies poured in from Britain ; while the French, 
notwithstanding their long practice in the art of providing for 
themselves, had so completely exhausted the country that they 
were forced to procure seed-corn from France. They were con- 
sequently unable to keep together for any length of time in large 

A. D. 1811. TH£ FRENCH AND BRITISH. 383 

bodies ; whi]e the inhabitants, goaded to desperation by their 
exactions, and the cruelty with which they were enforced, OTery- 
where formed themselyes into guerilla bands, which cut off 
their oommnnications, murdered their stragglers, and (in spite 
of the sanguinary severity by which it was attempted to repress 
them) increased so much in numbers and boldness as to give 
employment to a great part of the French army. The strange 
and impolitic division of the government of Spain, made by 
Napoleon, idso contributed in no small d^ee to the successes of 
WeUington. The most bitter animosity prevailed between King 
Joseph at Madrid and the marshals in the provinces, who usurped 
his authority, set at naught his orders, and intercepted his 
revenue ; while the discord among the marshals themselves, 
each of whom held royal state in his own province, was such as 
to prevent any unity of design, or even co-operation on equal 
terms, between any two of the lieutenants of Napoleon. 

609. But while such were the difficulties with which the French 
generals had to contend, the obstacles which impeded the opera- 
tions of Wellington, though arising from different causes, were 
scarcely less embarrassing. The first and greatest was the long- 
established and incurable corruption and imbecility of every 
branch of the Portuguese administration, and the timidity of 
the regency, whose fear of endangering their own popularity 
was such, that all the remonstrances of Wellington could not 
persuade them to enforce the laws or make the inferior officers 
do their duty ; the British subsidies were thus so much diverted to 
other objects that the pay of the troops was always in arrears, 
while the army in the field was seldom more than half the 
number for whom pay was drawn. The Spanish troops, more- 
over, from their total want of discipline and equipment, and 
from the pride and obstinacy of their generals, were so utterly 
useless in the field that, after the experience of Talavera^ Wel- 
lington never joined them * in field operations ; while, even in 
the seat of government at C^iz, the flame of democracy rose to 
such a height that, almost on the eve of the liberation of Spain, 
secret negotiations were in progress between Joseph and a con- 

384 BATTLE OF ALBU£BA« a. d. 1811. 

siderable portion of the Cortes, for the submission of Cadiz and 
the whole of the Peninsula to the French, provided the demo- 
cratic constitution of 1812 was recognised ! When, in addition 
to these drawbacks, we consider the extraordinary difficulty 
experienced by the govemment at home (from the causes men* 
tioned in the preceding sections) in remitting specie for the 
army — ^by the want of which he was often most grievously ham- 
pered — and the universal inexperience of the inferior function- 
aries, which obliged the commander-in-chief himself to attend 
to the minute details in every department^ it is hard to say 
whether an impartial survey of the relative situations of 
Wellington and his antagonists does not leave his superiority as 
great as if his vast inferiority of force and unbroken career of 
victories were alone considered. 

610. Having then determined, in the outset, to attempt the 
recovery of Badajos, Wellington moved forward in the middle of 
May towards Estremadura, where Beresfordhad already b^gun the 
campaign, and taken Oliveiiza (April 17). Badajos was invested 
immediately after; but the British, uncalled in sieges, had 
made little progress, when intelligence was received that Soult 
was approaching from Seville ; and Beresford, abandoning the 
siege, drew up his army at Albuera (May 15) to oppose him. 
The French marshal's army consisted of 19,000 veteran infantry, 
with 4000 horse and 50 guns ; the Allies were in all 30,000, with 
38 guns and 3000 cavalry ; but 16,000 of the number were 
Spaniards under Blake and Castanos, on whom little reliance 
could be placed ; 8000 were Portuguese, and only 7500 British. 

611. The action began early on the 16th, by a movement of 
the French against the bridge of the Albuera rivulet, which, was 
opposed by the Portuguese and the Hanoverian brigade : but 
the real attack was made on the right, where a range of heights 
was held by the Spaniards. Blake, with characteristic obstinacy, 
at first refused to change his front to receive the enemy ; and 
when the evolution was at last ordered, the unwieldy masses of 
the Spaniards were charged, in the midst of this critical move- 
ment, by an overwhelming body of the enemy; and, after a 

A. D. 1811. BATTLE OF ALBUERA. 385 

short and sanguinary struggle, were driven in confusion from 
their yantage-ground, which was immediately occupied by the 
French artillery. Beresford, perceiving the danger, ordered up 
the British divisions from the centre ; but as the leading brigade, 
consisting of the Buffs, the 66th, and a battalion of the 48th, 
were deploying into line to charge, they were assailed in flank 
and rear by the French hussars and Polish lancers (who had 
got round them under cover of a mist), and were almost all 
slain or taken. All seemed lost ; but the 31st still undauntedly 
stood its ground, and Houghton's brigade came up to the front. 
Still, however, the combat was far from re-established. Houghton 
himself fell, nobly heading the 29th ; and the fire of the British 
began to slacken from failure of ammunition, wftile a deep gully 
prevented their reaching the enemy with the bayonet. 

612. In this extremity, the firmness of one man saved the day. 
Colonel, now Lord Hardinge, on his own responsibility, while 
Beresford was preparing for a retreat, ordered Cole's division 
to mount the hill on the right, while Abercrombie, with the 
reserve, ascended on the left. The French were thus assailed on 
both flanks, in the position into which their advance in the 
centre had led them : the fusilier brigade, incessantly pressing 
on, retook six guns which had been captured by the Polish 
lancers ; and the French were at length driven headlong down 
the hUl, on the summit of which 1500 unwounded men, t